Computer Science and Education Section


This section is part of a larger document, INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

AND WOMEN'S LIVES: A BIBLIOGRAPHY, compiled by Linda Shult for

the Office of the Women's Studies Librarian, 430 Memorial

Library, 728 State St., Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA.  Originally

published February 1996.  Email: the Women's Studies Librarian.  

World Wide Web site:

http://www.library.wisc.edu/libraries/WomensStudies/





COMPUTER SCIENCE



    Resources in this section center on women studying for careers or

already working in computerscience.html, past or present.  Included are

undergraduates, graduate students, or those working in the field as

teachers, consultants, managers, or the like.  There is, of course,

overlap between materials in this section and those cited in the

"Education" section.  Some brief and more popular pieces are included

in this section as there are relatively few formal studies available on

women working in the profession.





Adam, Alison and Margaret Bruce.  "The Expert Systems Debate: A Gender

Perspective."  GENDERED BY DESIGN? INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND OFFICE

SYSTEMS, ed. Eileen Green et al., pp.81-92.  Washington, DC: Taylor &

Francis, 1993.

 

Adam, Alison.  "Who Knows How? Who Knows That? Feminist Epistemology

and Artificial Intelligence."  WOMEN, WORK, AND COMPUTERIZATION:

BREAKING OLD BOUNDARIES, BUILDING NEW FORMS, ed. Alison Adam et al.,

pp.143-156.  Amsterdam; New York: Elsevier, 1994.  

 

Adam, Alison.  "Women and Computing in the UK."  COMMUNICATIONS OF THE

ACM v.38, no.1 (January 1995): 43.  

 

Angier, Natalie.  "The Glass Ceiling: In Theory Women Swell Ranks of

Science, But Remain Invisible at the Top."  ACM SIGACT NEWS v.22, no.3

(Summer 1991): 38-40.  



Arnold, Carolyn Lee.  SALARY AND OCCUPATION BY GENDER AMONG COMMUNITY

COLLEGE COMPUTER SCIENCE GRADUATES.  Stanford, CA: Ph.D. dissertation,

Stanford University, 1988.  435p.   

Astone, Mary Kathryn.  GENDER STEREOTYPING OF COMPUTING.  Auburn, AL:

Ph.D. dissertation, Auburn University, 1995.  122p. 

    Development and testing of a Gender Typing Scale (GTS) regarding

"gender typing perceptions of computing activities" (abstract).

 

Bank, B., et al.  TEACHING COMPUTING: CONTENT AND METHODS.  Keele, UK:

Keele University Department of Computer Science, 1992. 

    Proceedings of The Women Into Computing Conference, July 1992. 

Includes: "Person-Friendly Computer Science" (Julia Dain); "The Status

of Women in Computing: USA" (Louise E. Moses); and "Everybody Does

Information Technology in Ystalyfera!" (Helen Yewlett), among other

contributions. (Not examined.)  



BARRIERS TO EQUALITY IN ACADEMIA: WOMEN IN COMPUTER SCIENCE AT

M.I.T. 

Cambridge, MA: Female Graduate Students and Research Staff of the

Laboratory for Computer Science and the Artificial Intelligence

Laboratory at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, [1983.]  44p.

bibl.  



Baum, Joan.  THE CALCULATING PASSION OF ADA BYRON.  Hamden, CT: Archon

Books/Shoe String Press, 1986.  133p. bibl. index. ill. 

    The story of Ada Byron Lovelace, credited by some as the first

programmer for her forty pages of "Notes" or technical essays on

Charles Babbage's Analytical Engine, which though never built was

credited as an early model for the computer.

 

Baylor, Sandra Johnson.  "Graduate Fellowship Programs." 

COMMUNICATIONS OF THE ACM v.38, no.1 (January 1995): 37-42. 

    An excellent listing of sponsoring organizations, eligibility

requirements, and amount of help available to graduate computerscience.html

students.

 

Beech, C.  "Women and WIT."  WOMEN, WORK AND COMPUTERIZATION:

UNDERSTANDING AND OVERCOMING BIAS IN WORK AND EDUCATION, ed. Inger

V. Eriksson et al., pp.335-346.  New York: Elsevier, 1991.

 

Benston, Margaret Lowe.  "For Women, the Chips are Down."  THE

TECHNOLOGICAL WOMAN: INTERFACING WITH TOMORROW, ed. Jan Zimmerman,

pp.44-54.  New York: Praeger, 1983.

    Examines the history of automation and the deskilling of programming,

with effects on women entering the profession.

 

Bernstein, Danielle R.  "Comfort and Experience with Computing: Are

They the Same for Women and Men?"  SIGCSE BULLETIN v.23, no.3

(September 1991): 57-60.

 

Bohonak, Noni McCullough.  "Attracting and Retaining Women in Graduate

Programs in Computer Science."  TEACHING THE MAJORITY: BREAKING THE

GENDER BARRIER IN SCIENCE, MATHEMATICS, AND ENGINEERING, ed. Sue V.

Rosser, pp.169-180.  New York: Teachers College Press, 1995.  

 

Borg, Anita and Telle Whitney.  "The Grace Hopper Celebration." 

COMMUNICATIONS OF THE ACM v.38, no.1 (January 1995): 50-51. Description

of conference held in June 1994, Washington, D.C. with 450 women

computer specialists attending.  (See Web site listing under

"Electronic" section.)

 

Borg, Anita.  "Women Defining Technology for the 21st Century: A Report

from America."  WOMEN, WORK, AND COMPUTERIZATION: BREAKING OLD

BOUNDARIES, BUILDING NEW FORMS, ed. Alison Adam et al., pp.231-238. 

Amsterdam; New York: Elsevier, 1994.

    Reports on projects in the U.S. geared to "encourage women and

minorities to enter the computing profession, and once there, to stay

and thrive" (abstract, p.231).

 

Breene, L. Anne.  "Women and Computer Science."  INITIATIVES: JOURNAL

OF THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF WOMEN IN ENGINEERING v.55, no.2 (May

1993): 39-44.

    Briefly surveys women's place in computerscience.html, from middle school

to academic workplace, noting the sexism still present in the field and

the curriculum.

 

Bromberg, Howard.  "Grace Murray Hopper: A Remembrance."  IEEE SOFTWARE

v.9, no.3 (May 1992): 103. 

    U.S. Rear Admiral Hopper was co-inventor of the COBOL computer

language and in charge of the deparment that produced the first

language compiler, opening a new era in programming. Other obituaries

appeared in COMMUNICATIONS OF THE ACM v.32, no.4 (April 1992): 128;

DIGITAL REVIEW v.9, no.2 (January 20, 1992):40; FEDERAL COMPUTER WEEK

v.6, no.1 (January 13, 1992): 26; and IEEE SOFTWARE v.9, no.2 (March

1992): 95 as well as elsewhere.  Hopper died January 1, 1992.

 

Bruce, Margaret and Alison Adam.  "Expert Systems and Women's Lives: A

Technology Assessment."  FUTURES v.21, no.5 (October 1989): 480-497. 

    This study begins "to explore aspects of gender dimensions of

artificial intelligence (AI) and, in particular, the more recent work

on expert and knowledge-based systems" (p.480).

 

Burton, Kathy.  "Five Women Who Changed Their Lives."  HOME OFFICE

COMPUTING v.8 (April 1990): 43-48. 

    Describes five women with homebased computer businesses: Karla

Blevins, Denise Marcil, Deborah Dawson, Christine Donovan, and Cari

Warner.  

 

Capek, Mary Ellen.  "Wired Words: Building a National and International

On-line Thesaurus and Dababase for Access to Women's Information

Resources."  COMMUNICATION AT THE CROSSROADS: THE GENDER GAP

CONNECTION, ed. Ramona Rush and Donna Allen, pp.208-221.  Norwood, NJ:

Ablex, 1989.

 

Cole, K.C.  "Kristina Hooper: Building Bridges for the Brain." 

DISCOVER v.5, (June 1984): 74-77+.  



COMMUNICATIONS OF THE ACM v.38, no.1 (January 1995); special issue:

"Women in Computing," guest ed. Amy Pearl.

    Includes: "Women in Computing: Where Are We Now?" (Maria Klawe and

Nancy Levenson); "Graduate Fellowship Programs" (Sandra Johnson

Baylor); "Women in Computing in the UK" (Alison Adam); "Announcing a

New List: The WCAR List" (Laura L. Downey); "TAP: Tapping Internet

Resources for Women in Computing" (Elisabeth Freeman and Susanne

Hupfer); "Pioneering Women in Computer Science" (Denise W. Gurer); "The

Grace Hopper Celebration" (Anita Borg and Telle Whitney); "Human Nature

and Glass Ceiling in Industry" (Kathleen Hemenway); "Gender

Discrimination in the Workplace: A Literature Review" (Ellen Isaacs);

"Executive Mentoring: What Makes It Work?" (Shari Lawrence Pfleeger and

Norma Mertz); "Mentoring Resources and Programs for Women" (Amita

Goyal); "Situations and Advancement Measures in Germany" (Veronika

Oechtering and Roswitha Behnke); plus several shorter pieces.  See also

discussion of the special issue in the April 1995 issue of

COMMUNICATIONS OF THE ACM, pp.11-14.

 

Cooper, Christine, and Karin van Dam.  "To Be (Certain) or Not To Be

(Certain): A Feminist Perspective on Artificial Intelligence."  WOMEN,

WORK, AND COMPUTERIZATION: BREAKING OLD BOUNDARIES, BUILDING NEW

FORMS, ed. Alison Adam et al., pp.157-169.  Amsterdam; New York: Elsevier,

1994. 

    Suggests that "the underlying philosophy behind existing research

needs to be rethought in order to advance AI" (p.157) and examines how

French post-structuralist feminist philosophy might relate to the study

of artificial intelligence.

 

Crutzen, Cecile K.M.  "The Influence of Feminist Theory on Informatics

Course Design."  WOMEN, WORK, AND COMPUTERIZATION: BREAKING OLD

BOUNDARIES, BUILDING NEW FORMS, ed. Alison Adam et al., pp.59-74. 

Amsterdam; New York: Elsevier, 1994.  

 

Cushman, John H.  "Admiral Hopper's Farewell -- 1986."  NEW YORK TIMES

BIOGRAPHICAL SERVICE v.17 (August 1986): 1036-1037. Grace Murray Hopper

retired from her second stint with the U.S. Navy in 1986, having helped

develop the COBOL computer language and the first compiler. Other

biographical information may be found in: "Pioneers" in ELECTRONICS

WORLD & WIRELESS WORLD v.95 (December 1989): 1192+; VOICE OF AMERICA

INTERVIEWS WITH EIGHT AMERICAN WOMEN OF ACHIEVEMENT by Chantal

Mompoullan (Washington, DC?: U.S. Information Agency, 1985); THE

HISTORY OF COMPUTING: A BIOGRAPHICAL PORTRAIT OF THE VISIONARIES

WHO

SHAPED THE DESTINY OF THE COMPUTER INDUSTRY by Marguerite Zientara (CW

Communications, 1981); "Beacon for the Future" by George Leopold in

DATAMATION v.32 (October 1986): 109-110; "An Admiral's Amazing Grace"

by Marie Hodge in 50 PLUS v.26 (October 1986): 16-17; and a juvenile

book, GRACE HOPPER: NAVY ADMIRAL AND COMPUTER PIONEER by Charlene W.

Billings (Enslow Publishers, 1989).

 

Dain, Julia.  "Getting Women into Computing."  UNIVERSITY COMPUTING

v.10, no.3 (September 1988): 154-157.  

 

de Olde, Cora and Anneke van Doorne-Huiskes.  "Positions of Women in

Information Technology in The Netherlands; Education, Job

Characteristics and Proposals for an Equal Opportunity Policy."  WOMEN,

WORK AND COMPUTERIZATION: UNDERSTANDING AND OVERCOMING BIAS IN

WORK AND EDUCATION, ed. Inger V. Eriksson et al., pp.347-362.  New York:

Elsevier, 1991.

