Publications from the Women's Studies Librarian and Her Staff

Introduction

[This bibliography is number 75 in the series "Wisconsin Bibliographies in Women's Studies" published by the University of Wisconsin System Women's Studies Librarian's Office, 430 Memorial Library, 728 State Street, Madison, WI 53706.]

Women college students fresh from high school, returning "non-traditional" students, new faculty, and women entering higher education administration are all being helped through a variety of techniques designed to recruit and retain them in their programs and assist them in their career paths. Mentoring is one such technique that has received a great deal of attention in the research literature. This bibliography points to successful models of mentorship and to research analysis on the mentoring of women. While definitions vary, a mentor is generally someone already experienced in a role new to a mentee. The mentor guides, advises, and is supportive of the mentee. Some studies have found differences from the traditional male model of mentoring when women are involved, suggesting that informality and friendship are more characteristic of successful mentoring of women. Other researchers examine issues that arise in cross-gender mentoring.

The first section lists recent citations on mentoring women in colleges and universities. This section begins with general material on mentoring women in higher education, followed by sub-sections that apply to mentoring faculty, students, or administrators. These in turn are followed by citations to mentoring in particular fields. Generally excluded from this section are citations to research that did not specifically focus on gender factors or where mentoring is only one of an array of issues addressed. The second section selectively lists resources on mentoring women outside higher education, but with application within the academy. This section draws particularly on studies from education and from the corporate world. A third section lists selected general resources on mentoring.

General Resources



Braun, Ronnie. "The Downside of Mentoring." In WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION: CHANGES AND CHALLENGES, ed. by Lynne Brodie Welch, 191-198. New York: Praeger, 1990. Not all mentor relationships are positive experiences.

Ervin, Elizabeth Ellen. "Mentoring Recomposed: A Study of Gender, History, and the Discourses of Education." Ph.D. diss., University of Arizona, 1994. "Mentoring relationships reproduce historically specific constructions of masculinity and femininity...current mentoring policies and practices within the academy do not take seriously the perspectives and experiences of women..." (abstract).

Garner, Shirley Nelson. "Mentoring Lessons." WOMEN'S STUDIES QUARTERLY 22, no. 1/2 (1994): 6-13. Mentoring means providing both academic advice and psychological support.

Ginsberg, Elaine K. "Helping Women Negotiate the System Through Mentoring." CONCERNS 24, no. 1 (Winter 1994): 37-43. Reviews concepts and strategies for campus and professional mentors.

Hall, Roberta M. and Bernice R. Sandler. ACADEMIC MENTORING FOR WOMEN STUDENTS AND FACULTY: A NEW LOOK AT AN OLD WAY TO GET AHEAD. Washington, DC: Association of American Colleges, 1983. 15 p. Prepared for the AAC Project on the Status and Education of Women. ED240891 available from EDRS.

Howard-Vital, Michelle R. and Rosalind Morgan. "African American Women and Mentoring." 1993. ED360425 available from EDRS. Survey of sample membership in the Association of Black Women in Higher Education, about half of whom were administrators. Majority had had mentors and 96 percent said they would like to be mentors.

Matczynski, Thomas J. and Kelvie C. Comer. "Mentoring Women and Minorities in Higher Education: An Anecdotal Record." 21 p. paper (1991). ED331376, available from EDRS. Reviews higher education literature on mentoring, including four basic stages of a mentoring relationship (initiation, cultivation, separation, and redefinition). Ends with application of the stages to the relationship between a new academic dean and a consultant, from their two perspectives.

Moore, Kathryn M. and Marilyn J. Amey. "Some Faculty Leaders Are Born Women." NEW DIRECTIONS FOR STUDENT SERVICES 44 (Winter 1988): 39-50. Mentoring as a vehicle for leadership development of students and faculty.

O'Leary, Virginia E. and Judith M. Mitchell. "Women Connecting With Women: Networks and Mentors in the United States." In STORMING THE TOWER: WOMEN IN THE ACADEMIC WORLD, ed. by Suzanne Stiver Lie and Virginia E. O'Leary, 58-73. East Brunswick, NJ: Nichols/GP Publishing, 1990. Suggests that the recognition of reciprocal benefits is the most critical element in successful mentor-mentee relationships (p.67) and that the junior women should restrict what they expect from senior women and rely on peers for "socio-emotional needs" (p.69).

Sandler, Bernice R. "Women as Mentors: Myths and Commandments." EDUCATIONAL HORIZONS 73 (Spring 1995): 105-7. Originally published in THE CHRONICLE OF HIGHER EDUCATION (March 10, 1993), this article advises that mentoring is important but not necessarily essential to success. Sandler offers "ten commandments of mentoring" to ensure greater likelihood of positive mentoring.

Sheldon, Amy. "A Feminist Perspective on Women as Mentors." CAREER PLANNING AND ADULT DEVELOPMENT JOURNAL 6, no. 3 (Fall 1990): 16-20. Many gender issues affect women mentors, including learning to function in a male-dominated system.

