Introduction and General Section


INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND WOMEN'S LIVES: 

A BIBLIOGRAPHY





February, 1996

Compiled by Linda Shult

for 

Office of the Women's Studies Librarian

University of Wisconsin System

430 Memorial Library

728 State St.

Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA

Email: the Women's Studies Librarian





CONTENTS





Introduction



General resources



Computerscience.html



Education



Employment



             Manufacturing



             Office work



Health issues



Online usage



Electronic resources







INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND WOMEN'S LIVES: 

AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY





INTRODUCTION



    The first bibliography our office compiled on "Women and Information

Technology" (1984) was a mere nine pages, even with somewhat lengthy

annotations.  Getting a handle on current research and information on

the topic is another matter, and I have attempted to be fairly

comprehensive only on feminist perspectives on information technology. 

More than 750 listings are divided into groupings that in some cases

overlap, but that help organize the material into larger concepts

related to the topic.  Women's part in the manufacturing end of

information technology, for instance, I view as a crucial piece of the

whole picture.  Women's labor has been exploited here as well as in the

"labor-saving" introduction of computer technology into the office.  A

section titled "Online" includes resources about women's use of the

Internet andonline.html services, whereas I've separated actual items

available electronically into their own grouping, and in some cases

list various ways of accessing that material, including print versions.



    The bibliography is necessarily selective.  For the most part I have

not included articles of one or two pages, particularly in popular

magazines, as these seem seldom very substantive.  Brief articles about

particular topics, however, such as health, are sometimes included

either because there is not that much available on the subject, or the

article offers a unique perspective.  Many items with dates before 1983

are also excluded.  The definition of information technology itself is

somewhat slippery, and I've generally limited items to technology

having to do with production of "word-type" information, but such

information-handling items as price scanners, manufacturing robots, and

the like have clearly also had an impact on women's work.  Chapters in

important books are often cited as well as the books themselves.  Many

works that offer broader perspectives on women's relationship to

science and technology are not generally included, largely because they

are available through other excellent bibliographies, such as our

office's HISTORY OF WOMEN AND SCIENCE, HEALTH, AND TECHNOLOGY by

Phyllis Holman Weisbard and Rima Apple (2nd ed. 1993) or WOMEN AND

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY: AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY by the WITS

(Women,

Information Technology, and Scholarship) Colloquium at the University

of Illinois Urbana-Champaign (see "Electronic Resources" section).



    I viewed some items enough to supply a brief clarifying annotation;

others I was either unable to actually examine or lacked time to

retrieve and annotate.  Most citations have been located or verified

using a number of indexing services, such as CARL UnCover, Wilson

indexes in education, generalscience.html, and the like, FEMINIST

PERIODICALS: A CURRENT LISTING OF CONTENTS, WOMEN STUDIES ABSTRACTS,

ERIC* resources, OCLC, and our campus and other availableonline.html

university catalogs.  Dissertations appear occasionally in instances

where the authors have not yet published the material elsewhere.



    Because this bibliography is availableonline.html (see the URL:

http://www.library.wisc.edu/libraries/WomensStudies/), we will

periodically update the computerized version.  A revised edition of the

print version may appear at some point as well, but there are no dates

targeted for such a revision.  Suggestions for additions to the

bibliography are always welcome.



Linda Shult

Office of the University of Wisconsin System Women's Studies Librarian

February 1996







* ERIC is a federally funded national information system on education. 

ERIC documents are deposited on paper or microfiche in many university

libraries throughout the United States.  They may also be purchased

from the ERIC Documentation and Reproduction Service (EDRS) at 800-443-

ERIC.  (For further information about ERIC or to search the ERIC

database and other components, open the URL:

http://ericsyr.sunsite.edu).





GENERAL RESOURCES



    Titles appear in this section either because they cross the

territories covered by other parts of the bibliography, don't fit into

one of the larger categories, or are, in fact, more general

explorations of women's use of information technology. 





Adam, Alison E.  "Gendered Knowledge: Epistemology and Artificial

Intelligence."  AI & SOCIETY v.7 (1993): 311-322.

 

Adam, Alison.  "Embodying Knowledge: A Feminist Critique of Artificial

Intelligence."  EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF WOMEN'S STUDIES v.2, no.3 (August

1995): 355-377.



Alloo, Fatma.  "Using Information Technology As a Mobilizing Force: The

Case of the Tanzania Media Women's Association (TAMWA)."  WOMEN

ENCOUNTER TECHNOLOGY: CHANGING PATTERNS OF EMPLOYMENT IN THE

THIRD

WORLD, ed. Swasti Mitter and Sheila Rowbotham, pp.303-313.  New York:

Routledge in association with United Nations University Press, 1995.