 

Donato, Katharine M.  "Programming for Change? The Growing Demand for

Women Systems Analysts."  JOB QUEUES, GENDER QUEUES: EXPLAINING WOMEN'S

INROADS INTO MALE OCCUPATIONS, ed. Barbara F. Reskin and Patricia A.

Roos, pp.167-182.  Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1990. 

    Women gained in the field of systems analysis, the author summarizes,

through employer demand due to rapid growth of the field.  Once the

occupation appeared more "feminized," men's leaving the field

accelerated women's gains, although some gender segregation within the

profession is evident. 



Donato, Katharine M. and Patricia A. Roos.  "Gender and Earnings

Inequality Among Computer Specialists."  WOMEN, WORK, AND TECHNOLOGY:

TRANSFORMATIONS, ed. Barbara Drygulski Wright et al., pp. 291-317.  Ann

Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1987.  

 

Dowling, Claudia.  "The Testing of Dory Yochum."  LIFE v.13 (August

1990): 54-60+. 

    An account of Dory Yochum's battle for an executive position at AT&T

and her eventual installation as CEO of Interconnection Technologies,

a part of AT&T's Microelectronics division.

 

Downey, Laura L.  "Announcing a New List: The WCAR List." 

COMMUNICATIONS OF THE ACM v.38, no.1 (January 1995): 43-44. 

    Women in Computing Academic Resource list of colleges and

universities with programs for encouraging women in computerscience.html.

 

Durndell, Alan.  "The Persistence of the Gender Gap in Computing." 

COMPUTERS AND EDUCATION v.16 (1991): 283-287.  



"Dynamic Duo Builds Skills for the Future."  HOME OFFICE COMPUTING v.8

(April 1990): 46-47. 

    On two women with a computer-based home publishing business.

 

Eastman, Caroline M.  "Accommodating Diversity in Computer Science

Education."  TEACHING THE MAJORITY: BREAKING THE GENDER BARRIER IN

SCIENCE, MATHEMATICS, AND ENGINEERING, ed. Sue V. Rosser, pp.160-168. 

New York: Teachers College Press, 1995.  

Emms, Judy.  "Workshop: Developing Our Own Mentoring Skills."  WOMEN,

WORK, AND COMPUTERIZATION: BREAKING OLD BOUNDARIES, BUILDING NEW

FORMS, ed. Alison Adam et al., pp.325-332.  Amsterdam; New York: Elsevier,

1994. 

    Mentoring for women in the computing professions.



Epstein, Susan L.  "Anatomy of a Course: Program Keys in Success for

Women and Minorities."  LIBERAL EDUCATION v.79 (Summer 1993): 44-50.  

 

Flack, Dave, editor-in-chief.  OPEN COMPUTING v.11, no.12 (December

1994): special section on women and computing.

    Includes: "What Are You Ladies Doing Here?" (Bronwyn Fryer); "He

Said, She Said, They Said" (Rusty Weston); "Open Computing's Top 100

Women in Computing" (Bronwyn Fryer and Roderick Simpson); profiles by

Carolyn W.S. Wong, Vera Tweed, and Natalie Engler; "Help Is Where You

Find It" (Natalie Engler); and "Women's Electronic Forums and Mailing

Lists."

 

Folger, Tim.  "Art for Science's Sake."  DISCOVER v.12 (December 1991):

18-21. 

    Profiles Donna Cox, an artist turned computer animator and associate

director of University of Illinois's National Center for Supercomputing

Applications.

 

Frenkel, Karen A.  "Women and Computing."  COMMUNICATIONS OF THE ACM

v.33, no.11 (November 1990): 34-46.  (Also available electronically,

with URL: http://www.cpsr.org/cpsr/gender/ frenkel.cacm.womcomp)

    Frenkel examines why women entering computing careers often drop out

of the academic world, deciding against an advanced degree, and enter

industry instead.

 

Fryer, Bronwyn.  "What It Takes."  WOMEN IN COMPUTING no.2 (1996):

7-11. 

    Offers personal anecdotes and summarizing comments about McGraw-

Hill's second annual listing of "the top 100 women in computing." (See

also: "The Top 100 Women.")  Suggests ten strategies for "breaking the

glass ceiling."  

 

Gaio, Fatima Janine.  "Women in Software Programming: The Experience of

Brazil."  WOMEN ENCOUNTER TECHNOLOGY: CHANGING PATTERNS OF

EMPLOYMENT

IN THE THIRD WORLD, ed. Swasti Mitter and Sheila Rowbotham, pp.205-232. 

New York: Routledge in association with the United Nations University

Press, 1995.

 

Glenn, Evelyn Nakano and Charles M. Tolbert II.  "Technology and

Emerging Patterns of Stratification for Women of Color: Race and Gender

Segregation in Computer Occupations."  WOMEN, WORK, AND TECHNOLOGY:

TRANSFORMATIONS, ed. Barbara Drygulski Wright et al., pp.218-331.  Ann

Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1987. 

    Analysis of data from the March 1983 portion of the Bureau of Census

Current Population Survey, revealing that racial ethnic women often

enter the lowest ranks of computer occupations and experience related

wage discrimination. Goodness, Jeanne Marie.  "Factors Which Influence

Women's Decision to Major in Computer Science in College."  Nashville,

TN: Ed.D., Peabody College for Teachers of Vanderbilt University, 1990. 

290p.  

Goyal, Amita.  "Mentoring Resources and Programs for Women." 

COMMUNICATIONS OF THE ACM v.38, no.1 (January 1995): 66-67. 

    Includes both print and organizational resources.

 

Griese, David and Dorothy Marsh.  "The 1988-89 Taulbee Survey Report." 

COMPUTER v.23, no.10 (October 1990): 65-71.  

 

Gruman, Galen.  "Getting Women and Minorities into Computer Science." 

IEEE SOFTWARE v.7, no.4 (July 1990): 87-89, 92.  

 

Gruman, Galen.  "Women, Minorities, and Computer Science: Putting Them

All Together."  COMPUTER v.23, (July 1990): p.93.  



Grundy, Frances.  "Women in the Computing Workplace: Some Impressions." 

WOMEN, WORK, AND COMPUTERIZATION: BREAKING OLD BOUNDARIES,

BUILDING

NEW

FORMS, ed. Alison Adam et al., pp.349-363.  Amsterdam; New York:

Elsevier, 1994. 

    Looks at sexism within computing departments and how it relates to

status and types of work.

 

Gurer, Denise W.  "Pioneering Women in Computer Science." 

COMMUNICATIONS OF THE ACM v.38, no.1 (January 1995): 45-54. 

    In addition to recognized names such as Augusta Ada Byron Lovelace

and Grace Murray Hopper, there are Sister Mary Kenneth Keller, Judy

Clapp, Mildred Koss, Adele Goldstine, Thelma Estrin, Mary K. Hawes, and

a number of others.  

 

Hacker, Sally L.  "The Culture of Engineering: Woman, Workplace, and

Machine."  WOMEN'S STUDIES INTERNATIONAL QUARTERLY v.4, no.3 (1981):

341-353.  

 

Hacker, Sally L. with Charles E. Starnes.  "Computers in the Workplace:

Stratification and Labor Process Among Engineers and Technicians." 

DOING IT THE HARD WAY: INVESTIGATIONS OF GENDER AND TECHNOLOGY, by

Sally L. Hacker, pp.175-194.  Boston: Unwin Hyman, 1990.

    Looks at the degradation of parts of the engineering profession, with

declining employment opportunities except at the top; examines the

employment future of engineers and technicians due to computer-aided

processes, with implications for comparable worth.

 

Hafner, Katie.  "Woman, Computer Nerd -- and Proud."  NEW YORK TIMES

(August 29, 1993): sec.3, pp.1,4. 

    Brief biographical information on Stephanie Winner (Apple computer

engineer), Ellen Spertus (M.I.T. student and part-time Microsoft

programmer), and Megan Smith (engineer at General Magic).

 

Hal, Tracy.  "No Quality Without Equality."  IEEE SOFTWARE v.12 (March

1995): 101-102.

    Results of a survey of more than 200 software engineers on software

quality control.  See also "What's the Gender-Quality Connection?" by

Susan E. Kraterfield and Ron House in the July 1995 issue of IEEE

SOFTWARE, pp.5-6.  

 

Hall, W., and G. L. Lovegrove.  "Women and AI."  AI & SOCIETY v.2, no.3

(1988): 270-271.  

 

Hapnes, Tove and Bente Rasmussen.  "The Production of Male Power in

Computer Science."  WOMEN, WORK AND COMPUTERIZATION: UNDERSTANDING

AND

OVERCOMING BIAS IN WORK AND EDUCATION, ed. Inger V. Eriksson et al.,

pp.395-405.  New York: Elsevier, 1991.

    Examines the hacker culture and how it affects women computerscience.html

students.

 

Henley, F. Milene.  "Good, Better, Best."  WORKING WOMAN v.12 (December

1987): 86-89.

    Describes the work of Deborah A. Coleman, who joined Apple Computer

in 1981, moved on to manage the Macintosh computer factory and then

became director of worldwide marketing, helping turn the company's

fortunes around.  

 

Henwood, Flis.  "Establishing Gender Perspectives on Information

Technology: Problems, Issues and Opportunities."  GENDERED BY DESIGN?

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND OFFICE SYSTEMS, ed. Eileen Green et al.,

pp.31-49.  Washington, DC: Taylor & Francis, 1993.

    Explores general questions of "the gendering of technological skills

and knowledges" as applied particularly to women working in information

technology fields (author's abstract).



Hodge, Marie.  "An Admiral's Amazing Grace."  50 PLUS v.26 (October

1986): 16-17. 

    On Rear Admiral Grace Hopper, pioneer in the use of computers during

her Naval career, and a developer of the COBOL computer language.

 

Howell, Kathy.  "The Experience of Women in Undergraduate Computer

Science: What Does the Research Say?"  SIGCSE BULLETIN v.25, no.2 (June

1, 1993): 1-8.

 

Huskey, Velma R. and Harry D. Huskey.  "Ada, Countess of Lovelace, and

Her Contribution to Computing."  ABACUS v.1, no.2 (Winter 1984): 22-29. 

    Concise summary of the Countess' life and contributions.

 

Huskey, Velma R. and Harry D. Huskey.  "Lady Lovelace and Charles

Babbage."  ANNALS OF THE HISTORY OF COMPUTING v.2, no.4 (1980):

299-329. 

    Reproduces and comments on correspondence between Lovelace and

Babbage. Other material on Lovelace includes: "Lady Lovelace" by Vicki

Birch and Coralee Evans, MATHEMATICS TEACHING v.131 (June 1990): 30-31;

"Computing's First Lady" by Gren Manuel, THE ENGINEER v.269 (November

2, 1989): 58; "Babbage and the Countess" by Elizabeth S. Wall,

ELECTRONIC EDUCATION v.5 (February 1986): 10; a section in WOMEN IN

SCIENCE: ANTIQUITY THROUGH THE NINETEENTH CENTURY: A BIOGRAPHICAL

DICTIONARY WITH ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY by Marilyn Bailey Ogilvie (MIT

Press, 1986); and part of Chapter 11 in HYPATIA'S HERITAGE: A HISTORY

OF WOMEN IN SCIENCE FROM ANTIQUITY THROUGH THE NINETEENTH

CENTURY by Margaret Alic (Beacon Press, 1986), pp.157-163.

 

Isaacs, Ellen.  "Gender Discrimination in the Workplace: A Literature

Review."  COMMUNICATIONS OF THE ACM v.38, no.1 (January 1995): 58-59. 



 

Jagacinski, Carolyn M., et al.  "Gender Differences in Persistence in

Computer-Related Fields."  JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL COMPUTING RESEARCH

v.4, no.2 (1988): 185-202.  