Sheldon, Amy. "He Was Her Mentor, She Was His Muse: Women as Mentors, New Pioneers." In WOMEN IN THE LINGUISTICS PROFESSION: THE CORNELL LECTURES. CONFERENCE ON WOMEN IN LINGUISTICS, ITHACA, NY, JUNE 1989, ed. by Alice Davison and Penelope Eckert, 208-222. Washington, DC: Linguistic Society of America, 1990. Women faculty members have learned how to function in a male world, but their experiences and perspectives are different from male colleagues. Their dilemma as mentors is how much of this knowledge to impart.

Stalker, Joyce. "Athene in Academe: Women Mentoring Women in the Academy." INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LIFELONG EDUCATION 13, no. 5 (September/Ocober 1994): 361-72. Provides a feminist critique of the conceptualization of mentoring. Women academics are simultaneously "same" (with privileges like their male colleagues) and "other" (in the minority and hold lesser positions). As mentors they should build on this circumstance as a strength and use it for transforming patriarchal culture.

Welch, Lynne B., ed. WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION: CHANGES AND CHALLENGES. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1990. Section Five: Mentoring and Women in Higher Education contains five articles, which are listed separately on this bibliography.

Mentoring Faculty

Egan, Kathryn S. "Flexibility Makes the Difference in Mentoring Women for Academic Success." JOURNAL OF THE ASSOCIATION FOR COMMUNICATION ADMINISTRATION 2 (May 1994): 87-94. Offers advice on features of successful mentoring programs.

Henry, Janice Schoen, et al. "A Formal Mentoring Program for Junior Female Faculty: Description and Evaluation." INITIATIVES 56, no. 2 (1994): 37-45. Describes program at Southern Illinois University. New faculty were paired with mentors outside their immediate departments.

Johnsrud, Linda K. "Enabling the Success of Junior Faculty Women Through Mentoring." In MENTORING REVISITED: MAKING AN IMPACT ON INDIVIDUALS AND INSTITUTIONS, ed. by Marie A. Wunsch, 53-63. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1994. Describes components of program at University of Hawaii, concluding that successful programs need an institutional framework -- including visibility, administrative support, and some structure -- to encourage participants to spend time together.

Johnsrud, Linda K. and Marie A. Wunsch. "Barriers to Success for Women in Academic Life: Perceptions of Participants in a Colleague Pairing Program." HIGHER EDUCATION RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT 13, no. 1 (1994): 1-12. Exploratory study of the differences and commonalities of perceptions of senior and junior female faculty as to barriers, and how these changed over time when pairing occurred.

Limbert, Claudia A. "Chrysalis, A Peer Mentoring Group for Faculty and Staff Women." NWSA JOURNAL 7, no. 2 (1995): 86-99. Reviews the advantages and disadvantages of senior-male/junior-female and senior-female/junior-female mentoring models, then describes peer mentoring model successfully used at Pennsylvania State University.

McCormick, Theresa. "An Analysis of Some Pitfalls of Traditional Mentoring for Minorities and Women in Higher Education." Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Chicago, 1991). 26 p. ED334905, available from EDRS. Addresses some problems with mentoring, such as the scarcity of senior level mentors for minority women, the difficulties of cross-race and cross-gender relationships, and promotion of entrenched traditional practices. Advocates mentorship programs that recognize and deal with the pitfalls.

Peterson, Susan. "Challenges for Black Women Faculty." INITIATIVES 53, no. 1 (Spring 1990): 33-36. Role models and mentors help Black women faculty deal with isolation and role conflicts.

Pistole, M. Carole. "Mentoring Women's Academic Careers: Using A Family Model to Enhance Women's Success." INITIATIVES 56, no. 2 (1994): 29-36. The systematic maturation model of family development is shown to have useful concepts that parallel professional development needs.

Richey, Cheryl A., Eileen D. Gambrill, and Betty J. Blythe. "Mentor Relationships Among Women in Academe." AFFILIA 3, no. 2 (Spring 1988): 34-47. Discusses the stages of mentor relationships and need for creating new models for feminist oriented mentorships, such as closer to a sibling than to a parent/child bond.

Sandler, Bernice Resnick. SUCCESS AND SURVIVAL STRATEGIES FOR WOMEN FACULTY MEMBERS. Washington, DC: Association of American Colleges, 1992. 13-page blueprint for success that includes finding a mentor as one the important strategy. (Also found in AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL EDUCATION 57, no. 1 [Spring 1993]: 58-67.)

Wunsch, Marie A. "Giving Structure to Experience: Mentoring Strategies For Women Faculty." INITIATIVES 56, no. 1 (1994): 1-10. Describes a women-mentoring-women pilot program at the University of Hawaii that included a formal mentoring agreement between members of colleague pairs.

Wunsch, Marie A. "Mentoring Probationary Women Academics: A Pilot Programme for Career Development." STUDIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION 18, no. 3 (1993): 349-62. The experimental program at a public university included mentor training, colleague pairing, a mentoring agreement, and career development workshops.

Mentoring Students

Bruce, Mary Alice. "Mentoring Women Doctoral Students: What Counselor Educators and Supervisors Can Do." COUNSELOR EDUCATION AND SUPERVISION 35, no. 2 (December 1995): 139-149. Qualitative research study of two students who re-entered university to pursue doctorates in education. Points out ways counselor educators can facilitate mentoring experiences.