 

Badagliacco, Joanne M.  "Gender and Race Differences in Computing

Attitudes and Experience."  SOCIAL SCIENCE COMPUTER REVIEW v.8, no.1

(1990): 42-63.

 

Balsamo, Anne.  "Feminism for the Incurably Informed."  FLAME WARS: THE

DISCOURSE OF CYBERCULTURE, ed. Mark Dery, pp.125-156.  Durham, NC: Duke

University Press, 1994.



Balsamo, Anne.  TECHNOLOGIES OF THE GENDERED BODY: READING CYBORG

WOMEN.  Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1996.  219p. bibl. index.

 

Benavides, Marta.  "Excerpt from `Reflections, Perspectives and

Challenges for the South on Computer Technology and Human Services in

the 1990's: A Feminist Position.'"  COMPUTERS IN HUMAN SERVICES v.9,

nos.1-2 (1993): 9-15.



Benston, Margaret Lowe and Elaine Bernard.  "Feminist Perspectives on

the Design of Computer Communications Networks: An Alternative Design

Strategy."  INFORMATION SYSTEM, WORK AND ORGANIZATION DESIGN, ed.

Clement van den Besselaar and Jarvinen van den Besselaar, pp.283-294. 

Amsterdam: North Holland, 1991. 



Benston, Margaret Lowe.  "The Myth of Computer Literacy."  CANADIAN

WOMAN STUDIES v.5, no.4 (Summer 1984): 20-22. 

    Discusses issues of control in relation to computer technology.



Brecher, Deborah L.  THE WOMEN'S COMPUTER LITERACY HANDBOOK.  New York:

New American Library/Plume, 1985.  254p. 

    One of the first de-mystifying books on computers, geared

specifically to women.



Bruce, Margaret and Gill Kirkup.  "An Analysis of Women's Roles Under

the Impact of New Technology in the Home and Office."  COMPUTERS AND

DEMOCRACY: A SCANDINAVIAN CHALLENGE, ed. Gro Bjerkness et al.,

pp.343-362.  Brookfield, VT: Gower Publishing, 1987.

    The authors argue that "the applications of new technology to the

domestic and office environment will not significantly change the

sexual division of labour (p.345)," as the direction of technological

change is based on social ideology, expressed as masculine control.



Butterworth, Dianne.  "Wanking in Cyberspace."  TROUBLE & STRIFE no.27

[1993]: 33-37.

    Butterworth suggests that the current readily availableonline.html

pornography (via computer bulletin boards and major publishers such as

PENTHOUSE) will likely evolve into further exploitation of women

through virtual reality-type interactions and similar technological

advances.

 

Caputi, Jane.  "Seeing Elephants: The Myths of Phallotechnology." 

FEMINIST STUDIES v.14, no.3 (Fall 1988): 487-524. 

    Caputi's analysis of male-oriented high technology and its promotion

of the conquering of women and Earth looks at the appropriation of

life-centered symbols such as elephants, stars, apples, and the Earth

itself for advertising,science.html fiction, and business.

 

Clark, B., et al.  "Gender Gap in the Use of Library Technologies:

Evidence, Implications and Intervention."  BUILDING ON THE FIRST

CENTURY: PROCEEDINGS OF THE FIFTH NATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE

ASSOCIATION OF COLLEGE AND RESEARCH LIBRARIES, ed. Janice Fennell,

pp.116-118.  Cincinnati, OH: 1989.



Cockburn, Cynthia and Susan Ormrod.  GENDER AND TECHNOLOGY IN THE

MAKING.  Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1993.  185p. bibl. index. 

    Though it centers on microwave ovens, this work is "centrally about

the `technology/gender relation.'"  Moving through the design,

manufacturing, retail, and domestic use stages, the authors examine the

role of gender in shaping technological outcomes as well as

technology's impact on gender relations. The "new technology" of

computers could easily be the topic of study. 



Damarin, Suzanne K.  "Technologies of the Individual: Women and

Subjectivity in the Age of Information."  TECHNOLOGY AND FEMINISM, ed.

Joan Rothschild and Frederick Ferre, pp.183-198.  Greenwich, CT: Jai

Press, 1993.  (Research in philosophy & technology, v.13) 

    Damarin examines computers and artificial intelligence as

technological developments with specific effects on women's place

within a patriarchal society and on women's subjectivity.



Damarin, Suzanne K.  "Where Is Women's Knowledge in the Age of

Information?"  THE KNOWLEDGE EXPLOSION: GENERATIONS OF FEMINIST

SCHOLARSHIP, ed. Cheris Kramarae and Dale Spender, pp.362-370.  New

York: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1993.



Davidson, Marilyn and Cary L. Cooper.  "Women and Information

Technology: An Overview."  WOMEN AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, ed.

Marilyn J. Davidson and Cary L. Cooper, pp.1-9.  New York: John Wiley

& Sons, 1987.



