Publications from the Women's Studies Librarian and Her Staff

Overview

More than 750 citations, some annotated, comprise this listing of sources on information technology and women's lives. Entries include books, book chapters, periodical articles, and some dissertations and reports. The text may be retrieved either in its entirety (see: INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY FULL TEXT) or in several parts. The divisions are as follows:

GENERAL: includes the Introduction and the section on General resources.
COMPUTER SCIENCE AND EDUCATION: includes sections on women working or studying in the computerscience.html field as well as computers in K-12 and undergraduate education
EMPLOYMENT AND HEALTH: includes sections on general employment issues as well as sections more specifically on women's manufacturing work on computer components, the impact of computers on office work, and health concerns with both manufacturing and office usage.
ONLINE USAGE/ELECTRONIC RESOURCES: the "Online" section concerns women's use ofonline.html resources, while the "Electronic" section lists actual gopher or World Wide Web sites focusing on women and information technology.

The bibliography was published in both print and online versions by the Women's Studies Librarian for the University of Wisconsin System, 430 Memorial Library, 728 State St., Madison, Wisconsin, USA. Our Web site is located at: http://womenst.library.wisc.edu.

The first bibliography our office compiled on "Women and Information Technology" (1984) was a mere nine pages, even with somewhat lengthy annotations. Getting a handle on current research and information on the topic is another matter, and I have attempted to be fairly comprehensive only on feminist perspectives on information technology. More than 750 listings are divided into groupings that in some cases overlap, but that help organize the material into larger concepts related to the topic. Women's part in the manufacturing end of information technology, for instance, I view as a crucial piece of the whole picture. Women's labor has been exploited here as well as in the "labor-saving" introduction of computer technology into the office. A section titled "Online" includes resources about women's use of the Internet and online services, whereas I've separated actual items available electronically into their own grouping, and in some cases list various ways of accessing that material, including print versions.

The bibliography is necessarily selective. For the most part I have not included articles of one or two pages, particularly in popular magazines, as these seem seldom very substantive. Brief articles about particular topics, however, such as health, are sometimes included either because there is not that much available on the subject, or the article offers a unique perspective. Many items with dates before 1983 are also excluded. The definition of information technology itself is somewhat slippery, and I've generally limited items to technology having to do with production of "word-type" information, but such information-handling items as price scanners, manufacturing robots, and the like have clearly also had an impact on women's work. Chapters in important books are often cited as well as the books themselves. Many works that offer broader perspectives on women's relationship to science and technology are not generally included, largely because they are available through other excellent bibliographies, such as our office's HISTORY OF WOMEN AND SCIENCE, HEALTH, AND TECHNOLOGY by Phyllis Holman Weisbard and Rima Apple (2nd ed. 1993) or WOMEN AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY: AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY by the WITS (Women, Information Technology, and Scholarship) Colloquium at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign (see "Electronic Resources" section).

I viewed some items enough to supply a brief clarifying annotation; others I was either unable to actually examine or lacked time to retrieve and annotate. Most citations have been located or verified using a number of indexing services, such as CARL UnCover, Wilson indexes in education, generalscience.html, and the like, FEMINIST PERIODICALS: A CURRENT LISTING OF CONTENTS, WOMEN STUDIES ABSTRACTS, ERIC* resources, OCLC, and our campus and other available online university catalogs. Dissertations appear occasionally in instances where the authors have not yet published the material elsewhere.

Because this bibliography is available online, we will periodically update the computerized version. A revised edition of the print version may appear at some point as well, but there are no dates targeted for such a revision. Suggestions for additions to the bibliography are always welcome.

Linda Shult
Office of the University of Wisconsin System Women's Studies Librarian
February 1996

* ERIC is a federally funded national information system on education. ERIC documents are deposited on paper or microfiche in many university libraries throughout the United States. They may also be purchased from the ERIC Documentation and Reproduction Service (EDRS) at 800-443- ERIC. (For further information about ERIC or to search the ERIC database and other components, open the URL: http://ericsyr.sunsite.edu).

General Sources

Titles appear in this section either because they cross the territories covered by other parts of the bibliography, don't fit into one of the larger categories, or are, in fact, more general explorations of women's use of information technology.

Adam, Alison E. "Gendered Knowledge: Epistemology and Artificial Intelligence." AI & SOCIETY v.7 (1993): 311-322.

Adam, Alison. "Embodying Knowledge: A Feminist Critique of Artificial Intelligence." EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF WOMEN'S STUDIES v.2, no.3 (August 1995): 355-377.

Alloo, Fatma. "Using Information Technology As a Mobilizing Force: The Case of the Tanzania Media Women's Association (TAMWA)." WOMEN ENCOUNTER TECHNOLOGY: CHANGING PATTERNS OF EMPLOYMENT IN THE THIRD WORLD, ed. Swasti Mitter and Sheila Rowbotham, pp.303-313. New York: Routledge in association with United Nations University Press, 1995.

Badagliacco, Joanne M. "Gender and Race Differences in Computing Attitudes and Experience." SOCIAL SCIENCE COMPUTER REVIEW v.8, no.1 (1990): 42-63.