 

Jansen, Sue Curry.  "The Ghost in the Machine: Artificial Intelligence

and Gendered Thought Patterns."  RESOURCES FOR FEMINIST RESEARCH v.17,

no.4 (December 1988): 4-7. 

    Argues that the gendered constructions of AI scientists, who envision

artificial intelligence as supremely male, offer both an opportunity

for feminist research and an imperative for intervention.



Jensen, Poul Erik and Lars Klewe.  "Gender Differences and Computer Use

in Education."  Copenhagen: Danish Institute for Educational Research,

1989.  40 leaves. ill.  

 

Karasti, Helena.  "What's Different in Gender Oriented ISD? Identifying

Gender Oriented Information Systems Development Approach."  WOMEN,

WORK, AND COMPUTERIZATION: BREAKING OLD BOUNDARIES, BUILDING NEW

FORMS, ed. Alison Adam, pp.45-58.  Amsterdam; New York: Elsevier, 1994.   

Kerner, Janet T. and Kathy Vargas.  "Women and Computers: What We Can

Learn From Science."  SIGCSE BULLETIN v.26, no.2 (June 1, 1994): 52-56. 



 

Klawe, Maria and Nancy Levenson.  "Women in Computing: Where Are We

Now?"  COMMUNICATIONS OF THE ACM v.38, no.1 (January 1995): 29-35.  

 

Kretchmar, Laurie.  "Microsoft's Secret Weapon."  WORKING WOMAN v.20

(July 1995): 52-54+. On Patricia Stonesifer's work with Microsoft

Corporation.

 

Kurtzig, Sandra L. with Tom Parker.  CEO: BUILDING A $400 MILLION

COMPANY FROM THE GROUND UP.  New York: Norton, 1991; Boston: Harvard

Business School Press, 1994.  307p. index. 

    The biography of a computer industry executive.

 

Kvande, Elin and Bente Rasmussen.  "Men, Women and Data Systems." 

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING EDUCATION v.14, no.4 (1989): 369-379. 

    Suggests changing the arrangement of computer courses from

association with math and technical subjects toward "broader courses

based on social subjects and arts as well" to increase numbers of women

in the field (summary, p.369).

 

Laberis, Bill.  "Katherine Hudson: Barrier Breaker."  COMPUTERWORLD

v.26, no.25 (June 22, 1992): 20. 

    Of the "Twenty-five People Who Changed the World" featured in this

special anniversary edition of COMPUTERWORLD, Katherine Hudson, an

Eastman Kodak information systems (IS) executive, is the only woman

amid the likes of H. Ross Perot, Steve Jobs, Bill Gates, and Seymour

Cray.

 

Lancaster, Ann-Marie and Bruce Smith.  "Potential Contributions of

Cooperative Education to the Retention of Women in Computer Science." 

COMPUTER SCIENCE EDUCATION v.5, no.1 (1994): 85-101.  

 

Lear, Frances.  "Lunch."  LEAR'S v.6 (Fall 1994): 16-17.

    Lear interviews Ellen Pack, cofounder and president of the on-line

computer network for women, Women's Wire.

 

Lewis, Peter H.  "She Defines Autodesk and Women's Issues, Too."  NEW

YORK TIMES (Late New York Edition), (November 7, 1993): sec.3, p.10. 

    An interview with Carol Ann Bartz, president and chief executive

officer of Autodesk Inc., a large computer software company.

 

Lippitt, Jill.  "The Feminist Face of Computer Technology."  WOMAN OF

POWER no.11 (Fall 1988): 56-57. 

    Subtitled "The Vision Behind the National Women's Mailing List," this

brief piece argues for using computer technology for empowerment of

women.  

 

Lips, Hilary M. and Linda Temple.  "Majoring in Computer Science:

Causal Models for Women and Men."  RESEARCH IN HIGHER EDUCATION v.31,

no.1 (February 1990): 99-113. 

    While attitude toward mathematics seemed to be a stronger factor in

men's attitudes toward computerscience.html in this questionnaire survey,

for women the key was experience with computerscience.html.

 

Littman, Jonathan.  "Hard Drive."  WORKING WOMAN v.18 (June 1993):

44-47+. 

    Describes Carol Bartz's tenure as president and CEO at Autodesk, a

software company in Silicon Valley, and the fight with breast cancer

that began on her second day of work.



Lovelace, Augusta Ada Byron King, Countess of; narr. and ed. by Betty

A. Toole.  ADA, THE ENCHANTRESS OF NUMBERS: A SELECTION FROM THE

LETTERS OF LORD BYRON'S DAUGHTER AND HER DESCRIPTION OF THE FIRST

COMPUTER.  Mill Valley, CA: Strawberry Press, 1992.  440p. index. 

    Quotes extensively from the Countess' letters, including her notes

on the operation of Babbage's "analytical engine," with substantial

commentary by Toole on the events of Ada Lovelace's life and work. 

Amply illustrated. 



Mahony, Karen and Bret Van Toen.  "Mathematical Formalism as a Means of

Occupational Closure in Computing: Why `Hard' Computing Tends to

Exclude Women."  GENDER AND EDUCATION v.2, no.3 (1990): 319-331.  



Markoff, John.  "Reprogramming the Hacker Elite."  NEW YORK TIMES (Late

New York Edition), (January 2, 1994): Sec.3: p.6. 

    Describes the background and career of Donna Auguste, a black woman

who helped create Apple Computer's Newton system.

 

Martin, C. Dianne and Rachelle S. Heller.  "Bringing Young Minority

Women to Computers and Science: Developing Intervention Programmes That

Work."  GATES: GREATER ACCESS TO TECHNOLOGY, ENGINEERING AND

SCIENCE JOURNAL, no.1, 1994.

    From Deakin University, Victoria, Australia.

 

McCormick, Naomi and John McCormick.  "Not for Men Only: Why So Few

Women Major in Computer Science."  COLLEGE STUDENT JOURNAL v.25, no.3

(September 1991): 345-350.

    Though they include some rather sweeping statements about gendered

use of and interest in computers, the authors suggest interesting ways

to encourage women's participation in computerscience.html programs,

including making the lab areas safe, hiring more women faculty,

training lab aids in social skills as well as computer expertise,

eliminating gender bias in software, curriculum, and assignments.

 

Meredith, Helen, ed.  WOMEN IN TECHNOLOGY: TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE -

IMPACT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY.  Belconnen, ACT: National Information

Technology Council, 1994. 

    Some history of women in the computing field in Australia.

 

Milano, Carol.  "The Computer Secrets of Six Self-Starters."  WORKING

WOMAN v.16 (October 1991): 55-56+. 

    Describes six women-owned small businesses and how they dealt with

their computer requirements.

 

Milic, Andjelka.  "Women, Technology and Societal Failure in Former

Yugoslavia."  BRINGING TECHNOLOGY HOME: GENDER AND TECHNOLOGY IN A

CHANGING EUROPE, ed. Cynthia Cockburn and Ruza Furst Dilic, pp.147-164. 

Philadelphia: Open University Press, 1994.

    In a study of rural housewives and high-level computer engineers in

the developing Yugoslav economy, the author found a startling

similarity in the stereotyping and devaluing of women's work.

 

Murray, Fergus.  "A Separate Reality: Science, Technology and

Masculinity."  GENDERED BY DESIGN? INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND OFFICE

SYSTEMS, ed. Eileen Green et al., pp.64-80.  Washington, DC: Taylor &

Francis, 1993.



Myers, J. Paul, Jr.  "Men Supporting Women Computer Science Students." 

SIGCSE BULLETIN v.24, no.1 (March 1992): 63-66.  

 

Nebeker, Frederik.  "Thelma Estrin, Biomedical Engineer: A Pioneer of

Applied Computing."  PROCEEDINGS OF THE IEEE v.81, no.10 (October

1993): 1370-1382. 

    The story of the first woman elected (in 1979) to the IEEE Board of

Directors, and a longtime advocate for "`the five R's: recruitment of

women students, retention of women students, retraining, redress for

discriminated women, and re-education of the profession'" (p.1369,

prologue).

 

Newton, Peggy.  "Computing: An Ideal Occupation for Women?"  WOMEN AT

WORK: PSYCHOLOGICAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL PERSPECTIVES, ed. Jenny Firth-

Cozens and Michael A. West, pp.84-97.  Bristol, PA: Open University

Press, 1991. 

    Examines the dramatic decrease in the number of women entering

computing in the UK, noting problems such as the male-identified image

of computers as "boys' toys," access to computers in secondary schools

(related to location inscience.html/mathematics departments, clubs,

teachers' attitudes, etc.), and career perceptions.

 

Odedra-Straub, Mayuri.  "Women and Information Technology in Sub-

Saharan Africa: A Topic for Discussion?"  WOMEN ENCOUNTER TECHNOLOGY:

CHANGING PATTERNS OF EMPLOYMENT IN THE THIRD WORLD, ed. Swasti Mitter

and Sheila Rowbotham, pp.256-277.  New York: Routledge in association

with the United Nations University Press, 1995.

 

Oechtering, Veronika and Roswitha Behnke.  "Situations and Advancement

Measures in Germany."  COMMUNICATIONS OF THE ACM v.38, no.1 (January

1995): 75-82.  

 

Ogozalek, Virginia.  "A Comparison of Male and Female Computer Science

Students' Attitudes Toward  Computers."  SIGCSE BULLETIN v.21, no.2

(June 1989): 8-14.  

 

Parker, Marla, ed.  SHE DOES MATH: REAL-LIFE PROBLEMS FROM WOMEN ON THE

JOB.  Washington, DC: Mathematical Association of America, 1995. 

    Women working in the field of mathematics/engineering/computer

science pose real problems for the reader to solve.  Relevant articles:

"Mary E. Campione: Software Engineering; Computer Science" (pp.4-6);

"Maryam Shayegan Hastings; Mathematics and Computer Science"

(pp.14-17); "Marla Parker: Computer Science" (pp.76-86); "Susan J.

LoVerso: Software Engineering" (pp.108-110); "Barbara Swetman: Computer

Science and Computer Graphics" (pp.135-138); and "Polly Moore:

Mathematics and Computing" (pp.139-141).

 

Perry, Ruth and Lisa Greber.  "Women and Computers: An Introduction." 

SIGNS, v.16, no.1 (Autumn 1990): 74-101. 

    A substantial essay on the history of women in computing, from early

programmers to microelectronics manufacturing to new women's networks,

with analysis of women's interactions with computer technology and a

plea for feminists to "keep human concerns foremost in our critique of

changing technology" (p.101).



Pfleeger, Shari Lawrence and Mertz, Norma.  "Executive Mentoring: What

Makes It Work?"  COMMUNICATIONS OF THE ACM v.38, no.1 (January 1995):

63-73. 

    Extensive description and analysis of an actual 18-month mentoring

program.

  

Preston, Christina.  "Creative Telematics."  WOMEN, WORK, AND

COMPUTERIZATION: BREAKING OLD BOUNDARIES, BUILDING NEW FORMS, ed.

Alison Adam et al., pp.187-201.  Amsterdam; New York: Elsevier, 1994. 

    "Traces the life story of an educational computing professional" (a

"late entrant to computing" from the fields of English and drama) and

offers a female perspective of the future of computing (author's

abstract).

 

Rasmussen, Bente and Tove Hapnes.  "Excluding Women from the

Technologies of the Future? A Case Study of the Culture of Computer

Science."  FUTURES v.23, no.10 (December 1991): 1107-1119. 

    Explores the culture of hackers and other males in the field of

computerscience.html and their impact on women students.

 

Rifkin, Glenn.  "The `Iron Lady' Keeping Lotus on Track."  NEW YORK

TIMES (Late New York Edition), (January 23, 1994): sec.3, p.10. 

    A look at June L. Rokoff, senior vice-president for software

development at Lotus Development, who is a target for executive-seeking

recruiters due to her success in both dealing with new technology and

managing people.  