Davidson, Marilyn and Cary L. Cooper.  WOMEN AND INFORMATION

TECHNOLOGY.  New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1987.  283p. bibl. index. 

    Contents: "Information Technology -- Girls and Education: A Cross-

Cultural Review (Geoff Chivers); "Women and Information Technology: A

European Overview" (RoseMarie Greve); "Information Technology and

Working Women in the USA" (Barbara Gutek and Laurie Larwood);

"Microelectronics and Women's Employment" (Felicity Henwood); "The

Influence of Information Technology on Women in Service Industries: A

European Perspective" (Colin G. Armistead); "Women's Work in Insurance

-- Information Technology and the Reproduction of Gendered Segregation"

(David Knights and Andrew Sturdy); "New Office Technology and the

Changing Role of Secretaries" (Stephen M. Bevan); "Visual Display Units

-- Psychosocial Factors in Health" (Raija Kalimo and Anneli Leppanen);

"Women Homeworkers and Information Technology -- The F International

Experience" (Pam Evans); "Women, Office Technology and Equal

Opportunities -- The Role of Trade Unions" (Fiona Wilson); and

"Information Technology and New Training Initiatives for Women" (Ailsa

Swarbrick).



Deakin, Rose.  WOMEN AND COMPUTING: THE GOLDEN OPPORTUNITY.  New York:

St. Martin's/Papermac, 1987?

 

Dement, Linda.  "Screen Bodies."  WOMEN'S ART MAGAZINE no.63

(March/April 1995): 9-11. 

    "Linda Dement talks about the body and computer technology in

contemporary Australian art" (from subtitle).  On a subsequent page are

responses to a "straw poll" of art-related women on "How do you think

that new technology will push forward the boundaries in the visual arts

in the next few years?"



Dholakia, Ruby Roy, et al.  "Putting a Byte in the Gender Gap: Men Use

Home Computers More Than Women Do, But Women May Have Greater

Potential."  AMERICAN DEMOGRAPHICS v.16, no.12 (December 1994): 20+.



Duclayan, Gina.  "Game Girls."  SEVENTEEN v.54 (January 1995): 38-39. 

    On video games and young women.



Eastman, Beva.  "Women, Computers, and Social Change."  COMPUTERS IN

HUMAN SERVICES 8, no.1 (1991): 41-53.

 

Ebben, Maureen and Cheris Kramarae.  "Women and Information

Technologies: Creating a Cyberspace of Our Own."  WOMEN, INFORMATION

TECHNOLOGY, AND SCHOLARSHIP, ed. H. Jeanie Taylor et al., pp.15-27 

Urbana, IL: Women, Information Technology, and Scholarship Colloquium,

Center for Advanced Study, 1993.

    The authors summarize four problematic areas regarding women and new

information technologies: access, training, educational use, and

publishing, then suggest actions (and constant vigilance) to mitigate

the inequities. 



Edwards, Paul N.  "The Army and the Microworld: Computers and the

Politics of Gender Identity."  SIGNS v.16, no.1 (Autumn 1990): 102-127.

    Works with Turkle's concepts of "hard" and "soft" mastery in looking

at the military connection with/use of high technology, noting that the

speed, automation, and gamelike structure of modern warfare erases

somewhat the historical military division between the genders.



Farrell, Sylvia S. and John E. LeCapitaine.  "Computer Assisted and

Non-Computer Assisted Career/Life Planning Workshops for Low Income

Women."  EDUCATION v.112, no.2 (Winter 1991): 312-320.



Flynn, Bernadette.  "Woman/Machine Relationships: Investigating the

Body Within Cyber Culture."  MEDIA INFORMATION AUSTRALIA, no.72 (May

1994): 11-19.



Frissen, Valerie.  "Trapped in Electronic Cages? Gender and New

Information Technologies in the Public and Private Domain: An Overview

of Research."  MEDIA, CULTURE AND SOCIETY v.14, no.1 (January 1992):

31-49. 

    Frissen's overview finds that most research has centered on

information technologies and women in the public domain, with little

work on interactions with women in the domestic sphere.  Much research

concludes that women remain largely excluded from the power that

derives from the design/production of new information and communication

technologies (NICTs) and find limited use for new technologies as

consumers as well.



Fryer, Bronwyn.  "Sex & the Super-highway."  WORKING WOMAN v.19 (April

1994): 51-54, 58-60.

    Part of a special section which also includes: "Feminizing Virtual

Reality: Brenda Laurel (a profile by Francine Hermelin); "Hard-driving

Engineer: Celeste Baranski" (profile by Paulina Borsook); "A Day Behind

the Wheel: A Glimpse of Your Workday, Circa 2004" (Francine Hermelin),

and "Getting Girls On-Line" (Katie Hafner).