Cain, Mary Ann. "Mentoring as Identity Exchange: Conflicts and Connections." FEMINIST TEACHER 8, no. 3 (1994): 112-118. Describes the relationship between the author and her dissertation director, Lil Brannon, in which the mentor model is re-imagined into a woman to woman relationship of reciprocity.

Casamayou, Maureen Hogan and Nina Mikhalevsky. "Women's Leadership Roles and Washington Internships." Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association (Washington, DC, September 2-5, 1993). 33 p. Considers the importance of role mentoring and internship experiences for female political science students. Available from EDRS, ED363566.

Christiansen, Martha D., et al. "Perceptions of the Work Environment and Implications for Women's Career Choice: A Survey of University Faculty Women." CAREER DEVELOPMENT QUARTERLY 38, no. 1 (1989): 57-64. Surveys the desire of women faculty to be part of a resource bank for advising female students about career paths.

Ervin, Elizabeth. "Power, Frustration, and `Fierce Negotiation' in Mentoring Relationships: Four Women Tell Their Stories." WOMEN'S STUDIES 24, no. 5 (1995): 447-481. Personal mentoring experiences of four women graduate students at variance with the official institutional view of mentoring espoused in a position paper. Concludes that the expectations and perspectives of the women need to be considered more by the institutions.

Fish, Cheryl. "Someone to Watch Over Me: Politics and Paradoxes in Academic Mentoring." In WORKING-CLASS WOMEN IN THE ACADEMY: LABORERS IN THE KNOWLEDGE FACTORY, ed. by Michelle M. Tokarczyk and Elizabeth A. Fay, 179-196. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press, 1993. Argues for inclusion of mentoring into the policy infrastructure and for collaborative projects between mentors and mentees.

Heinrich, Kathleen T. "Doctoral Advisement Relationships Between Women: On Friendship and Betrayal." JOURNAL OF HIGHER EDUCATION 66, no. 4 (July 1995): 447-469. Relationships with women dissertation committee members was studied. The dissertators preferred advisors who became mentors, which the advisees defined as "collegial sharing of power," compared to those who simply stood by.

Hulbert, Kathleen Day. "Gender Patterns in Faculty-Student Mentoring Relationships." In GENDER AND ACADEME: FEMINIST PEDAGOGY AND POLITICS, ed. by Sara Munson Deats and Lagretta Tallent Lenker, 247-263. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1994. Examines same-gender and cross-gender mentoring, speculating that male-male mentoring tends to center on academic and research-related activities, whereas female-female includes achievement-related and, increasingly as the relationship develops, nurturant aspects.

Kronik, John W. "On Men Mentoring Women: Then and Now." ADFL BULLETIN 21, no. 3 (Spring 1990): 22-27. A successful mentor relationship is based on mutual attraction involving friendship, guidance, and professional nurturing. A male mentor / female subordinate situation can work, but is fraught with complexities, including understanding "gender sensitivities and obligations that aren't the same..." (p.25).

Olson, Gary O. and Evelyn Ashton-Jones. "The Politics of Gendered Sponsorship: Mentoring in the Academy." In GENDER AND ACADEME: FEMINIST PEDAGOGY AND POLITICS, ed. by Sara Munson Deats and Lagretta Tallent Lenker, 231-246. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1994. Structured as conversation between mentor (Olson) and mentee (Ashton-Jones) during her doctoral training.

O'Rourke, J. "Mentor Project Targets Female Undergrads," COMPUTER RESEARCH NEWS 5, no. 4 (September 1993): 3-5.

Paterson, Barbara and Fjola Hart-Wasekeesikaw. "Mentoring Women in Higher Education: Lessons From the Elders." COLLEGE TEACHING 42, no. 2 (Spring 1994): 72-77. Traditional Native American cultures respect the learner's individual learning style. This stance can be useful in devising ways to mentor women college students.

Turner, Caroline Sotello Viernes and Judith Rann Thompson. "Socializing Women Doctoral Students: Minority and Majority Experiences." REVIEW OF HIGHER EDUCATION 16, no. 3 (Spring 1993): 355-70. Minority women doctoral students report relative isolation, lack of collegiality with other doctoral students, and lack of faculty mentoring; majority women doctoral students report more mentoring.

Wolf, Mary Alice. "Mentoring Middle-Aged Women in the Classroom." ADULT LEARNING 4, no. 5 (May/June, 1993): 8-9, 22. Describes an interactive, collaborative model for mentoring middle-aged returning women students.

Mentoring Administrators

Allen, Kim Lumhoo. "The Role of Mentors and Sponsors for African-American Women in Educational Administration." Ph.D. diss., State University of New York at Buffalo, 1992. Found that mentors (defined as people who provide moral support) were important but not critical at the beginning stage of careers, and sponsors (people who could open the doors of employment) were important for career advancement.

Anderson, Roberta A. and Pauline Ramey. "Women in Higher Education: Development Through Administrative Mentoring." In WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION: CHANGES AND CHALLENGES, ed. by Lynne Brodie Welch, 183-190. New York: Praeger, 1990. Mentoring requires assessment, planning, implementation, and evaluation from mentors.