 

Schelhowe, Heidi and Karin Vosseberg.  "Aspects of Women's Research in

Computer Science."  WOMEN, WORK AND COMPUTERIZATION: UNDERSTANDING

AND

OVERCOMING BIAS IN WORK AND EDUCATION, ed. Inger V. Eriksson et al.,

pp.67-80.  New York: Elsevier, 1991.  

 

Schneider, Karen.  "Four Librarians of the Apocalypse."  WILSON LIBRARY

BULLETIN v.69, no.2 (October 1994): 35-38. 

    Schneider examines the email comments of four librarians working with

automation issues, concluding that in order to preserve the

professional service function of the "librarian" title, such

"technowomen" need to "seek support [mentors], promote yourself,

publish, and re-image your skills not only to react to the present, but

also to shape the future."



Schwartz, Evan.  "The Lucie Show: Shaking Up a Stodgy IBM."  BUSINESS

WEEK (April 6, 1992): 64-65. 

    A look at Lucie J. Fjeldstad, vice-president and general manager of

IBM's multimedia division, and her attempts to move IBM toward more

consumer electronics marketing.

 

Shapiro, G.  "Informal Processes and Women's Careers in Information

Technology Management."  WOMEN, WORK, AND COMPUTERIZATION: BREAKING

OLD

BOUNDARIES, BUILDING NEW FORMS, ed. Alison Adam et al., pp.423-437. 

Amsterdam; New York: Elsevier, 1994.  

 

Shatin, Judith.  "Women in Computer Music: A Sampling."  AWC

NEWS/FORUM, v.ix (Spring/Summer 1991): 3-7. 

    Surveys the accomplishments of musicians Joanne D. Carey, Emma Lou

Diemer, Janis Mattox, Linda Seltzer, Judith Shatin, and Diane Thome,

with brief biographies and a discography.

 

Sonnentag, S.  "Team Leading in Software Development: A Comparison

Between Women and Men."  WOMEN, WORK, AND COMPUTERIZATION: BREAKING

OLD BOUNDARIES, BUILDING NEW FORMS, ed. Alison Adam et al., pp.379-391. 

Amsterdam; New York: Elsevier, 1994.  

 

Sproull, Lee S., et al.  "Encountering an Alien Culture."  JOURNAL OF

SOCIAL ISSUES v.40, no.3 (Fall 1984): 31-48.  

 

Stanley, Autumn.  "Daughters of the Enchantress of Numbers and Grandma

Cobol: Women Inventors and Innovators in Computers and Related

Technology."  MOTHERS AND DAUGHTERS OF INVENTION: NOTES FOR A REVISED

HISTORY OF TECHNOLOGY, pp.629-745.  Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press,

1993.

    This extensive treatment of women in the field of

computers/information technology looks at pioneers such as Ada Lovelace

and Grace Hopper, notes the machine/hardware designers from the "ENIAC

girls" onward, describes the work of many women in

software/applications development, and offers an extensive

bibliography.

 

Stein, Dorothy.  "Sex and the Cobol Cabal."  NEW SCIENTIST v.115

(September 1987): 79-80. 

    A brief history of women computer programmers and the development of

the Cobol language.

 

Stein, Dorothy.  ADA: A LIFE AND A LEGACY.  Cambridge, MA: MIT Press,

1985.  321p. ill. index. 

    Biography of Ada Byron, Countess of Lovelace, a contributor to the

early computational machine put together by Babbage.  An earlier book

on the Countess is ADA, COUNTESS OF LOVELACE: BYRON'S LEGITIMATE

DAUGHTER by Doris Langley Moore (New York: Harper & Row, 1977).

 

Stoltenberg, John.  "Turning Problems into Profits."  WORKING WOMAN

v.13 (May 1988): 63-64+. 

    Profiles four women whose businesses teach new users about hardware

and software.



Strober, Myra H. and Carolyn L. Arnold.  INTEGRATED CIRCUITS/SEGREGATED

LABOR: WOMEN IN THREE COMPUTER-RELATED OCCUPATIONS.  Stanford, CA:

Institute for Research on Educational Finance and Governance, School of

Education, Stanford University, 1984.  46p.  

 

Teague, Joy and Valerie Clarke.  "Fiction and Fact: Students' and

Professionals' Perceptions of Women in Computer Science."  WOMEN, WORK

AND COMPUTERIZATION: UNDERSTANDING AND OVERCOMING BIAS IN WORK

AND EDUCATION, ed. Inger V. Eriksson et al., pp.363-375.  New York:

Elsevier, 1991.

 

Teague, Joy.  "Raising the Self Confidence and Self-Esteem of Final

Year Female Students Prior to Job Interviews."  SIGCSE BULLETIN v.24,

no.1 (March 1992): 67-71. 

    Describes a "one-day seminar on handling job interviews" (abstract)

with positive evaluations both immediatedly post-seminar and six months

later.  

 

Tierney, Margaret.  "Negotiating a Software Career: Informal Work

Practices and `The Lads' in a Software Installation."  THE GENDER-

TECHNOLOGY RELATION: CONTEMPORARY THEORY AND RESEARCH, ed. Keith

Grint and Rosalind Gill, pp.192-209.  Bristol, PA: Taylor and Francis, 1995. 



 

Tijdens, Kea.  "Women in EDP Departments."  WOMEN, WORK AND

COMPUTERIZATION: UNDERSTANDING AND OVERCOMING BIAS IN WORK AND

EDUCATION, ed. Inger V. Eriksson et al., pp.377-390.  New York:

Elsevier, 1991.



"The Top 100 Women."  WOMEN IN COMPUTING no.2 (1996): 16-34.

    McGraw-Hill Publishing Companies' second annual listing of women in

computing offers paragraph-length career briefs (and many photos) of

women in both larger companies (Coca-Cola and Xerox among them) and

smaller firms.  

 

Tropp, Henry S.  "Grace Hopper: The Youthful Teacher of Us All." 

ABACUS v.2, no.1 (1984): 7-18.  

 

Turkle, Sherry.  "Women and Computer Programming: A Different

Approach."  TECHNOLOGY REVIEW v.87 (November/December 1984): 48-50.  

 

van Oost, E.C.J.  "The Process of Sex-Typing of Computer Occupations." 

WOMEN, WORK AND COMPUTERIZATION: UNDERSTANDING AND OVERCOMING

BIAS IN WORK AND EDUCATION, ed. Inger V. Eriksson et al., pp.407-421.  New

York: Elsevier, 1991.

 

Vare, Ethlie Ann and Greg Ptacek.  "Hopper, Grace, Naval Officer and

Computer Scientist."  MOTHERS OF INVENTION: FROM THE BRA TO THE BOMB:

FORGOTTEN WOMEN & THEIR UNFORGETTABLE IDEAS.  New York: Quill, 1987.

    Other brief biographical passages appear in James Cortada's

HISTORICAL DICTIONARY OF DATA PROCESSING: BIOGRAPHIES (Greenwood Press,

1987) and PORTRAITS IN SILICON by Robert Slater (MIT Press, 1987). 

MOTHERS OF INVENTION also includes a piece on Ada Lovelace.



Vehvilainen, Marja.  "Living Through the Boundaries of Information

Systems Expertise: A Work History of a Finnish Woman Systems

Developer."  WOMEN, WORK, AND COMPUTERIZATION: BREAKING OLD

BOUNDARIES, BUILDING NEW FORMS, ed. Alison Adam et al., pp.107-120.  Amsterdam:

New York: Elsevier, 1994. 

    Uses an oral work history and texts to explore how "women's

subjectivities" can be considered in systems development.



"Where Career Ladders are Like Roller Coasters."  WORKING WOMAN v.14

(May 1989): 55-56+.

    Profiles of five women working in large high-tech corporations,

noting that regular upheavals in such industries create opportunities

for women's advancement.  The women are: Patricia Higgins (AT&T),

Kathryn Braun (Western Digital), Susan Kelly Barnes (Next), Anne-Lee

Verville (IBM), and Patricia Wallington (Massachusetts Mutual Life

Insurance).

 

Whitehouse, Diane.  "Women, Employment, and Information Technology: A

View from the United Kingdom."  THE INFORMATION SOCIETY: EVOLVING

LANDSCAPES, ed. Jacques Berleur et al., pp.340-355.  New York:

Springer-Verlag, 1990.

 

Wilder, Clinton.  "Women in Charge."  COMPUTERWORLD v.26, no.20 (May

18, 1992): 155.

    Profiles three women executives who crossed over from information

systems management to business management: Katherine Hudson (Eastman

Kodak), Patricia Barron (Xerox), and Susan Mersereau (Weyerhaeuser).



"The Wizards of Oz."  MADEMOISELLE v.100 (September 1994): 227.

    Interviews with Phoebe Sengers and Alma Whitten on their careers in

computer work.



WOMEN OF COMPUTER HISTORY: FORGOTTEN PIONEERS.  Wilmington, DE: World

Information Institute, 1989.  unpaged. (Not examined.) 



WOMEN, MINORITIES, AND PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES IN SCIENCE AND

ENGINEERING: 1994.  Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation, 1994. 

404p. 

    Statistical tables and analyses offer information on undergraduate

and graduate women in computerscience.html, number of degrees awarded, etc. 



 

Wright, Rosemary.  WOMEN IN COMPUTER CAREERS: CONTROLLED PROGRESS IN

A MALE OCCUPATION.  Philadelphia, PA: Ph.D. dissertation, University of

Pennsylvania, 1994.  258p. 

    Using statistics from the Department of Education, the Bureau of

Labor Statistics, and a National Science Foundation survey including

6,200 computer workers, this study concluded that although "the

earnings gap narrowed and gender segregation lessened during the

1980s,...after two decades of rising, women's representation in

computer work began to fall" and that "many women are disadvantaged by

their lack of engineering credentials and experience" (author's

abstract).

 

Yap, Chee Sing and Helen Tng.  "Factors Associated with Attitudes

Towards Telecommuting."  INFORMATION AND MANAGEMENT v.19 (November

1990): 227-235.  

 

Zientara, Marguerite.  WOMEN, TECHNOLOGY AND POWER: TEN STARS AND THE

HISTORY THEY MADE.  New York: Amacom, 1987.  282p. bibl. index. 

    Interviews with ten women who worked in the development of the

microcomputer industry between 1975 and 1985, in such areas as hardware

and software design, venture capital, analysis, and consulting.

 

EDUCATION



    There are so many studies available on gender and information

technology in the field of education that it's impossible to evaluate

them without subject expertise.  Not a comprehensive listing, this

collection is more of a sampling of the studies analyzing gender

factors in attitudes toward and use of computers, stereotypes, gendered

computer games, cross-cultural comparisons, and the like.  Many

citations come from other bibliographies or indexes, so be aware that

the serious researcher in this area will have some sifting and

winnowing to do to find the most relevant information.  The resources

included in this section are focused more on K-12 and general

undergraduate use of computers, as opposed to the study of women

computerscience.html students (see the "Computer Science" section for

these), though there is obviously overlap between these categories.



    This section is very selective of pre-1988 materials, relying instead

on more recent reviews of the literature (see citations marked with *). 

Some earlier articles are included due to their particular angle of the

research (mathematics, women's studies, counseling, age group, etc.) or

the "classic" nature of the study.  A number of more general studies on

gender and technology or gender and mathematics are not included here

but are likely cited by some of the articles listed and may provide

useful information for researchers.

 

 

Anderson, Ronald E.  "Females Surpass Males in Computer Problem

Solving: Findings From the Minnesota Computer Literacy Assessment." 

JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL COMPUTING RESEARCH v.3, no.1 (1987): 39-51.  

 

Angell, Marion D.  "A Program to Develop through LOGO the Computer

Self-Confidence of Seventh Grade Low-Achieving Girls."  M.S. Practicum,

Nova University, 1991.  70p.  Available from ERIC: ED 341382. 

    Results showed the seventh-grade low-achieving girls increased their

self-confidence regarding computers through LOGO programming work.  