Fulton, Margaret A.  "A Research Model for Studying the Gender/Power

Aspects of Human-Computer Communication."  INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF

MAN-MACHINE STUDIES v.23, no.4 (October 1985): 369-382.



Gailey, Christine Ward.  "Mediated Messages: Gender, Class, and Cosmos

in Home Video Games."  JOURNAL OF POPULAR CULTURE v.27 (Summer 1993):

81-97.

 

Gattiker, Urs E.  "Acquiring Computer Literacy: Are Women More

Efficient Than Men?"  STUDIES IN TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION AND HUMAN

RESOURCES, VOL.2: END-USER TRAINING, ed. Urs E. Gattiker, pp.141-179. 

New York: Walter de Gruyter, 1990.



Gerver, Ed.  "Computers and Gender."  COMPUTERS IN THE HUMAN CONTEXT,

ed. Tom Forester, pp.481-501.  Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1989.

 

Greenbaum, Joan.  "The Head and the Heart: Using Gender Analysis to

Study the Social Construction of Computer Systems."  COMPUTERS &

SOCIETY v.20, no.2 (June 1990): 9-17.



Greve, RoseMarie.  "Women and Information Technology: A European

Overview."  WOMEN AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, ed. Marilyn J. Davidson

and Cary L. Cooper, pp.33-69.  New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1987.



Griffiths, Morwena.  "Strong Feelings About Computers."  WOMEN'S

STUDIES INTERNATIONAL FORUM v.11, no.2 (1988): 145-154. 

    "Computers have been appropriated by men" (p.145), states Griffiths,

noting that feminists need to monitor this "gender inflection of

computer technology "(p.152), and not only subvert the phenomenon, but

work toward an alternative vision.

 

Gunter, Karen.  "Women and the Information Revolution: Washed Ashore by

the Third Wave."  WOMEN, WORK, AND COMPUTERIZATION: BREAKING OLD

BOUNDARIES, BUILDING NEW FORMS, ed. Alison Adam et al., pp.439-452. 

Amsterdam; New York: Elsevier, 1994. 

    Comparing the effects of the Industrial Revolution and the

Information Revolution on the lives of women, concludes that "social

and political action is the only way to ensure that women have equality

of opportunity" in the Information Society (abstract, p.439).



Halberstam, Judith.  "Automating Gender: Postmodern Feminism in the Age

of the Intelligent Machine."  FEMINIST STUDIES v.17, no.3 (Fall 1991):

439-459.

    Halberstam examines the symbols of Apple computer's logo and Donna

Haraway's cyborg in arguing that feminists and other cultural critics

must take into account a "plurality of technologies," seeing gender as

an "automated construct" (p.457) or "an electronic text that shifts and

changes in dialogue with users and programs" (p.458).



Hapnes, Tove and Knut H. Sorensen.  "Competition and Collaboration in

Male Shaping of Computing: A Study of a Norwegian Hacker Culture."  THE

GENDER-TECHNOLOGY RELATION: CONTEMPORARY THEORY AND RESEARCH,

ed. Keith Grint and Rosalind Gill, pp.174-191.  Briston, PA: Taylor & Francis,

1995. 



Haraway, Donna.  "A Manifesto for Cyborgs."  FEMINISM/POSTMODERNISM,

ed. Linda Nicholson, pp.190-233.  New York: Routledge, 1990. 

    Haraway sums up her classic essay by noting that the imagery of the

cyborg -- "hybrid of machine and organism, a creature of social reality

as well as a creature of fiction" (p.191) -- helps relate the argument

that "totalizing theory" no longer works and that we must also refuse

"an antiscience.html metaphysics" that demonizes technology.  (See also "A

Cyborg Manifesto: Science, Technology, and Socialist-Feminism in the

Late Twentieth Century" in Haraway's book SIMIANS, CYBORGS, AND WOMEN:

THE REINVENTION OF NATURE [Routledge, 1991].)



Hastings, Maryam.  "Women, Computers and Mathematics: A Case of

Inequality."  WOMEN'S VOICES, ed. Lorna Duphiney Edmundson et al.,

pp.62-66.  Littleton, MA: Copley Publishing, 1987.

 

Hay, Alexandrea.  "Do Computers Separate Men from Women? Thoughts

Provoked by Turkle and Papert."  THE JOURNAL OF MATHEMATICAL BEHAVIOR

v.12, no.2 (June 1993): 205-207. 

    See "Epistemological Pluralism: Styles and Voices Within the Computer

Culture" by Sherry Turkle and Seymour Papert in separate entry.



Hayes, R. Dennis.  "Digital Palsy: RSI and Restructuring Capital." 

RESISTING THE VIRTUAL LIFE: THE CULTURE AND POLITICS OF INFORMATION,

ed. James Brook and Iain A. Boal, pp.173-180.  San Francisco: City

Lights, 1995. 