Cullen, Deborah L. and Gaye Luna. "Women Mentoring in Academe: Addressing the Gender Gap in Higher Education." GENDER AND EDUCATION 5, no. 2 (1993): 125-137. Interviews with 24 women administrators demonstrated that senior women performed more career-related activities (sponsorship, coaching, protection, exposure, challenging work) than psychosocial support (role modeling, counseling, acceptance/confirmation, friendship) for their junior mentees.

Mellow, Gail O. "Women's Centers and Women Administrators: Breaking the Glass Slipper Together." INITIATIVES 51, no. 2/3 (Summer 1988): 53-55. Female administrators can mentor center directors.

Swoboda, Marion J. and Susan B. Millar. "Networking-Mentoring: Career Strategy of Women in Academic Administration." JOURNAL OF THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF WOMEN DEANS, ADMINISTRATORS, AND COUNSELORS (NAWDAC) 49 (1986): 8-13.

Mentoring in Specific Disciplines



Education (K-12 Teaching and Administering)

Fleming, Karen A. "Mentoring: Is It the Key to Opening Doors For Women in Educational Administration?" EDUCATION CANADA 31, no. 3 (Fall 1991): 27-33. Positive view of mentoring as means of advancing careers in educational administration.

Hill, Marie Somers and Joyce C. Ragland. WOMEN AS EDUCATIONAL LEADERS: OPENING WINDOWS, PUSHING CEILINGS. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, 1995. Chapter six discusses the importance of mentoring relationships to women pursuing leadership roles in education.

Luebkemann, Heinz and Jacqueline Clemens. "Mentors for Women Entering Administration: A Program That Works." NASSP BULLETIN 78, no. 559 (February 1994): 42-45. Reports on a study on six women school principals. Having well-matched administrator mentors helped.

Pence, L. Jean. "Learning Leadership Through Mentorships." In WOMEN LEADING IN EDUCATION, ed. by Diane M. Dunlap and Patricia A. Schmuck, 125-144. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1995. Reports on two mentorship studies in Oregon public schools analyzing formal and informal mentoring. They showed that the "most vital factors" to both types are "trust, mutual respect, friendship, commitment, and communication" (p.130).

Law

Mobley, G.Melton, et al. "Mentoring, Job Satisfaction, Gender and the Legal Professsion." SEX ROLES 31, no. 1/2 (1994): 79-98. Having a mentor improved job satisfaction for both men and women lawyers studied.

Library and Information Studies

Harris, Roma. "The Mentoring Trap." LIBRARY JOURNAL 118, no. 17 (October 15, 1993): 37. Warns that mentor-protege relationships help some, but haven't brought enough women or minorities into leadership roles.

Logsdon, Janis. "Need Help?...Ask Your Mentor." JOURNAL OF LIBRARY ADMINISTRATION 17, no. 3 (1992): 87-101. Addresses how mentors help library careers.

Maack, Mary Niles and Joanne E. Passet. ASPIRATIONS AND MENTORING IN AN ACADEMIC ENVIRONMENT: WOMEN FACULTY IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994. 232 p. Includes chapters on Mentoring and Career Patterns, the Mentoring Relationship, Academic Mentoring in Perspective, an article by Toni Carbo Bearman ("Reflections of a Dean On Opportunities For Women and On the Role of Mentoring"), and contributions on a variety of issues for women faculty in library and informationscience.html by Phyllis Dain, Margaret F. Stieg, Kathleen de la Pena McCook, and Jane Borsch Robbins.

McNeer, Elizabeth J. "The Mentoring Influence In the Careers of Women ARL Directors." JOURNAL OF LIBRARY ADMINISTRATION 9, no. 2 (1988): 23-33. About women heads of member libraries in the Association of Research Libraries.

Maack, Mary Niles and Joanne E. Passet. "Unwritten Rules: Mentoring Women Faculty." LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE RESEARCH 15 (Spring 1993): 117-141. About mentoring women faculty in library schools.

Schneider, Karen G. "Four Librarians of the Apocalypse; Or, What Part of the Paradigm Don't You Understand?" WILSON LIBRARY BULLETIN 69, no. 2 (October 1994): 35-38. Describes the role mentors had in the career development of four women involved with library automation.

Medicine/Dentistry/Pharmacy

Adler, N.E. "Women Mentors Needed in Academic Medicine." WESTERN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE. 154, no. 4 (1991): 468-79. (Editorial).

Baker, F.M. "The Black Woman Academic Psychiatrist." ACADEMIC PSYCHIATRY 17, no. 4 (Winter 1993): 194-201. The presence of a mentor is a significant factor contributing to the decision of Black women psychiatric residents to choose academic medicine over clinical.

Friedman, Paula K. "Mentors: Who Are They? Where Are They? Do We Need Them?" JOURNAL OF DENTAL EDUCATION 56, no. 8 (August 1992): 566-70. Says mentors are helpful, but personal drive and ability count for more.

Hills, Heidi L. "Women Dentists As Academicians: What Are the Issues?" JOURNAL OF DENTAL EDUCATION 56, no. 8 (August 1992): 571-572. Summary of a workshop on women dental school faculty, including the importance of family members as mentors.