 

Apple, Michael and Susan Jungck.  "`You Don't Have to Be a Teacher to

Teach This Unit': Teaching, Technology, and Gender in the Classroom." 

AMERICAN EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL v.27, no.2 (Summer 1990): 227-

251.

    Reports on a study of use of a computer literacy curriculum by

teachers. While use of the prepackaged curriculum seemed to not enhance

their skills, it did ease the intensity of some teachers' dual-job

(work and home) schedules by saving planning/preparation time.

 

Arenz, Bernard and Miheon J. Lee.  "Gender Differences in the Selection

of Elective Computer Science Courses."  1989.  33p.  From "Proceedings

of Selected Research Papers presented at the Annual Meeting of the

Association for Educational Communications and Technology (Dallas, TX,

February 1-5, 1989)."  Available from ERIC: ED308806.

 

Arenz, Bernard W. and Miheon J. Lee.  "Gender Differences in the

Attitude, Interest and Participation of Secondary Students in Computer

Use."  1990.  ED 327389.  68p.  Paper presented at the Annual Meeting

of the American Educational Research Association (Boston, MA, April

16-20, 1990).  Available from ERIC: ED327389.

    Summary of a series of studies carried out over three years in middle

and high school levels.



Baines, S.  "Personal Computing, Gender and Distance Education." 

WOMEN, WORK AND COMPUTERIZATION: UNDERSTANDING AND OVERCOMING

BIAS IN WORK AND EDUCATION, ed. Inger V. Eriksson et al., pp.267-282.  New

York: Elsevier, 1991.

 

Becker, Henry J. and Carleton W. Sterling.  "Equity in School Computer

Use: National Data and Neglected Considerations."  JOURNAL OF

EDUCATIONAL COMPUTING RESEARCH v.3, no.3 (1987): 289-311.  



Beeson, Betty Spillers and R. Ann Williams.  "The Effects of Gender and

Age on Preschool Children's Choice of the Computer as a Child-Selected

Activity."  JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR INFORMATION SCIENCE

v.36, no.5 (1985): 339-341.

 

Bell, Margaret.  "By George, She's Got IT!"  WOMEN, WORK, AND

COMPUTERIZATION: BREAKING OLD BOUNDARIES, BUILDING NEW FORMS, ed.

Alison Adam et al., pp.225-230.  Amsterdam; New York: Elsevier, 1994. 

    Examines the concerns of the National Council for Educational

Technology (Great Britain) as to girls' educational participation with

information technology.

 

Bernhard, Judith K.  "Gender-Related Attitudes and the Development of

Computer Skills: A Preschool Intervention."  ALBERTA JOURNAL OF

EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH v.38, no.3 (September 1992): 177-188.

 

Bitter, Gary G.  "Technology and Minorities: A Local Program Aimed at

Increasing Technological Capabilities of Hispanic Women."  COMPUTERS IN

THE SCHOOLS v.9, no.1 (1992): 7-29.  

 

Bland, Jana.  "Gender Inequity a Decade Later: Still Hampering Female

Potential in Educational Technology."  THE DELTA KAPPA GAMMA BULLETIN

v.61 (Summer 1995): 29-32.  

 

Bohlin, Roy M.  "Computers and Gender Differences: Achieving Equity." 

COMPUTERS IN THE SCHOOLS v.9, nos.2-3 (1993): 155-166.  

 

* Borgo, Suzanne Lavon.  "Ideology and Science: An Interpretive

Analysis of Research on Gender, Computers, and Education." 

Charlottesville, VA: Ph.D. dissertation, University of Virginia, 1992. 

202p. 

    Reviews 104 empirical studies on gender, computers and education.

 

Brady, Holly and Twila Slesnick.  "Girls Don't Like Fluffware Either." 

CLASSROOM COMPUTER LEARNING v.5 (April/May 1985): 22-24+.  

 

Bromley, Hank.  ENGENDERING TECHNOLOGY: THE SOCIAL PRACTICE OF

EDUCATIONAL COMPUTING.  Madison, WI: Ph.D. dissertation, University of

Wisconsin-Madison, 1995.  474p.

 

Brunet, Jean and Serge Prouix.  "Formal Versus Grass-Roots Training:

Women, Work and Computers."  JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION v.39, no.3

(1989): 77-84. 

    Descriptions of two microcomputer training programs offered in

Montreal, one based on more traditional methods, another run by a

neighborhood group.  

 

Brunner, Corneila.  "Gender and Distance Learning."  ANNALS OF THE

AMERICAN ACADEMY OF POLITICAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCE v.514 (March 1991):

133-145.

    Part of special issue titled "Electronics for Learning," ed. by

Vivian M. Homer and Linda G. Roberts.

 

Burstyn, Joan N.  "`Who Benefits and Who Suffers': Gender and Education

at the Dawn of the Age of Information Technology."  YEARBOOK (National

Society for the Study of Education) 92nd, part 1 (1993): 107-125.



Busch, Tor.  "Gender Differences in Self-Efficacy and Attitudes Toward

Computers."  JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL COMPUTING RESEARCH v.12, no.2

(1995): 147-158.  

 

* Cambre, Marjorie A. and Desmond L. Cook.  "Computer Anxiety:

Definition, Measurement, and Correlates."  1984.  33p.  Paper presented

at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association

(New Orleans, LA, April 23-27, 1984).  Available from ERIC: ED246085.

    Though not specifically focused on gender, this review of available

research is potentially useful in examining an anxiety often expressed

by women students.



* Canada, Katherine and Frank Brusca.  "The Technological Gender Gap:

Evidence and Recommendations for Educators and Computer-Based

Instruction Designers."  EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH AND

DEVELOPMENT v.39, no.2 (1991): 43-51.

    Reviewing research that documents different computer-related

attitudes, behaviors, and skills from elementary through college level,

the authors suggest interventions ranging from acknowledging the

problem to restructuring computer facilities to redesigning software.

 

Chen, Milton.  "Gender and Computers: The Beneficial Effects of

Experience on Attitudes."  JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL COMPUTING RESEARCH

v.2, no.3 (1986): 265-282.  

 

* Chivers, Geoff.  "Information Technology -- Girls and Education: A

Cross-Cultural Review."  WOMEN AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, ed. Marilyn

J. Davidson and Cary L. Cooper, pp.13-32.  New York: John Wiley & Sons,

1987.

 

Cianni, Mary and Andrea Growney.  "PC Squared: Programming Computers,

Planning Careers."  JOURNAL OF THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR WOMEN

DEANS, ADMINISTRATORS, & COUNSELORS v.50 (Spring 1987): 33-38.

 

Clariana, Roy B. and Charles W. Schultz.  "Gender by Content

Achievement Differences in Computer-based Instruction."  THE JOURNAL OF

COMPUTERS IN MATHEMATICS AND SCIENCE TEACHING v.12, nos.3-4 (1993):

277-288.

 

Clarke, V.A.  "Sex Differences in Computing Participation: Concerns,

Extent, Reasons and Strategies."  AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF EDUCATION v.34

(1990): 52-66.  

 

Clarke, Valerie and Susan M. Chambers.  "Gender-Based Factors in

Computing Enrollments and Achievement: Evidence from a Study of

Tertiary Students."  JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL COMPUTING RESEARCH v.5,

no.4 (1989): 409-429.  

 

Clewell, Beatriz C.  INTERVENTION PROGRAMS IN MATHEMATICS, SCIENCE, AND

COMPUTER SCIENCE FOR MINORITY AND FEMALE STUDENTS IN GRADES FOUR

THROUGH EIGHT.  Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service, 1987. 

120p. ill.  

 

Clewell, Beatriz C., et al.  "The Prevalence and Nature of Mathematics,

Science, and Computer Science Intervention Programs Serving Minority

and Female Students in Grades Four Through Eight."  EQUITY & EXCELLENCE

v.25 (Winter 1992): 209-215.

 

* Cole, Anne, et al.  "Information Technology and Gender: Problems and

Proposals."  GENDER AND EDUCATION, v.6, no.1 (1994): 77-85. 

    This survey of recent research on gender bias in favor of males at

the secondary level in Scotland highlights problem areas and offers

suggestions for classroom teaching.

 

Colley, Ann M., et al.  "Effects of Gender Role Identity and Experience

on Computer Attitude Components."  JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL COMPUTING

RESEARCH v.10, no.2 (1994): 129-137.  

 

Colley, Ann M., et al.  "Gender Effects in the Stereotyping of Those

With Different Kinds of Computing Experience."  JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL

COMPUTING RESEARCH v.12, no.1 (1995): 19-27.  

 

Collis, Betty and Lloyd Ollila.  "The Effect of Computer Use on Grade

1 Children's Gender Stereotypes About Reading, Writing and Computer

Use."  JOURNAL OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT IN EDUCATION v.24 (Fall

1990): 14-20.

 

Collis, Betty and Richard Williams.  "Cross-cultural Comparison of

Gender Differences in Adolescents' Attitudes Toward Computers and

Selected School Subjects."  JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH v.81

(Sept./Oct. 1987): 17-27.  

 

Collis, Betty.  "Adolescent Females and Computers: Real and Perceived

Barriers."  DESPITE THE ODDS: ESSAYS ON CANADIAN WOMEN AND SCIENCE, ed.

Marianne Gosztonyi Ainley, pp.272-283.  Montreal: Vehicule Press, 1990.

 

Collis, Betty.  "Psychosocial Implications of Sex Differences in

Attitudes Toward Computers: Results of a Survey."  INTERNATIONAL

JOURNAL OF WOMEN'S STUDIES v.8, no.3 (1985): 207-213.

    A survey of attitudes among 3,000 secondary school students found

strong differences between young men and women, with women convinced of

the overall abilities of their gender but less confident about their

individual competence with computers (dubbed the "we can, but I can't"

paradox).  See also: "Sex-Related Differences in Attitudes Toward

Computers: Implications for Counselors" in SCHOOL COUNSELOR v.33, no.2

(1985): 120-130.

 

Collis, Betty.  "Sex Differences in the Association Between Secondary

School Students' Attitudes Toward Mathematics and Toward Computers." 

JOURNAL FOR RESEARCH IN MATHEMATICS EDUCATION v.18, no.5 (1987):

394-402.



* "Computers for All Children: A Literature Review of Equity Issues in

Computer Utilization."  San Francisco, CA: Far West Laboratory for

Educational Research and Development, 1985.  31p.



THE COMPUTING TEACHER v.11, no.8 (April 1984); special issue: "Computer

Equity: Overview, Research, Practical Ideas," ed. Sharon Franklin. 

    Includes: "Inequities in Opportunities for Computer Literacy" (Ronald

E. Anderson et al.); "Equity in Computer Education" (Sen. Frank R.

Lautenberg); "Computer Education for ALL Students" (Anthony J.

Alvarado); "Sex Equity: Increasing Girls' Use of Computers" (Marlaine

E. Lockheed and Steven B. Frakt); "Computer Equity and Computer

Educators (You)" (John Lipkin); "Enrollment Differences in Computer

Camps and Summer Classes" (Irene T. Miura and Robert D. Hess); "Access

to Computers" (Glenn Fisher); "Practical Solutions to Overcoming Equity

in Computer Use" (Jane G. Schubert and Thomas W. Bakke); "The Computer:

Male, Female, or Androgynous?" (Jo Shuchat Sanders).

 

Crutzen, C.K.M., et al.  "Women in Informatics at the Open University

of The Netherlands."  WOMEN, WORK AND COMPUTERIZATION: UNDERSTANDING

AND OVERCOMING BIAS IN WORK AND EDUCATION, ed. Inger V. Eriksson et

al., pp.282-296.  New York: Elsevier, 1991.



Culley, Lorraine.  "Girls, Boys and Computers."  EDUCATIONAL STUDIES

v.14, no.1 1988: 3-8.