    A scathing look at the dramatic increase in both computer use and

repetitive stress injury (RSI) contrasted with the slight decrease in

white (and pink?)-collar productivity over the same period.



Heinamaa, Sara.  "Woman's Place in Artificial Intelligence:

Observations on Metaphors of Thought and Knowledge."  WOMEN, WORK AND

COMPUTERIZATION: UNDERSTANDING AND OVERCOMING BIAS IN WORK AND

EDUCATION, ed.Inger V. Eriksson et al., pp.41-52.  New York: Elsevier,

1991. 



Heller, Dorothy and June Bower.  COMPUTER CONFIDENCE: A WOMAN'S GUIDE. 

Washington, DC: Acropolis Books, 1983.  256p. bibl. index. ill.

 

Hildenbrand, Suzanne.  "Women's Studies Online: Promoting Visibility." 

RQ v.26, no.1 (Fall 1986): 63-74. 

    Discusses the possibilities and problems ofonline.html bibliographic

retrieval for women's studies researchers.  Type of indexing, quality

of the databases used, and lack of coverage of women-related topics are

three key problems cited.  Results of a user survey study indicate

significant end-user satisfaction with most searches in the study, and

guidelines are offered for more effective database searching.



Hoath, Maria A.  PERSONAL COMPUTING FOR WOMEN: EVERYTHING YOU

ALWAYS WANTED TO KNOW ABOUT PERSONAL COMPUTERS BUT WERE AFRAID

TO ASK. Write Byte, 1995.  152p.





Jacobs, Karrie.  "Robo Babes. (Why Girls Play Less Video Games Than

Boys)."  I.D. v.41, no.3 (May/June 1994): 38+.

 

Jansen, Sue Curry.  "Gender and the Information Society: A Socially

Structured Silence."  JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION v.39, no.3 (Summer

1989): 196-215. 

    Jansen ponders the "absence of a critical consciousness about gender

in discussions of communications and technology" (p.196), sees old

patterns being replicated, and urges "articulation of new languages,

paradigms, and politics for creating and studying technologies"

(p.198).



Kantrowitz, Barbara.  "Men, Women and Computers."  NEWSWEEK v.123 (May

16, 1994): 48-52+. 

    Compiling figures on the number of computers in U.S. homes, and

noting a gender gap in the ways men and women use computers, this cover

story stirred up some criticism that brought about defense of the

article by one of its reporters.  See also "Hackers 1, Media Elite 0"

by Jon Katz in NEW YORK v.27 (May 30, 1994), pp.16-17.



Kaplan, Sidney and Shirley Kaplan.  "Video Games, Sex and Sex

Differences."  JOURNAL OF POPULAR CULTURE, v.17 (Fall 1983): 61-66.



Keeton, Kathy.  WOMAN OF TOMORROW.  New York: St. Martin's, 1985. 

313p.

    On how new technologies affect women's lives.

 

Kirkup, Gill.  "The Social Construction of Computers: Hammers or

Harpsichords?"  INVENTING WOMEN: SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, AND GENDER, ed.

Gill Kirkup and Laurie Smith Keller, pp.267-281.  Cambridge, MA: Basil

Blackwell, 1992. 

    Traces women's involvement with computer technology and challenges

what the author sees as Turkle's optimistic view about the potential of

computers, noting that most of the world's women will interact with

computers only in the form of machines controlled by microprocessors or

in the manufacturing of component parts.



Kubey, Robert William and Reed Larson.  "The Use and Experience of the

New Video Media Among Children and Young Adolescents."  COMMUNICATION

RESEARCH v.17 (February 1990): 107-130.



Lehman, Sheila.  "I Dreamed I Had a Computer Just Like the Kids: Access

to Computing for the Older Woman."  WOMEN, WORK, AND COMPUTERIZATION:

BREAKING OLD BOUNDARIES, BUILDING NEW FORMS, ed. Alison Adam et al.,

pp.269-276.  Amsterdam; New York: Elsevier, 1994. 

    Offers "preliminary results of an ongoing study of the experiences

of older women (60 and above) with computer learning and use"

(abstract, p.269).  



Leone, Norma Leonardi.  A MOTHER'S GUIDE TO COMPUTERS.  Rochester, NY:

Lion Publishers, 1986.  (P.O. Box 92541, Rochester, NY 14692;

716-385-1269)  102p. 

    A guide to encourage women unfamiliar with computing by suggesting

ways a computer can help manage information.



Lewyn, Mark.  "PC Makers, Palms Sweating, Try Talking to Women." 

BUSINESS WEEK no.3141 (January 15, 1990): 48. 

    An interesting though brief look at marketing of computer products

to women.