Levinson, W., K. Kaufman, B. Clark, and S.W. Tolle. "Mentors and Role Models For Women In Academic Medicine." WESTERN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE 154, no. 4 (1991): 423-426.

Roche, Victoria F. "Facilitating Professional Development in Women Pharmacy Faculty: Role Models, Mentors and Networks As Resources For Academic Success." AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL EDUCATION 54, no. 4 (1990): 367-369. Calls for development of mechanisms to foster leadership skills among women pharmacy faculty.

Nursing

Alexander, Doreene Ward. "An Exploration of Attributes Present in a Mentor-Protege Relationship in Nursing Education Administration." In WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION: CHANGES AND CHALLENGES, ed. by Lynne Brodie Welch, 199-208. New York: Praeger, 1990. A study of nursing school deans and factors influencing mentorship relationships. Among the elements considered positive were having frequent informal discussions and having a well-educated and friendly mentor with expertise in the area of interest.

DeMarco, Rosanna. "Mentorship: A Feminist Critique of Current Research." JOURNAL OF ADVANCED NURSING 18, no. 8 (1993): 1242-1250. Suggests that those who research reciprocal professional nurse relationships/mentorships should explore alternate ways of knowing through sharing of stories.

Taylor, Laurie Jowers. "A Survey of Mentor Relationships in Academe." JOURNAL OF PROFESSIONAL NURSING 8, no. 1 (January/February, 1992): 48-55. Sixty percent of nurse academicians surveyed reported having had one or more mentors. A mentor profile emerged, which is described.

Thompson, Cesarina M. "Mentoring Among Nurse-Faculty." In WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION: CHANGES AND CHALLENGES, ed. by Lynne Brodie Welch, 216-222. New York: Praeger, 1990. Mentorship is vital to nurses developing the scholarly role.

Mathematics and Science

Barber, Betty, et al. "The Academy in Mentoring: A Model For Encouraging the Academic Achievement of Young Adolescent Girls." Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association of Teacher Educators (Atlanta, GA: February 22-26, 1986). 18 p. Reports on a project using mentoring by teachers and counselors to increase the number of junior high school girls electing mathematics, science, and technical courses in high school and college.

Bird, Stephanie J., Project Director, et al. MENTORING MEANS FUTURE SCIENTISTS: A GUIDE FOR DEVELOPING MENTORING PROGRAMS BASED ON THE AWIS MENTORING PROJECT. Washington, DC: Association for Women in Science, 1993. 148 p.

Bird, Stephanie J. and Catherine J. Didion. "Retaining Women Science Students: A Mentoring Project of the Association for Women in Science." INITIATIVES 55, no. 3 (1993): 3-11. Reports on results of Alfred P. Sloan Foundation grant to AWIS to develop and enhance mentoring activities with college students throughout the United States.

Braus, Patricia. "Moms Help Daughters Stick to Science." AMERICAN DEMOGRAPHICS 15 (August 1993): 18-20. Discusses Wellesley College study on importance of mothers' encouragement to daughters contemplating careers inscience.html.

Byrne, Eileen M. WOMEN AND SCIENCE: THE SNARK SYNDROME. Bristol, PA: Falmer Press, 1993. See chapter 4: The Mentor Process: Selective Choice or Policy Mechanism? Discusses critical importance of mentors to careers of women scientists as seen from reviewing their biographies. Reviews definition(s) of, subtle factors associated with, and empirical research on mentoring. Concludes that mentorship "does form some part of institutional ecology (visibly or invisibly, consciously or at the embedded level)" and "it is critically influential at the level of the discipline..."(p.149).

Carey, H.V. "Women in Physiology Mentoring Program." THE PHYSIOLOGIST 36, no. 1 (February 1993): 1+.

Didion, Catherine Jay. "Attracting Graduate and Undergraduate Women As Science Majors." JOURNAL OF COLLEGE SCIENCE TEACHING 22 (May 1993): 336+. On the mentoring project of the Association for Women in Science.

Didion, Catherine Jay. "Mentoring Women in Science." EDUCATIONAL HORIZONS 73 (Spring 1995): 141-4. Description of the AWIS Mentoring Project including discussion of the benefits of mentoring to the mentors.

Fort, Deborah C., Stephanie J. Bird, and Catherine Jay Didion. A HAND UP: WOMEN MENTORING WOMEN IN SCIENCE. Washington, DC: Association for Women in Science, 1993. 349 p. Includes interviews with women scientists and students, essays about mentoring, and covers guidelines, resources, and networks. Available from AWIS, 1522 K Street, NW, Suite 829, Washington, DC 20005.

Gibbons, Ann. "Key Issue: Mentoring: Women Have Trouble Finding Senior Scientists To Guide Them Toward Career Success." SCIENCE 255 (March 13, 1992): 1368. This article is in a special section on women inscience.html. Quotes sociologist Kathryn Ward's finding that most successful women scientists attended women's colleges or found mentors in non-traditional ways. Those without mentors or with negative mentoring experiences may have trouble getting grants, jobs, or being published.