    A study of 974 fourth and fifth-year students in British secondary

schools, including those in two all-girls' schools, plus a survey of

238 additional school programs.  See also: GENDER DIFFERENCES AND

COMPUTING IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS (Loughborough, UK: Department of

Education, Loughborough University of Techology, 1986), a 77-page,

illustrated study.



Culley, Lorraine.  "Option Choice and Careers Guidance: Gender and

Computing in Secondary Schools."  WESTERN EUROPEAN EDUCATION v.21. no.4

(Winter 1989-90): 41-53. 

    British secondary school career guidance personnel, according to this

analysis of a previous study, attribute sex-stereotyped choices to non-

school factors and tend not to intervene within the school program.

(See "Girls, Boys and Computers.")



Damarin, Suzanne K.  "Equity, Caring, and Beyond: Can Feminist Ethics

Inform Educational Technology?"  EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY v.34 (February

1994): 34-39.

 

Damarin, Suzanne K.  "Rethinking Science and Mathematics Curriculum and

Instruction: Feminist Perspectives in the Computer Era."  JOURNAL OF

EDUCATION v.173, no.1 (1991): 107-123.

    Basing her thinking on such researchers as Harding, Bleier, Fausto-

Sterling, Keller, McKee, and others, the author suggests that though

existing educational computing curricula are more male-oriented,

"computers have much unexplored potential" (p.109), and offers

guidelines for feminist instructional software.

 

Damarin, Suzanne K.  "Women and Information Technology: Framing Some

Issues for Education."  FEMINIST TEACHER v.6, no.2 (Fall 1991): 16-20. 

    A questioning look at the relationship of computers to women, in both

education and work settings, and discussion of the need for women's

perspectives and attitudes in the ongoing development of new

technologies.

 

Daniels, Jane Zimmer.  "Expanding the Pipeline: Programs Target Women,

Girls."  COMPUTING RESEARCH NEWS v.6, no.3 (May 1994).  

 

DeRemer, Mary.  "The Computer Gap in Elementary School."  COMPUTERS IN

THE SCHOOLS v.6, no.3/4 (1989): 39-49.  

 

Durndell, Alan and P. Lightbody.  "Gender and Computing: Change Over

Time?"  COMPUTERS & EDUCATION v.21 (November 1993): 331-336.  

 

Durndell, Alan D.  "Why Do Female Students Tend to Avoid Computer

Studies?"  RESEARCH IN SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGICAL EDUCATION v.8, no.2

(1990): 163-170. 

    A sample of 210 students of naturalscience.htmls and business responded

to a questionnaire as to why they chose not to study computing.  Both

sexes, particularly females, preferred working with humans rather than

sitting at a machine, with other factors having less impact.  See also:

"Gender Differences and Computing in Course Choice at Entry into Higher

Education" in BRITISH EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL v.16, no.2 (1990):

149-162.

 

Eager, C.J.  "Developing a Computing Access Course for Women: A Course

Tutor's Perspective."  WOMEN, WORK AND COMPUTERIZATION: UNDERSTANDING

AND OVERCOMING BIAS IN WORK AND EDUCATION, ed. Inger V. Eriksson et

al., pp.297-312.  New York: Elsevier, 1991.  

 

Eastman, Susan T. and Kathy A. Krendl.  "Computers and Gender:

Differential Effects of Electronic Search on Students' Achievement and

Attitudes."  JOURNAL OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT IN EDUCATION v.20,

no.3 (Spring 1987): 41-48.



Ekljaer, Bente.  "Girls and Information Technology in Denmark: An

Account of a Socially Constructed Problem."  GENDER & EDUCATION v.4,

nos.1/2 (1992): 25-40.  

 

Eley, Penny and Penny Simons.  "Languages and the Computer:

Opportunities to Develop IT Skills."  WOMEN, WORK, AND COMPUTERIZATION:

BREAKING OLD BOUNDARIES, BUILDING NEW FORMS, ed. Alison Adam et al.,

pp.255-268.  Amsterdam; New York: Elsevier, 1994. 

    Relates the "experiences of two women academics in introducing

information technology into the curriculum of a university French

department" as an alternative to students experiencing potentially

alienating computer courses.



Elliott, Alison.  "Effects of Gender on Preschoolers' Play and Learning

in Logo Environments."  JOURNAL OF COMPUTING IN CHILDHOOD EDUCATION

v.4, no.2 (1993): 103-124.  

 

Ellsworth, Elizabeth.  "Computer Equity Through Gendered Software?" 

FEMINIST COLLECTIONS v.7, no.3 (Spring 1986): 6-9.  

 

Fish, Marian, et al.  "The Effect of Equity Strategies on Girls'

Computer Usage in School."  COMPUTERS IN HUMAN BEHAVIOR v.2, no.2

(1986): 127-134. 

    This study found that intervention strategies significantly increased

middle school girls' computer usage.  Intervention techniques were

based on THE NEUTER COMPUTER by Jo Shuchat and Antonia Stone (see that

entry).

 

Forsyth, Alfred S.  "Girls and Microcomputers: A Hopeful Finding

Regarding Software."  COMPUTERS IN THE SCHOOLS v.6, no.3/4 (1989):

51-59.  

 

Francis, Leslie J.  "Measuring Attitude Toward Computers Among

Undergraduate College Students: The Affective Domain."  COMPUTERS &

EDUCATION v.20, no.3 (April 1993): 251-255.  

 

Francis, Leslie J.  "The Relationship between Computer Related

Attitudes and Gender Stereotyping of Computer Use."  COMPUTERS &

EDUCATION v.22 (May 1994): 283-289.  

 

Fuchs, Lucy.  "Closing the Gender Gap: Girls and Computers."  January

1986.  Paper presented at the Florida Instructional  Computing

conference (Orlando, Fl, January 21-24, 1986).  10p.  Available from

ERIC: ED271103.  

 

Gailey, Stavroula K.  "The G.A.M.E.S. Experience."  THE DELTA KAPPA

GAMMA BULLETIN v.58 (Summer 1992): 47-52. 

    Discusses the "Girls and Mathematics Equals Success" program.

 

Gattiker, Urs E.  "Individual Differences and Acquiring Computer

Literacy: Are Women More Efficient Than Men?"  Edmonton, Alberta,

Canada: Lethbridge University Faculty of Management, 1989.  63p.

Available from ERIC: ED311344. 

    Finds evidence for women being more successful in transferring

computer practice into better learning performance across ability

groups.

 

George, Yolanda S., et al.  "Computer Equity for the Future." 

COMMUNICATIONS OF THE ACM v.36 (May 1993): 78-81. 

    As VCR's, CD players, microwaves, and other equipment move more

people toward interactions with computer technology, educators are

working on training for teachers and children in low-income areas.

 

Gilstrap, Myrna Loy Minter.  INFLUENCE OF COMPUTER LITERACY UPON RE-

ENTRY WOMEN IN OFFICE SYSTEMS AND OFFICE TECHNOLOGY CLASSES

(WOMEN STUDENTS).  Lubbock, TX: Ph.D. dissertation, Texas Woman's University,

1994. 150p.  

 

Griffiths, Morwenna and Margaret Alfrey.  "A Stereotype in the Making:

Girls and Computers in Primary Schools."  EDUCATIONAL REVIEW v.41, no.1

(1989): 73-79. 

    Noting that sex differences in computer use in schools likely results

from the way computers are introduced, associated with math andscience.html

and of u se primarily with older children, the authors argue that

integration of the computer across the whole primary curriculum would

help diminish stereotypes.



Grignon, Jerilyn R.  "Computer Experience of Menominee Indian Students:

Gender Differences in Coursework and Use of Software."  JOURNAL OF

AMERICAN INDIAN EDUCATION v.32 (May 1993): 1-15.  

 

Harrington, Susan Marie.  "Barriers to Women in Undergraduate Computer

Science: The Effects of the Computer Environment on the Success and

Continuance of Female Students."  Eugene, OR: Ph.D. dissertation,

University of Oregon, 1990.  202p. 

    From interviews, enrollment and achievement records in computer

science courses, and review of the literature, the author found that

women students in computerscience.html achieved better overall grades yet

dropped out at a higher rate than men, suggesting that "enculturating

and socializing forces" rather than any deficiency in ability was the

cause of women's underrepresentation in the field.  

 

Hattie, John and Donald Fitzgerald.  "Sex Differences in Attitudes,

Achievement and Use of Computers."  AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF EDUCATION

v.31, no.1 (April 1987): 3-26.  

 

Hesse-Biber, Sharlene and Melissa Kesler Gilbert.  "Closing the

Technological Gender Gap: Feminist Pedagogy in the Computer-assisted

Classroom."  TEACHING SOCIOLOGY v.22 (January 1994): 19-31.  

 

Hodes, Carol L.  "Gender Representations in Mathematics Software." 

[1995].  13p.  Available from ERIC: ED380277. 

    Examines representation of gender in popular mathematics software for

grades K-6 (12 % of main characters were female, all in traditional

female roles).

 

Huff, Charles and Joel Cooper.  "Sex Bias in Educational Software: The

Effect of Designers' Stereotypes on the Software They Design."  JOURNAL

OF APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY v.17, no.6 (1987): 519-532.  

Inkpen, Kori, et al.  "`We Have Never-Forgetful Flowers in Our Garden':

Girls' Responses to Electronic Games."  JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS IN

MATHEMATICS AND SCIENCE TEACHING v.13, no.4 (1994): 383-403.

 

Jacobson, Frances F.  "Finding Help in All the Right Places: Working

Toward Gender Equity."  JOURNAL OF YOUTH SERVICES IN LIBRARIES v.7

(Spring 1994): 289-293. 

    Discusses the use of computers in libraries and how to help girls in

making use of computer opportunities.

 

Jacobson, Frances F.  "Gender Differences in Attitudes toward Using

Computers in Libraries: An Exploratory Study."  LIBRARY AND INFORMATION

SCIENCE RESEARCH v.13, no.3 (July-September 1991): 267-279.

    Looks at the relationship between library anxiety and computer

anxiety.  

 

Jennings, Mary and Robyn Smits.  TEACHING COMPUTING TO WOMEN: A

RESOURCE PACK.  Cambridge: National Extension College, 1986.  87p.

bibl. ill.

    Geared to women who believe they know little about computers, with

reproducible materials, a feminist perspective, and information on

Third World women's participation in electronics manufacturing, health

and safety concerns, and the effects of computers on employment.

 

Jones, Trudi and Valerie A. Clarke.  "Diversity as a Determinant of

Attitudes: A Possible Explanation of the Apparent Advantage of Single-

Sex Settings."  JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL COMPUTING RESEARCH v.12, no.1

(1995): 51-64.  

 

Kay, J., et al.  "Not Even Well Begun: Women in Computing Courses." 

HIGHER EDUCATION v.18, no.5 (1989): 511-527. 

    Based on a 1985 Australian study, this review finds that overemphasis

on the technology of computers and on mathematics feeds into gender

stereotypes that eliminate many women from beginning computer courses,

though women's performance equals or exceeds men's by the final year of

the program.  



* Kay, Robin H.  "An Analysis of Methods Used to Examine Gender

Differences in Computer-related Behavior."  JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL

COMPUTING RESEARCH v.8, no.3 (1992): 277-290. 

    Reviews the literature on gender differences in computing and finds

conflicting results, largely, the author concludes, due to sloppy

methodology, including faulty sample selection, scale development, and

analysis.  Five suggested guides for better research are presented. 

See also: "A Critical Evaluation of Gender Differences in Computer-

related Behavior" in COMPUTERS IN THE SCHOOLS v.9, no.4 (1993): 81-93.

 

* Kay, Robin H.  "An Examination of Gender Differences in Computer

Attitudes, Aptitude, and Use."  April 1992.  28p. Paper presented at

the Annual Conference of the American Educational Research Association

(San Francisco, CA, April 20-24, 1992).  Available from ERIC: ED346848.