Lockheed, Marlaine E., ed.  SEX ROLES v.13, nos.3/4 (August 1985);

special issue: "Women, Girls, and Computers."

    Includes: "Women, Girls, and Computers: A First Look at the Evidence"

(Ma rlaine E. Lockheed); "Differential Experiences of Men and Women in

Computerized Offices" (Barbara A. Gutek and Tora K. Bikson); "Sex-Role

Messages vis-a-vis Mic rocomputer Use: A Look at the Pictures' (Mary

Catherine Ware and Mary Frances St uck).  See "Education" section for

other sites from this special issue. 



Markussen, Randi.  "Constructing Easiness: Historical Perspectives on

Work, Computerization, and Women."  THE CULTURES OF COMPUTING, ed.

Susan Leigh Star.  Cambridge, MA: Blackwell, 1995.



Marshall, Jon C. and Susan Bannon.  "Race and Sex Equity in Computer

Advertising."  JOURNAL OF RESEARCH ON COMPUTING IN EDUCATION v.21, no.1

(Fall 1988): 15-27.

    A survey of three computer magazines finds women and minorities

largely in stereotypical roles in advertising.



McClain, E.  "Do Women Resist Computers?"  POPULAR COMPUTING (January

1983): 66-78.

 

Metselaar, Carolien.  "Gender Issues in the Design of Knowledge Based

Systems."  WOMEN, WORK AND COMPUTERIZATION: UNDERSTANDING AND

OVERCOMING BIAS IN WORK AND EDUCATION, ed. Inger V. Eriksson et al.,

pp.233-246.  New York: Elsevier, 1991.



Michaelson, Greg.  "Women & Men in Computer Cartoons from PUNCH:

1946-1982."  WOMEN, WORK, AND COMPUTERIZATION: BREAKING OLD

BOUNDARIES, BUILDING NEW FORMS, ed. Alison Adam et al., pp.171-184.  Amsterdam;

New York: Elsevier, 1994.



Miles, Ian.  HOME INFORMATICS: INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND THE

TRANSFORMATION OF EVERYDAY LIFE.  New York: Pinter, 1988.  151p. bibl.

index.

    Although there's no specifically gender-related focus, the

discussions of the transformation of the home via information

technologies offers food for thought.

 

Milne, W., et al.  "Computer Games: A Positive Introduction to IT or a

Terminal Turn-off?"  WOMEN, WORK, AND COMPUTERIZATION: BREAKING OLD

BOUNDARIES, BUILDING NEW FORMS, ed. Alison Adam et al., pp.203-207. 

Amsterdam; New York: Elsevier, 1994. 

    Report of a conference plenary on computer games.



Okerson, Ann L.  "Networked Serials, Scholarly Publishing, and

Electronic Resource Sharing in Academic Libraries: A Dilemma of

Ownership."  WOMEN, INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, AND SCHOLARSHIP, ed. H.

Jeanie Taylor et al., pp.44-51.  Urbana, IL: Women, Information

Technology, and Scholarship Colloquium, Center for Advanced Study,

1993.

    Though not focused on feminist publishing, this discussion of the

pitfalls of electronic resources, including issues of copyright and

access, is clearly relevant to materials/information in women's

studies.



Ong, Aihwa.  "Disassembling Gender in the Electronics Age."  FEMINIST

STUDIES v.13 (Fall 1987): 609-626.

 

Perenson, Mellissa J., et al.  "What Do Women Want?: Software for Women

and Girls."  PC MAGAZINE v.13, no.19 (November 8, 1994): 437+. 

    Evaluation of four software programs for women and girls.



Perez-Vitoria, Silvia, ed.  IMPACT OF COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES ON

WOMEN.  Paris, France: Unesco, 1994.  (Reports and papers on mass

communication, no.108)  48p. bibl.

    Centers more on "older" technologies such as telephone, television,

but regional studies are of interest.



Potter, Rosanne G.  "Empirical Literary Research on Women and Readers." 

COMPUTERS AND THE HUMANITIES v.28, no.6 (1994/1995): 375-381.

 

Pritchard, Sarah M.  "Women and Computers in Public Libraries."  NWSA

PERSPECTIVES v.5, no.3 (Spring-Summer 1987): 32-34. 

    Pritchard briefly surveysonline.html catalogs, other databases, networks

and bulletin boards, software for borrowing, cable delivery of

information, and other ways women can use the computerized resources in

libraries.



Provenzo, Eugene F., Jr.  "The Portrayal of Women."  VIDEO KIDS: MAKING

SENSE OF NINTENDO, pp.99-117.  Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press,

1991. 

    Some sobering analysis of the gender content of video games.  Other

chapters comment on gender differences in game playing, violence and

aggression in games, etc.



Pryor, Sally.  "Thinking of Oneself as a Computer."  LEONARDO v.24,

no.5 (1991): 585-590. 