Grant, Linda, et al. "Mentoring, Gender, and Careers of Academic Scientists." Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Atlanta, GA, April 12-16, 1993). Discusses effective mentoring of women and members of minorities. Concludes that they generally find mentors and have effective relationships with them, although gender and race-related problems cause difficulties in sustaining the relationships. 40 p. ED361299, available from EDRS.

Niewoehner, Elizabeth S. "Mentoring Works and Here Are the Results!" AWIS MAGAZINE 22, no. 3 (July/August 1993): 14-15. Summarizes findings of AWIS Mentoring Project, in which sixty-one percent of student participants surveyed thought the program had helped them identify and address perceived barriers to women entering and staying inscience.html. (See Bird and Didion citations in this section.)

Nolan, Deborah. "Women in Statistics in Academe: Mentors Matter." STATISTICAL SCIENCE 7, no. 2 (May 1992): 267-272.

Pope, Carol J. "Models for Mentoring in the Soft and Hard Sciences." WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION (January 1994): 5. Summarizes the research by Linda Grant and Kathryn Ward presented at the American Anthropology Association Annual Meeting (Washington, DC, November 1993).

"Science in the U.S. -- With One Hand Tied Behind Us." HOOD ON THE ISSUES 1 (1988-89): 3-14. Discusses strategies including mentoring for retention of women students in science and engineering by Hood College, a predominantly female institution.

Subotnik, Rena F. and Cynthia L. Steiner. "Adult Manifestations of Adolescent Talent in Science." ROEPER REVIEW 15 (February/March 1993): 164-69. Part of a special issue "Longitudinal Studies in Gifted Education." Ninety-eight Westinghouse Talent Search winners were studied at age 26. Mentors were particularly important as a factor to the 66 percent of the women who had stayed in scientific careers.

Social Work

Berger, R.M. "Getting Published: A Mentoring Program For Social Work Faculty." SOCIAL WORK 35, no. 1 (January 1990): 69-71. Describes a program in the Department of Social Work at California State University, Long Beach to facilitate publication by women and minority social work faculty.

Farr, Patricia Aylward. "The Mentor Relationship: Application of Theory to the Practice of Social Work." In WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION: CHANGES AND CHALLENGES, ed. by Lynne B. Welch, 209-215. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1990. Mentoring is compatible with social work methodology and is desirable from the standpoint of mentor, mentee, and their clients.

Robbins, Susan P. "Mentorship in Social Work Education: Do Women Lose Out?" ARETE 14, no. 1 (Summer 1989): 1-9. This study found that while women have mentors of either gender, men are most often mentored by other men.

General Resources for Mentoring Women

Bizzari, Janice. "Women: Role Models, Mentors, and Careers." EDUCATIONAL HORIZONS 73 (Spring 1995): 145-152. Reviews studies of the long-range effects of mentoring, role modeling, and counseling on women's lives.

Bloom, Mayra. "Multiple Roles of the Mentor Supporting Women's Adult Development." In LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS FOR WOMEN'S ADULT DEVELOPMENT: BRIDGE TOWARD CHANGE: 63-72. San Francisco: Jossey Bass, 1995 (NEW DIRECTIONS FOR ADULT AND CONTINUING EDUCATION 65). The roles involve standing behind the student, leading/guiding, listening/questioning/connecting, and being an ally/sister learner.

Bordas, Juana. FOLLOW THE LEADER: WOMEN'S WAYS OF MENTORING. Denver, CO: National Hispana Leadership Institute, 1992. 167p. On mentoring Latinas in business and the professions.

Campbell, Lee H. "Women and Mentoring: the Tradition, the Process, the Vision." Ph. D. diss., The Union Institute, 1992. Study of mentoring experiences of two groups: nontraditional college women and professional women found a fluidity between mentoring and friendship as well as a lingering influence on mentoring dyads from mother-daughter relationships.

Collins, Nancy W. PROFESSIONAL WOMEN AND THEIR MENTORS: A PRACTICAL GUIDE TO MENTORING FOR THE WOMAN WHO WANTS TO GET AHEAD. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1983. 163 p. Handbook on mentoring based on responses from survey of 400 and in-depth interviews with 24 professional women. Defines and describes the mentor relationship, discusses how to select a mentor and whether to have more than one, how to deal with sex issues, contrasts male and female mentoring, and encourages mentees to become mentors themselves.

Eldridge, Natalie S. "Mentoring From a Self-In-Relation Perspective." Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association (Boston, 1990). 12 p. ED350494, available from EDRS. Work done at the Stone Center for Developmental Services, Wellesley College, on the meaning of relationships in women's lives, has bearing on mentoring relationships. Psychosocial dimensions have more importance than career functions for many women mentees.

Emms, Judy. "Workshop: Developing Our Own Mentoring Skills." In WOMEN, WORK AND COMPUTERIZATION, ed. by Alison Adam, et al., 325-332. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1994. Workshop developed skills in "those aspects of being a mentor at work which would enable [each participant]...to act as a mentor to junior staff" (abstract).