    Critiques the confusing array of studies of gender differences in

computer-related behaviors, suggesting that results depend on attitudes

assessed, skills being measured, use of the computer, and age group. 

See also: "Understanding Gender Differences in Computer Attitudes,

Aptitude, and Use: An Invitation to Build Theory" in JOURNAL OF

RESEARCH ON COMPUTING IN EDUCATION v.25 (Winter 1992): 159-171.

 

Kay, Robin H.  "Gender Differences in Computer Attitudes, Literacy,

Locus of Control and Commitment."  JOURNAL OF RESEARCH ON COMPUTING IN

EDUCATION v.21 (Spring 1989): 307-316.

 

Kiesler, Sara, et al.  "Pool Halls, Chips, and War Games: Women in the

Culture of Computing."  PSYCHOLOGY OF WOMEN QUARTERLY, v.9, no.4

(1985): 451-462. 

    Noting that "the world of computing seems to be more consistent with

male adolescent culture than with feminist values and goals," the

authors conclude th at games and software need to be designed

differently in order to reach girls. Better teacher training programs

are also suggested.

 

Kim, Young Hoi.  A LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF THE INTERACTION BETWEEN

GENDER, COMPUTER ANXIETY, MATH ANXIETY, AND TEST ANXIETY IN A

COLLEGE-LEVEL COMPUTERIZED TESTING SITUATION.  Lubbock, TX: Ed.d.

dissertation, Texas Tech University, 1992.  





Kirk, David.  "Gender Issues in Information Technology as Found in

Schools: Authentic/Synthetic/Fantastic?"  EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY v.32,

no.4 (April 1992): 28-31.  



Kirkup, Gill.  "Considering the Effect on Women Students of an

Increased Use of Microcomputers in Distance Education."  Walton,

Bletchley, Buck, England: Open University, Institute of Educational

Technology, 1988.  CITE Report No. 28.  13p. Paper presented at the

International Council for Distance Education World Conference (Oslo,

Norway, August 9-16, 1988).  Available from ERIC: ED327180.

    Questions the impact of a requirement for home computer use among

female Open University students who have less access to computers and

are less likely to register for courses requiring computer use.

 

Kirkup, Gill.  "Sowing Seeds: Initiatives for Improving the

Representation of Women."  TOWARDS NEW HORIZONS FOR WOMEN IN DISTANCE

EDUCATION, ed. K. Faith, pp.287-312.  New York: Routledge, 1988.

 

Klein, Reva.  "Canterbury at the Cutting Edge."  THE TIMES EDUCATIONAL

SUPPLEMENT v.4056 (March 25, 1994), Update: 24-25.  

 

Koch, Melissa.  "No Girls Allowed!"  TECHNOS v.3, no.3 (Fall 1994):

14-19.  

 

Koch, Melissa.  "Opening Up Technology to Both Genders."  EDUCATION

DIGEST v.60 no.3 (November 1994): 18-22  

 

Kramer, Pamela E. and Sheila Lehman.  "Mismeasuring Women: A Critique

of Research on Computer Ability and Avoidance."  SIGNS v.16, no.1 (Fall

1990): 158-172.

    Suggests that measurement of computer learning needs to be redefined

away from mathematics-related criteria toward more sociocultural

contexts of computing.

 

Krendl, Kathy, et al.  "Children and Computers: Do Sex-Related

Differences Persist?"  JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION v.39, no.3 (Summer

1989): 85-93. 

    A three-year longitudinal study concludes that gender differences

persist in measures of both interest in computers and confidence in

computer skills eve n after experience over time.

 

Lage, Elizabeth.  "Boys, Girls, and Microcomputing."  EUROPEAN JOURNAL

OF MICROCOMPUTING v.6, no.1 (March 1991): 29-44. 

    This study found younger students more accepting of technical fields

for both sexes; older students were more negative about technical

fields for girls.  

 

Leach, Juliette D. and Shirley L. Roberts.  "A Soft Technology:

Recruiting and Retaining Women and Minorities in High Tech Programs." 

COMMUNITY, TECHNICAL, AND JUNIOR COLLEGE JOURNAL v.59 (Oct./Nov. 1988):

34-37.

 

Lewis, Linda H.  "Females and Computers: Fostering Involvement." 

WOMEN, WORK, AND TECHNOLOGY: TRANSFORMATIONS, ed. Barbara Drygulski

Wright et al., pp.268-280.  Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press,

1987. 

    Examines factors that make for inequities in use of computers by

girls and women: media portrayals of computer users, peer approval and

support, parental encouragement, female mentors, types of software,

attention to cognitive learning styles, etc.



Liu, Min, et al.  "Teacher Education Students and Computers: Gender,

Major, Prior Computer Experience, Occurrence, and Anxiety."  JOURNAL OF

RESEARCH ON COMPUTING IN EDUCATION v.24 (Summer 1992): 457-467.

 

Lockheed, Marlaine E.  SEX ROLES v.13, nos.3-4 (August 1985): special

issue: "Women, Girls, and Computers."

    Articles on education-related topics (see "General" section for other

articles) include: "Cognitive Engagement Variations Among Students of

Different Ability Level and Sex in a Computer Problem Solving Game"

(Ellen B. Mandinach and Lyn Corno); "Computers and Girls: Rethinking

the Issues" (Jan Hawkins); "Fostering Equitable Consequences from

Computer Learning Environments" (Marcia C. Linn); "Gender and

Computers: Two Surveys of Computer-Related Attitudes" (Gita Wilder et

al.); "Gender Differences in Enrollment in Computer Camps and

Classrooms" (Robert D. Hess and Irene T. Miura); "Men and Women as

Computer-Using Teachers" (Henry J. Becker); "Sex Differences on the

California Statewide Assessment of Computer Literacy" (Mark Fetler);

and "Teachers as Role Models: Are There Gender Differences in

Microcomputer-Based Mathematics and Science Instruction?" (Cathleen

Stasz et al.).

 

* Lockheed, Marlaine.  "Sex and Ethnic Differences in Middle School

Mathematics, Science and Computer Science; What Do We Know?" 

Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service, 1985.  194p. bibl. 

Available from ERIC: ED303353. 

    A review of some 400 studies on participation by female and minority

students in mathematics andscience.html, finding that grades four through

eight are critical years.

 

Lovegrove, Gillian and Barbara Segal, eds.  WOMEN INTO COMPUTING:

SELECTED PAPERS 1988-1990.  London: Springer-Verlag with the British

Computer Society, 1991. 

    Papers from the 1990 conference, Women Into Computing, centering

mostly on how to get girls into working with computers at school.

 

Loyd, Brenda, et al.  "Gender and Computer Experience as Factors in the

Computer Attitudes of Middle School Students."  JOURNAL OF EARLY

ADOLESCENCE v.7, no.1 (Spring 1987): 13-19.  

Makrakis, Vasilios.  "Cross-Cultural Comparison of Gender Differences

in Attitude towards Computers in Japan and Sweden."  SCANDINAVIAN

JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH v.36, no.4 (1992): 275-287.  

 

Makrakis, Vasilios.  "Gender and Computing in Schools in Japan: The `We

Can, I Can't' Paradox."  COMPUTERS AND EDUCATION v.20 (March 1993):

191-198.

 

Martin, C. Dianne and Eric Murchie-Beyma, eds.  "In Search of Gender

Free Paradigms for Computer Science Education." [Proceedings of a

Preconference Research Workshop at the National Educational Computing

Conference (Nashville, Tennessee, June 24, 1990).]  International

Society for Technology in Education, Eugene, OR.  1992.  160p.

Available from ERIC: ED349941. 

    Includes nine papers delivered at the preconference workshop and one

previously unpublished paper: "Report on the Workshop: In Search of

Gender Free Paradigms for Computer Science Education" (C. Dianne

Martin); "Understanding Gender Biases in Computer-related Behavior: Are

We Using the Wrong Metaphor?" (Robin Kay); "Gender Differences in Human

Computer Interaction" (Charles W. Huff et al.); "Gender and Attitude

Toward Computers" (James R. Aman); "Female Students' Underachievement

in Computer Science and Mathematics: Reasons and Recommendations"

(Lesley S. Klein); "Implications of the Computer Culture for Women of

Color" (Carol Edwards); "Strategies for Involving Girls in Computer

Science" (Valerie Clark); "A New Introduction to Computer Science"

(Danielle R. Bernstein); "Restructuring Departments for Equality"

(Henry Etzkowitz et al.); "Gender Equity: A Partial List of Resources"

(Cincy Meyer Hancher).  See also C. Dianne Martin's "In Search of

Gender-Free Paradigms for Computer Science Education in COMPUTER

SCIENCE EDUCATION v.5, no.3 (Spring 1991): 10-15.

 

* Maurer, Matthew M.  "Computer Anxiety Correlates and What They Tell

Us: A Literature Review."  COMPUTERS IN HUMAN BEHAVIOR v.10, no.3 (Fall

1994): 369-376.  

 

McGrath, Diane, et al.  "Sex Differences in Computer Attitudes and

Beliefs Among Rural Middle School Children after a Teacher Training

Intervention."  JOURNAL OF RESEARCH ON COMPUTING IN EDUCATION v.24

(Summer 1992): 468-485.



Miller, Fayneese S. and Narendra Varma.  "The Effects of Psychosocial

Factors on Indian Children's Attitudes Toward Computers."  JOURNAL OF

EDUCATIONAL COMPUTING RESEARCH v.10, no.3 (1994): 223-238. 

    Discusses gender differences among junior high school-age children

in India.

 

Miura, Irene T.  "The Relationship of Computer Self-Efficacy

Expectations to Computer Interest and Course Enrollment in College." 

SEX ROLES v.16, no.5/6 (1987): 303-311.  

 

Mol, Anne-Lieke.  "Experimenting with Home Language Instruction for

Moroccan Women via Interactive Cable."  MEDIA DEVELOPMENT v.38, no.2

(1991): 28-29.

    Analysis of this small experiment in interactive instruction

concludes that failure was largely due to greater concern for

technological ends than the needs and gender of the users.

 

* Moore, Barbara G.  "Equity in Education: Gender Issues in the Use of

Computers: A Review and Bibliography."  REVIEW AND EVALUATION BULLETINS

v.6, no.1 (1986).  73p. bibl. 

    Reviews research on computer use at elementary and secondary levels

and suggests interventions.

 

* Morse, Frances K. and Colette Daiute.  "I LIKE Computers versus I

LIKERT Computers: Rethinking Methods for Assessing the Gender Gap in

Computing."  April 1992.  37p.  Paper presented at the Annual

Conference of the American Educational Research Association (San

Francisco, CA, April 20-24, 1992). Available from ERIC: ED349939.

    Reviews previous studies on gender differences in attitudes and

behavior regarding computers, describes a study that challenges Likert

scaling on computer attitude surveys as unfair to women, and suggests

more research on computing activity not related to mathematics or

programming.

 

Moses, Louise E.  "Our Computer Science Classrooms: Are They `Friendly'

to Female Students?"  SIGCSE BULLETIN v.25, no.3 (1993): 3-12.  Also

available at: URL: http://www.muc.edu/cwis/person/moses/comments/pap

er.html



Munger, Gail F. and Brenda H. Loyd.  "Gender and Attitudes Toward

Computers and Calculators: Their Relationship to Math Performance." 

JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL COMPUTING RESEARCH v.5, no.2 (1989): 167-177.  

 

* Nelson, Carole S. and J. Allen Watson.  "The Computer Gender Gap:

Children's Attitudes, Performance, and Socialization."  JOURNAL OF

EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY SYSTEMS v.19, no.4 (1990-91): 345-353. 

    This review of research studies on gender differences in computer-

based education from preschool through high school pulls out 18 factors

that significantly affect development of the discrepancy.  Attitude,

family, software, and educational environment are some broad areas

affecting student use of computers.

 

Neuman, Delia.  "Beyond the Chip: A Model for Fostering Equity." 