    Pryor, a "computer artist/animator/programmer," explores her interest

in "the somewhat disembodied landscape surrounding the human and the

computer,..." an interest resulting from her experience with RPI

(repetitive stress injury). 



Rogerat, Chantal.  "The Case of Elletel."  MEDIA, CULTURE AND SOCIETY

v.14, no.1 (January 1992): 73-88.

    Set up in 1984 as an information and communication service under the

Agence Femmes Information (a French news and information agency since

unfunded), Elletel at one point comprised thirteen bulletin boards on

such topics as health, leisure, legal issues, babysitting, current

events, computing, and "lonely hearts."



Rothschild, Joan.  TEACHING TECHNOLOGY FROM A FEMINIST PERSPECTIVE: A

PRACTICAL GUIDE.  New York: Pergamon Press, 1988. 

    Though not centered on information technology, Rothschild's book

covers a number of relevant issues.  Note particularly Chapter 6,

"Passing the Litmus Test: What is a Feminist Resource on Technology?"

which focuses on the language differences in two computer-centered

books.

 

Rothschild, Joan.  TURING'S MAN, TURING'S WOMAN, OR TURING'S PERSON?

GENDER, LANGUAGE, AND COMPUTERS.  Wellesley, MA: Wellesley College

Center for Research on Women, 1986.  (Working paper no.166)



Schwartz, John.  "The Game Computers Play."  NEWSWEEK v.108 (September

8, 1986): 42-43.

    Notes software manufacturers' recognition of female buying power and

development of computer games to tap that market.



Schwartz, Vanessa R., comp.  "Gender and Technology: Women,

International Development, and High-Technology Production: A Selected

and Annotated Bibliography of Recent Research, 1977-1985."  Princeton,

NJ: Program in Women's Studies, Princeton University, 1985.  (Women's

Studies, 218 Palmer Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544) 

approx. 31p.



SIGNS v.16, no.1 (Autumn 1990); special section: "From Hard Drive to

Software: Gender, Computers, and Difference," guest ed. Ruth Perry. 

    Includes: "Women and Computers: An Introduction" (Ruth Perry and Lisa

Greber); "The Army and the Microworld: Computers and the Politics of

Gender Equity" (Paul N. Edwards); "Epistemological Pluralism: Styles

and Voices within the Computer Culture" (Sherry Turkle and Seymour

Papert); and "Mismeasuring Women: A Critique of Research on Computer

Ability and Avoidance" (Pamela E. Kramer and Sheila Lehman).



Smith, Caroline.  "Chit-Chat in the New World."  WOMEN'S ART MAGAZINE

no.63 (March/April 1995): 14-15. 

    "Caroline Smith interviews women at the forefront of art and

technology" (from subtitle).  Women interviewed are Eva Pascoe, Nicky

West, and Muriel Magenta.



Spender, Dale.  NATTERING ON THE NET: WOMEN, POWER AND MULTIMEDIA. 

North Melbourne, Victoria, Australia: Spinifex, 1995. 

    Basing her argument on the view that in many ways "women were worse

off after the print revolution than before" (p.161), Spender goes on to

detail the history of women in print, concluding that unless women

become involved in creating the new culture of cyberspace, they stand

to lose not only much of their recent intellectual and educational

gains but also much of women's accumulated scholarly progress over the

past 400 years.

 

Springer, Claudia.  "Sex, Memories, and Angry Women."  THE SOUTH

ATLANTIC QUARTERLY v.92 (Fall 1993): 713-733. 

    Discussion of cyberculture and visions of sexuality in fictional

texts about computers.  Also appears in FLAME WARS: THE DISCOURSE OF

CYBERCULTURE, ed. Mark Dery (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1994),

pp.157-177.



Star, Susan Leigh.  "Invisible Work and Silenced Dialogues in Knowledge

Representation."  WOMEN, WORK AND COMPUTERIZATION: UNDERSTANDING AND

OVERCOMING BIAS IN WORK AND EDUCATION, ed. Inger V. Eriksson et al.,

pp.81-92.  New York: Elsevier, 1991.



Tarrant, Louise.  "Women and Information Poverty."  REFRACTORY GIRL

(October 1987): 41-42.

    Looks at information technology in Australia.



Taylor, H. Jeanie, Cheris Kramarae, and Maureen Ebben.  WOMEN,

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, AND SCHOLARSHIP.  Urbana, IL: Women,

Information Technology, and Scholarship Colloquium, Center for Advanced

Study, 1993.  (912 West Illinois St., Urbana, IL 61801)  128p. bibl. 

    Tackling such overarching topics as different learning and

communication styles in dealing with computers, changes being brought

about by electronic scholarship, concepts of privacy and ownership of

ideas, and community connections via computer to help overcome

gender/race/class hierarchies, the essays and discussion summaries from

an ongoing colloquium offer insight into "issues that we believe are

central to decision-making at all universities in the U.S." (p.3). 