Faddis, Bonnie, Program Director, et al. HAND IN HAND: MENTORING YOUNG WOMEN. Portland, OR: Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory; Newton, MA: distributed by Women's Educational Equity Act Program, 1988. Publications from a project designed to increase the motivation of minority high school women to pursue technical and non-traditional occupations. Twenty-five minority career women were trained and served as mentors. The project developed three books for use by other groups wishing to implement similar programs: Vol. 1: "Guide for Planning, Implementing, and Evaluating a Mentoring Program" is a blueprint for conducting a program. Vol. 2: "Ideabook for Mentors" contains activities and resources. Vol. 3: "Student Career Journal" is a workbook for student participants.

Kalbfleisch, Pamela J. and Joann Keyton. "Power and Equality in Mentoring Relationships." In GENDER, POWER, AND COMMUNICATION IN HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS, ed. by Pamela J. Kalfleisch and Michael J. Cody, 189-212. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1995. Study of 200 professional women who had been involved in mentoring relationships with a female mentor; found a "female model of mentoring" similar to friendship and more relaxed and casual than previously thought.

Karsten, Margaret Foegen. MANAGEMENT AND GENDER: ISSUES AND ATTITUDES. Westport, CT: Quorum, 1994. See section on Career Planning and Mentoring.

Keyton, Joann and Pamela J. Kalbfleisch. "Building a Normative Model of Women's Mentoring Relationships." Paper presented at the Joint Meeting of the Southern States Communication Association and the Central States Communication Association (Lexington, KY, 1993). 33 p. ED361796 available from EDRS. Proposes that women's friendships may be a better model of mentoring than is a hierarchical male mentoring model.

Noe, Raymond A. "Women and Mentoring: A Review and Research Agenda." ACADEMY OF MANAGEMENT REVIEW 13 (January 1988): 65-78. Discusses barriers to the development of mentorships.

Parker, Victoria A. and Kathy E. Kram. "Women Mentoring Women: Creating Conditions For Connection." BUSINESS HORIZONS 36 (March/April 1993): 42-51. The mother/daughter dyad and different life choices of older women and their younger mentees may negatively impact on mentoring relationships. Strategies to help these relationships are discussed.

Ragins, Belle Rose and John L. Cotton. "Gender and Willingness to Mentor in Organizations." JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT 19 (Spring 1993): 97-111. Women in this study were as willing as men to be mentors, although they foresaw more drawbacks. Individuals who had been in previous mentoring relationships were more willing to be mentors in the future. (See also other research by Ragins in the management literature).

Segerman-Peck, Lily M. NETWORKING AND MENTORING: A WOMAN'S GUIDE. London: Piatkus, 1991. 192 p. Treats networking and mentoring in business and in the professions.

Sheldon, Amy. "A Feminist Perspective On Women As Mentors." MENTORING INTERNATIONAL 6 (1990): 16-20.

Tysl, Linda Crawley. "Cross-Gender Mentoring of Successful Women Managers in the United States Government: Toward a Female Model of Mentoring." Ph.D. diss., Northern Illinois University, 1993. Despite risks associated with cross-gender mentoring -- from jealousy by co-workers to rumors of sexual involvements and double standards -- the fourteen successful women managers studied reported positive influence from one or more mentors in their careers.

Vincent, Annette and Judy Seymour. "Mentoring Among Female Executives." WOMEN IN MANAGEMENT REVIEW 9, no. 7 (1994): 15-20. Women who have been mentored are more likely to become mentors for others than are those who were not mentored.

Mentoring in Higher Education and Elsewhere

Allen, T. "When Mentors and Proteges Communicate: Lessons From Universities." MENTORING INTERNATIONAL 4, no. 1 (1990): 24-28.

Bey, Teresa and C. Thomas Holmes. MENTORING: DEVELOPING SUCCESSFUL NEW TEACHERS. Reston, VA: Association of Teacher Educators, 1990.

Cohen, Norman H. MENTORING ADULT LEARNERS: A GUIDE FOR EDUCATORS AND TRAINERS. Malabar, FL: Krieger, 1995.

Daloz, Laurent A. EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND MENTORING: REALIZING THE TRANSFORMATIONAL POWER OF ADULT LEARNING EXPERIENCES. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1986.

Feibelman, Peter J. A PH.D. IS NOT ENOUGH: A GUIDE TO SURVIVAL IN SCIENCE. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1993.

Field, Barbara and Terry Field, eds. TEACHERS AS MENTORS: A PRACTICAL GUIDE. London: Bristol, PA: Taylor and Francis, 1994. 180 p.

Galvez-Hjornevik, Cleta. MENTORING: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE WITH A FOCUS ON TEACHING. Austin, TX: Research and Development Center for Teacher Education, the University of Texas, 1985. 99 p. Available in U.S. government depository collections as ED 1.310/2: 262032.

Giles, H.W. and R.C. Endsley. "Early Career Development Among Child and Family Development Professionals: The Role of Professor and Peer Relationships." FAMILY RELATIONS 37 (1988): 470-76. Presents model of career development stressing the mentoring relationship.

Jacobi, Maryann. "Mentoring and Undergraduate Academic Success: A Literature Review." REVIEW OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH 61, no. 4 (1991): 505-532.

Jaworski, Barbara. MENTORING IN MATHEMATICS TEACHING. London: Falmer Press, 1994. 146 p. On mentoring high school mathematics teachers.