SCHOOL LIBRARY MEDIA QUARTERLY v.18, no.3 (Spring 1990): 158-164.  

 

* Neuman, Delia.  "Technology and Equity: ERIC Digest."  Syracuse, NY:

ERIC Clearinghouse On Information Resources,  1991.  4p. Available at

URL:gopher://ericir.syr.edu:70/11/Digests (search for "technology and

equity").

    Review of some of the literature on computer equity.

 

O'Hare, Sharon L. and Arnold S. Kahn.  "A Computer Bulletin Board in

Women's Studies Courses."  TRANSFORMATIONS: THE NEW JERSEY PROJECT

JOURNAL v.5 (1994): 64-73.  Also availableonline.html.  URL:

http://www.inform.umd.edu:8080/EdRes/Topic/WomensStudies/

Computing/Articles+ResearchPapers/email+womensstudies

    Examines the postings on a computer bulletin board set up for an

introductory women's studies evening class team-taught in 1992.

 

Okebukola, Peter Akinsola.  "The Gender Factor in Computer Anxiety and

Interest Among Some Australian High School Students."  EDUCATIONAL

RESEARCH v.35 (Summer 1993): 181-189.



O'Rourke, J.  "Mentor Project Targets Female Undergrads."  COMPUTING

RESEARCH NEWS v.5, no.4 (September 1993): 3-5.  

 

Pope-Davis, Donald B. and Walter P. Vispoel.  "How Instruction

Influences Attitudes of College Men and Women Towards Computers." 

COMPUTERS IN HUMAN BEHAVIOR v.9, no.1 (Spring 1993): 83-93. 

    Replicates earlier findings indicating instruction can improve

attitudes toward computers, but fails to account for self-selection of

the group receiving training.

 

Pozzi, Stefano, et al.  "Learning and Interaction in Groups With

Computers: When Do Ability and Gender Matter?"  SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT v.2,

no.3 (1993): 222-241.

 

Rauner, Felix for the European Centre for the Development of Vocational

Training.  WOMEN STUDY MICROCOMPUTER TECHNOLOGY: A REPORT ABOUT

INITIAL SURVEY FINDINGS CONCERNING INFORMATION

TECHNOLOGY/MICROCOMPUTER PROJECTS FOR WOMEN IN EC COUNTRIES. 

Berlin: The Centre, 1985. Bundesallee 22, D-1000, Berlin, Germany  74p. ill. 

    Includes brief descriptions of 15 projects for training adult women

in European countries in technical and/or applications aspects of

microcomputers; a preliminary study based on newly begun projects.



Reece, Carol C.  "Boys, Girls, and a Scarcity of Microcomputers: `They

Get On It Before We Can Get To It.'"  1987.  Paper presented at the

Annual Meeting of the Mid-South Educational Research Association

(Mobile, AL, November 13, 1987).  12p.  Available from ERIC: ED291356.

    This survey of 212 fourth through sixth graders looked at perceptions

of students, preference at working alone or with others, girls' access

to computers at home, and parents' use of computers.

 

Reinen, Ingeborg Janssen, and Tj Plomp.  "Some Gender Issues in

Educational Computer Use: Results of an International Comparative

Survey."  COMPUTERS & EDUCATION v.20 (January 1993): 353-365.  

 

Sacks, Colin H., et al.  "Attitudes Toward Computers and Computer Use:

The Issue of Gender."  JOURNAL OF RESEARCH ON COMPUTING IN EDUCATION

v.26, no.2 (1994): 256-269.

 

Sanders, Ian and Vashti Galpin.  "A Survey of Attitudes to Computing at

the University of Witwatersrand."  WOMEN, WORK, AND COMPUTERIZATION:

BREAKING OLD BOUNDARIES, BUILDING NEW FORMS, ed. Alison Adam et al.,

pp.209-223.  Amsterdam; New York: Elsevier, 1994. 

    "Attitudinal survey, among first yearscience.html students at a South

African university" (p.209).

 

Sanders, Jo Shuchat and Antonia Stone.  THE NEUTER COMPUTER: COMPUTERS

FOR GIRLS AND BOYS.  New York: Neal-Schuman, 1986.  279p. 

    Based on a 27-month computer equity project in public schools across

the country, this work suggests causes and results of sexism in

computer training and offers guidelines and activities for addressing

the inequities.  

 

Sanders, Jo Shuchat and Mary McGinnis.  COMPUTER EQUITY IN MATH AND

SCIENCE: A TRAINER'S WORKSHOP GUIDE.  New York: Women's Action

Alliance; Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1991.  134p. bibl. 

    See also: COUNTING ON COMPUTER EQUITY: A QUICK AND EASY GUIDE FOR

FINDING OUT IF YOUR SCHOOL HAS A COMPUTER GENDER GAP by the same

authors (New York: Scarecrow Press, 1991), 14p.

 

Sanders, Jo Shuchat.  "Closing the Computer Gap."  EXECUTIVE EDUCATOR

v.15 (September 1993): 32-33.   



Sanders, Jo Shuchat.  "Computer Equity for Girls."  SEX EQUITY IN

EDUCATION: READINGS AND STRATEGIES, ed. Anne O'Brien Carelli,

pp.157-173.  Springfield, IL: C.C. Thomas, 1988.

 

Sanders, Jo Shuchat.  "Girls and Technology: Villain Wanted."  TEACHING

THE MAJORITY: BREAKING THE GENDER BARRIER IN SCIENCE, MATHEMATICS,

AND ENGINEERING, ed. Sue V. Rosser, pp.147-159.  New York: Teachers College

Press, 1995. 

    Sanders suggests that while no single factor is likely responsible

for girls' underrepresentation in work with computers, the combination

of factors over a period of years has a significant effect.



Schaefer, Lyn and Joan E. Sprigle.  "Gender Differences in the Use of

the Logo Programming Language."  JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL COMPUTING

RESEARCH v.4, no.1 (1988): 49-55.  



Schulz-Zander, R.  "Concepts and Strategies Concerning Information

Technology Education for Girls and Young Women."  COMPUTERS IN

EDUCATION, ed. A. McDougall and C. Dowling, pp.195-200.  North Holland,

MI: Elsevier, 1990.  

 

Shashaani, Lily.  "Gender-based Differences in Attitudes Toward

Computers."  COMPUTERS & EDUCATION v.20 (March 1993): 169-181.  

 

Shashaani, Lily.  "Socioeconomic Status, Parents' Sex-Role Stereotypes,

and the Gender Gap in Computing."  JOURNAL OF RESEARCH ON COMPUTING IN

EDUCATION v.26 (Summer 1994): 433-451.

 

Siann, Gerda, et al.  "The Effect of Computer Use on Gender Differences

in Attitudes to Computers."  COMPUTERS AND EDUCATION v.14, no.2 (1990):

183-191.

    Examines a study of a logo programming exercise with primary school

children in Scotland.

 

Siann, Gerda, et al.  "Stereotyping in Relation to the Gender Gap in

Participation in Computing."  EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH v.30, no.2 (June

1988): 98-103.

 

Smith, Dorothy E. and Linda Harasim.  "Making Connections, Thinking

Change Together: Women Teachers and Computer Networks."  FEMINISM AND

EDUCATION: A CANADIAN PERSPECTIVE, v.2, ed. Paula Bourne et al. 

Toronto: Centre for Women's Studies in Education, Ontario Institute for

Studies in Education, 1994.

 

Stepulevage, Linda, et al.  "Women-Only Computing in Higher Education." 

WOMEN, WORK, AND COMPUTERIZATION: BREAKING OLD BOUNDARIES,

BUILDING NEW FORMS, ed. Alison Adam et al., pp.277-291.  Amsterdam; New York:

Elsevier, 1994. 

    Examines a "women-only hands-on IT unit" that explored the "gendered

nature of office technology," received as not necessarily beneficial by

students, depending on their previous work and computer experience.



Stitt, Beverly A.  "Computers."  GENDER EQUITY IN EDUCATION: AN

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY, pp.26-29.  Carbondale, IL: Southern

Illinois University Press, 1994.

     Lists some articles and books, plus software for girls.  (Mostly

older resources.)

 

Strang, Wilma.  "Wider Opportunities for Women: Emancipatory CAL as the

Integrating Factor in a Course Provided for Women Returners." 

COMPUTERS & EDUCATION v.15, nos.1-3 (1990): 21-26.  

 

* Sutton, Rosemary E.  "Equity and Computers in the Schools: A Decade

of Research."  REVIEW OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH v.61, no.4 (Winter 1992):

475-503. 

    Looks at research factors such as gender, social class, access to

computers, teacher attitudes, curriculum, student interactions and

attitudes, concluding that existing inequities are maintained and

strengthened by the presence of computers in K-12 and that research is

particularly needed on minority and poor children.



Teh, George P.L. and Barry J. Fraser.  "Gender Differences in

Achievement and Attitudes Among Students Using Computer-assisted

Instruction."  INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INSTRUCTIONAL MEDIA v.22, no.2

(1995): 111-120.  

 

Thurston, Linda P.  "Girls, Computers, and Amber Waves of Grain:

Computer Equity Programming for Rural Teachers."  1990.  18p.  Paper

presented at the Annual Conference of the National Women's Studies

Association (Towson, MD, June 14-18, 1989).  Available from ERIC:

ED319660.

 

Underwood, Geoffrey, et al.  "Gender Differences and Effects of Co-

operation in a Computer-based Language Task."  EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH

v.36, no.1 (Spring 1994): 63-74.  

 

Vernon-Gerstenfeld, Susan.  "Serendipity? Are There Gender Differences

in the Adoption of Computers? A Case Study."  SEX ROLES v.21, no.3-4

(August 1989): 161-173.

 

Wei, Chin-lung.  "Instructional Use of Computers in Boys', Girls' and

Coeducational Senior High Schools in Taiwan, the Republic of China." 

JOURNAL OF COMPUTER-BASED INSTRUCTION v.20 (Winter 1993): 15-20.  

 

Weinberg, Sandy.  "Expanding Access to Technology: Computer Equity for

Women."  WOMEN, WORK, AND TECHNOLOGY: TRANSFORMATIONS, ed. Barbara

Drygulski Wright et al., pp.281-290.  Ann Arbor: University of Michigan

Press, 1987. 

    Describes an experiential program at a Philadelphia university that

puts students into automation consulting teams for local human services

organizations.

 

Wiburg, Karin.  "Gender Issues, Personal Characteristics, and

Computing."  COMPUTING TEACHER v.22 (December 1994/January 1995): 7-10. 

 

Wienre, Richard G.  "The Impact of Gender, Computer Experience,

Mathematics Achievement, and Grade Level Upon Computer Attitudes Among

High School Students."  New Brunswick, NY: Ed.D. dissertation, Rutgers

State University of New Jersey, 1992.  95p.

 

Williams, Sue Winkle, et al.  "Gender Roles, Computer Attitudes, and

Dyadic Computer Interaction in College Students."  SEX ROLES: v.29,

no.7 (October 1993): 515-525. 

    Researchers looked at sex of experimenter, sex of dyads in

experiment, sex typing, and past computer experience as related to

performance of a particular computer task.

 

Wilson, Davie, et al.  "Cognitive Effects of LOGO and Computer-aided

Instruction Among Black and White Zimbabwean Primary School Girls." 

JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY v.131, no.1 (February 1991): 107-116.  

 

Wu, Yi-Kuo and Michael J. Morgan.  "Computer Use, Computer Attitudes,

and Gender: Differential Implications of Micro and Mainframe Usage

Among College Students."  JOURNAL OF RESEARCH ON COMPUTING IN EDUCATION

v.22 (Winter 1989): 214-228.

 

Yelland, Nicola J.  "A Case Study of Six Children Learning With Logo." 

GENDER AND EDUCATION 6, no.1 (1994): 19-33. 

    A case study of three pairs of six-year-old children working with

computer tasks: girl/girl, girl/boy, and boy/boy pairs.


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