Balsamo, Anne. "Feminism for the Incurably Informed." FLAME WARS: THE DISCOURSE OF CYBERCULTURE, ed. Mark Dery, pp.125-156. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1994.

Balsamo, Anne. TECHNOLOGIES OF THE GENDERED BODY: READING CYBORG WOMEN. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1996. 219p. bibl. index.

Benavides, Marta. "Excerpt from 'Reflections, Perspectives and Challenges for the South on Computer Technology and Human Services in the 1990's: A Feminist Position.'" COMPUTERS IN HUMAN SERVICES v.9, nos.1-2 (1993): 9-15.

Benston, Margaret Lowe and Elaine Bernard. "Feminist Perspectives on the Design of Computer Communications Networks: An Alternative Design Strategy." INFORMATION SYSTEM, WORK AND ORGANIZATION DESIGN, ed. Clement van den Besselaar and Jarvinen van den Besselaar, pp.283-294. Amsterdam: North Holland, 1991.

Benston, Margaret Lowe. "The Myth of Computer Literacy." CANADIAN WOMAN STUDIES v.5, no.4 (Summer 1984): 20-22.
Discusses issues of control in relation to computer technology.

Brecher, Deborah L. THE WOMEN'S COMPUTER LITERACY HANDBOOK. New York: New American Library/Plume, 1985. 254p.
One of the first de-mystifying books on computers, geared specifically to women.

Bruce, Margaret and Gill Kirkup. "An Analysis of Women's Roles Under the Impact of New Technology in the Home and Office." COMPUTERS AND DEMOCRACY: A SCANDINAVIAN CHALLENGE, ed. Gro Bjerkness et al., pp.343-362. Brookfield, VT: Gower Publishing, 1987.
The authors argue that "the applications of new technology to the domestic and office environment will not significantly change the sexual division of labour (p.345)," as the direction of technological change is based on social ideology, expressed as masculine control.

Butterworth, Dianne. "Wanking in Cyberspace." TROUBLE & STRIFE no.27 [1993]: 33-37.
Butterworth suggests that the current readily available online pornography (via computer bulletin boards and major publishers such as PENTHOUSE) will likely evolve into further exploitation of women through virtual reality-type interactions and similar technological advances.

Caputi, Jane. "Seeing Elephants: The Myths of Phallotechnology." FEMINIST STUDIES v.14, no.3 (Fall 1988): 487-524.
Caputi's analysis of male-oriented high technology and its promotion of the conquering of women and Earth looks at the appropriation of life-centered symbols such as elephants, stars, apples, and the Earth itself for advertising,science.html fiction, and business.

Clark, B., et al. "Gender Gap in the Use of Library Technologies: Evidence, Implications and Intervention." BUILDING ON THE FIRST CENTURY: PROCEEDINGS OF THE FIFTH NATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE ASSOCIATION OF COLLEGE AND RESEARCH LIBRARIES, ed. Janice Fennell, pp.116-118. Cincinnati, OH: 1989.

Cockburn, Cynthia and Susan Ormrod. GENDER AND TECHNOLOGY IN THE MAKING. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1993. 185p. bibl. index.
Though it centers on microwave ovens, this work is "centrally about the 'technology/gender relation.'" Moving through the design, manufacturing, retail, and domestic use stages, the authors examine the role of gender in shaping technological outcomes as well as technology's impact on gender relations. The "new technology" of computers could easily be the topic of study.

Damarin, Suzanne K. "Technologies of the Individual: Women and Subjectivity in the Age of Information." TECHNOLOGY AND FEMINISM, ed. Joan Rothschild and Frederick Ferre, pp.183-198. Greenwich, CT: Jai Press, 1993. (Research in philosophy & technology, v.13)
Damarin examines computers and artificial intelligence as technological developments with specific effects on women's place within a patriarchal society and on women's subjectivity.

Damarin, Suzanne K. "Where Is Women's Knowledge in the Age of Information?" THE KNOWLEDGE EXPLOSION: GENERATIONS OF FEMINIST SCHOLARSHIP, ed. Cheris Kramarae and Dale Spender, pp.362-370. New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1993.

Davidson, Marilyn and Cary L. Cooper. "Women and Information Technology: An Overview." WOMEN AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, ed. Marilyn J. Davidson and Cary L. Cooper, pp.1-9. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1987.

Davidson, Marilyn and Cary L. Cooper. WOMEN AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1987. 283p. bibl. index. Contents: "Information Technology -- Girls and Education: A Cross-Cultural Review (Geoff Chivers); "Women and Information Technology: A European Overview" (RoseMarie Greve); "Information Technology and Working Women in the USA" (Barbara Gutek and Laurie Larwood); "Microelectronics and Women's Employment" (Felicity Henwood); "The Influence of Information Technology on Women in Service Industries: A European Perspective" (Colin G. Armistead); "Women's Work in Insurance -- Information Technology and the Reproduction of Gendered Segregation" (David Knights and Andrew Sturdy); "New Office Technology and the Changing Role of Secretaries" (Stephen M. Bevan); "Visual Display Units -- Psychosocial Factors in Health" (Raija Kalimo and Anneli Leppanen); "Women Homeworkers and Information Technology -- The F International Experience" (Pam Evans); "Women, Office Technology and Equal Opportunities -- The Role of Trade Unions" (Fiona Wilson); and "Information Technology and New Training Initiatives for Women" (Ailsa Swarbrick).