Contributors in addition to the editors include Dale Spender, Ann L.

Okerson, Phyllis Hall, Judy Smith, and others.  An annotated

bibliography by Maureen Ebben and Maria Mastronardi occupies about a

third of the book.



Turkle, Sherry and Seymour Papert.  "Epistemological Pluralism: Styles

and Voices Within the Computer Culture."  SIGNS v.16, no.1 (Fall 1994):

128-157.

    Acknowledging "the validity of multiple ways of knowing and thinking,

an epistemological pluralism" (p.129) in how people approach

programming and computer tasks, the authors suggest that feminist

scholarship can promote recognition of this diversity of styles as well

as "our profound human connection with our tools" (p.157).  See also

Alexandrea Hay's reaction, "Do Computers Separate Men from Women?" in

separate entry.



Turkle, Sherry.  "Child Programmers: The First Generation."  THE

CULTURE OF SCIENCE: ESSAYS AND ISSUES FOR WRITERS, ed. John Hatton and

Paul B. Plouffe, pp.584-599.  New York: Macmillan, 1993.

    From Turkle's 1984 book THE SECOND SELF: COMPUTERS AND THE HUMAN

SPIRIT, (Simon and Schuster) this essay explores her understandings of

"hard" and "soft" mastery of the computer, as related primarily to

gender.

 

Turkle, Sherry.  "Computational Reticence: Why Women Fear the Intimate

Machine."  TECHNOLOGY AND WOMEN'S VOICES: KEEPING IN TOUCH, ed. Cheris

Kramarae, pp.41-61.  New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1988.

    Turkle discusses young women's reticence about computers (too

regimented, too removed from relationships), examines "the social

construction of the computer as a male domain" and suggests it can be

viewed instead as an expressive medium.



Turkle, Sherry.  THE SECOND SELF: COMPUTERS AND THE HUMAN SPIRIT.  New

York: Simon & Schuster, 1984.  362p. bibl. index. 

    A classic that questions the impact of the computer on contemporary

culture.



van der Ploeg, Irma and Ineke van Wingerden.  "Celebrating the Cyborg?

On the Fate of a Beautiful Metaphor in Later Users' Hands."  EUROPEAN

JOURNAL OF WOMEN'S STUDIES v.2, no.3 (August 1995): 397-400.



Van Gelder, Lindsy.  "Help for Technophobes."  MS. v.13 (January 1985):

89-91.

 

van Zoonen, Liesbet.  "Feminist Theory and Information Technology." 

MEDIA, CULTURE & SOCIETY v.14, no.1 (January 1992): 9-29. 

    Explores several theoretical perspectives in relation to technology,

including ecofeminism, finding "universalist and essentialist notions

of gender" (p.19) to be problematic.  Urges more specificity regarding

thinking on information technology and gender.

 

Ware, Mary Catherine and Mary Frances Stuck.  "Sex-Role Messages vis-a-

vis Microcomputer Use: A Look at the Pictures."  SEX ROLES v.13, no.1

(1985): 205-214. 

    Examines the representation of both genders, of different ages, in

three mass-market computer magazines over a period of three months.



Workshop: Women and Information Technology (1991: University of

Warwick).  WORKSHOP: WOMEN AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY: UNIVERSITY

OF WARWICK, COVENT RY, UNITED KINGDOM, JULY 17-20, 1991.  [Zoetermeer,

Netherlands?]: European Network for Women's Studies, 1991.  11p.



Zimmerman, Jan, ed.  THE TECHNOLOGICAL WOMAN: INTERFACING WITH

TOMORROW.  New York: Praeger, 1983. 

    A number of chapters center on women and information technology.  See

separate listings for: "Gender and Industry on Mexico's New Frontier"

(Maria Patricia Fernandez Kelly); "For Women, The Chips are Down"

(Margaret Lowe Benston); "Word Processing: `This Is Not a Final Draft'"

(Sally Otos and Ellen Levy); "Women's Work in the Office of the Future"

(Barbara A. Gutek); "Cold Solder On a Hot Stove" (Rebecca Morales);

"EQUALS in Computer Technology" (Nancy Kreinberg and Elizabeth K.

Stage); and "The Next Move: Organizing Women in the Office" (Judith

Gregory).



Zimmerman, Jan.  ONCE UPON THE FUTURE: A WOMAN'S GUIDE TO TOMORROW'S

TECHNOLOGY.  New York: Routledge and Kegan Paul/Pandora, 1986.  230p.

bibl. index. 

    Not restricted to information technology, this probing work

nonetheless questions basic assumptions about new technologies that

"encode old values of inferiority and subordination."
















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