Kilburg, Gary M. "A Study of Peer Collaborative Mentoring For the Professional Development of International Graduate Teaching Assistants." diss., Oregon State University, 1992.

Kram, Kathy E. "Phases of the Mentoring Relationship." ACADEMY OF MANAGEMENT JOURNAL 26 (1983): 608-625. Delineates a four-stage process from initiation to cultivation, separation, and redefinition. Fuller treatment is in the author's MENTORING AT WORK: DEVELOPMENTAL RELATIONSHIPS IN ORGANIZATIONAL LIFE (Glenville, IL: Scott, Foresman, 1985).

Levinson, D.J., et al. THE SEASONS OF A MAN'S LIFE. New York: Knopf, 1978. Seminal work, referred to in most articles and books on mentoring for its message (to young men) to find a mentor, and (to older men) to become one.

McAuliffe, Anne, ed. "Mentoring in Educational Settings: Unresolved Issues and Unanswered Questions." WEEA DIGEST 1993 (9 p.) Includes "Mentoring in Educational Settings: Unresolved Issues and Unanswered Questions," by Olga M. Welch; and "Learning From the Field: Mentoring Projects in Field-based Settings," by Heidi Lynch. The latter describes five mentoring projects. Available from WEEA Publishing Center, 55 Chapel Street, Newton, MA 02160.

Merriam, Sharan. "Mentors and Proteges: A Critical Review of the Literature." ADULT EDUCATION QUARTERLY 33 (1983): 161-173.

Mertz, Norma T., Olga M. Welch, and Janetta M. Henderson. EXECUTIVE MENTORING: MYTHS, ISSUES, STRATEGIES. Guidelines for executives in developing mentoring programs. Includes these topics: why mentor, what's in it for you, how to select a protege, how to begin and end a mentoring relationship, how to structure the relationship, and what to consider when mentoring women and minorities. Available from WEEA Publishing Center, 55 Chapel Street, Newton, MA 02160.

Murray, Margo, with Marna A. Owen. BEYOND THE MYTHS AND MAGIC OF MENTORING: HOW TO FACILITATE AN EFFECTIVE MENTORING PROGRAM. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1991. 210 p. On mentors in business.

National Education Association of the United States and the American Association of University Professors. MENTORING MINORITIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION. Washington, DC: NEA Office of Higher Education, 1993. 61 p. On the faculty's role as mentors to increase minority participation in higher education.

Newton, Anne. MENTORING: A RESOURCE AND TRAINING GUIDE FOR EDUCATORS. Andover, MA: The Regional Laboratory for Educational Improvement of the Northeast and the Islands, 1994. Mentoring first-year teachers.

Noller, Ruth B. and Barbara R. Frey. MENTORING: AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY. Bearly, 1983. 80 p.

Norton, Cheryl S. MENTORING: A REPRESENTATIVE BIBLIOGRAPHY. New York: ERIC Clearinghouse on Urban Education, 1988. Available on microfiche in U.S. government depository collections as ED 1.310/2: 308278 (1991).

Phillips-Jones, L. MENTORS AND PROTEGES. New York: Arbor House, 1982. Offers a four-stage process of mentoring from mutual admiration to development, disillusionment, and finally, parting.

Roth, Richard and Christine Farris. MENTOR: A HANDBOOK FOR NEW TEACHING ASSISTANTS. Seattle, WA: Center for Instructional Development and Research, University of Washington, 1987. 48p.

Sands, R.H., L.A. Parson, and J. Duane. "Faculty Mentoring Faculty In a Public University." JOURNAL OF HIGHER EDUCATION 62, no. 2 (March/April 1991): 174-193.

Schoenfeld, A. Clay and Robert Magnan. MENTOR IN A MANUAL: CLIMBING THE ACADEMIC LADDER TO TENURE. Madison, WI: Magna Publications, 1992. 314 p.

Shea, Gordon F. MENTORING: HELPING EMPLOYEES REACH THEIR FULL POTENTIAL. New York: AMA Membership Publications Division, American Management Association, 1994. 93 p.

United States Department of Education. ONE ON ONE: A GUIDE FOR ESTABLISHING MENTOR PROGRAMS. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, 1990. 58 p. Available in U.S. government depository collections as ED1.8:On2.

United Way of America. MENTOR TRAINING CURRICULUM. Alexandria, VA: National Mentoring Initiative, United Way of America, 1991. A handbook for mentoring in business and the professions.

Weinberger, Susan G. HOW TO START A STUDENT MENTOR PROGRAM. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation, 1992. 42 p.

Welch, Olga M. MENTORING IN EDUCATIONAL SETTINGS: UNRESOLVED CONFLICTS. Newton, MA: Office of Educational Research and Improvement, 1993.

Wunsch, Marie A., ed. MENTORING REVISITED: MAKING AN IMPACT ON INDIVIDUALS AND INSTITUTIONS. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1994. (NEW DIRECTIONS FOR TEACHING AND LEARNING, no. 57 (Spring, 1994) ). Articles on mentoring in college settings from a variety of perspectives, including two essays on cultural factors that come into play when foreign students and faculty are involved. An appendix provides a checklist for developing, implementing, and assessing mentoring programs.