Deakin, Rose. WOMEN AND COMPUTING: THE GOLDEN OPPORTUNITY. New York: St. Martin's/Papermac, 1987?

Dement, Linda. "Screen Bodies." WOMEN'S ART MAGAZINE no.63 (March/April 1995): 9-11.
"Linda Dement talks about the body and computer technology in contemporary Australian art" (from subtitle). On a subsequent page are responses to a "straw poll" of art-related women on "How do you think that new technology will push forward the boundaries in the visual arts in the next few years?"

Dholakia, Ruby Roy, et al. "Putting a Byte in the Gender Gap: Men Use Home Computers More Than Women Do, But Women May Have Greater Potential." AMERICAN DEMOGRAPHICS v.16, no.12 (December 1994): 20+.

Duclayan, Gina. "Game Girls." SEVENTEEN v.54 (January 1995): 38-39.
On video games and young women.

Eastman, Beva. "Women, Computers, and Social Change." COMPUTERS IN HUMAN SERVICES 8, no.1 (1991): 41-53.

Ebben, Maureen and Cheris Kramarae. "Women and Information Technologies: Creating a Cyberspace of Our Own." WOMEN, INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, AND SCHOLARSHIP, ed. H. Jeanie Taylor et al., pp.15-27. Urbana, IL: Women, Information Technology, and Scholarship Colloquium, Center for Advanced Study, 1993.
The authors summarize four problematic areas regarding women and new information technologies: access, training, educational use, and publishing, then suggest actions (and constant vigilance) to mitigate the inequities.

Edwards, Paul N. "The Army and the Microworld: Computers and the Politics of Gender Identity." SIGNS v.16, no.1 (Autumn 1990): 102-127.
Works with Turkle's concepts of "hard" and "soft" mastery in looking at the military connection with/use of high technology, noting that the speed, automation, and gamelike structure of modern warfare erases somewhat the historical military division between the genders.

Farrell, Sylvia S. and John E. LeCapitaine. "Computer Assisted and Non-Computer Assisted Career/Life Planning Workshops for Low Income Women." EDUCATION v.112, no.2 (Winter 1991): 312-320.

Flynn, Bernadette. "Woman/Machine Relationships: Investigating the Body Within Cyber Culture." MEDIA INFORMATION AUSTRALIA, no.72 (May 1994): 11-19.

Frissen, Valerie. "Trapped in Electronic Cages? Gender and New Information Technologies in the Public and Private Domain: An Overview of Research." MEDIA, CULTURE AND SOCIETY v.14, no.1 (January 1992): 31-49.
Frissen's overview finds that most research has centered on information technologies and women in the public domain, with little work on interactions with women in the domestic sphere. Much research concludes that women remain largely excluded from the power that derives from the design/production of new information and communication technologies (NICTs) and find limited use for new technologies as consumers as well.

Fryer, Bronwyn. "Sex & the Super-highway." WORKING WOMAN v.19 (April 1994): 51-54, 58-60.
Part of a special section which also includes: "Feminizing Virtual Reality: Brenda Laurel (a profile by Francine Hermelin); "Hard-driving Engineer: Celeste Baranski" (profile by Paulina Borsook); "A Day Behind the Wheel: A Glimpse of Your Workday, Circa 2004" (Francine Hermelin), and "Getting Girls On-Line" (Katie Hafner).

Fulton, Margaret A. "A Research Model for Studying the Gender/Power Aspects of Human-Computer Communication." INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MAN-MACHINE STUDIES v.23, no.4 (October 1985): 369-382.

Gailey, Christine Ward. "Mediated Messages: Gender, Class, and Cosmos in Home Video Games." JOURNAL OF POPULAR CULTURE v.27 (Summer 1993): 81-97.

Gattiker, Urs E. "Acquiring Computer Literacy: Are Women More Efficient Than Men?" STUDIES IN TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION AND HUMAN RESOURCES, VOL.2: END-USER TRAINING, ed. Urs E. Gattiker, pp.141-179. New York: Walter de Gruyter, 1990.

Gerver, Ed. "Computers and Gender." COMPUTERS IN THE HUMAN CONTEXT, ed. Tom Forester, pp.481-501. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1989.

Greenbaum, Joan. "The Head and the Heart: Using Gender Analysis to Study the Social Construction of Computer Systems." COMPUTERS & SOCIETY v.20, no.2 (June 1990): 9-17.

Greve, RoseMarie. "Women and Information Technology: A European Overview." WOMEN AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, ed. Marilyn J. Davidson and Cary L. Cooper, pp.33-69. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1987.

Griffiths, Morwena. "Strong Feelings About Computers." WOMEN'S STUDIES INTERNATIONAL FORUM v.11, no.2 (1988): 145-154.
"Computers have been appropriated by men" (p.145), states Griffiths, noting that feminists need to monitor this "gender inflection of computer technology "(p.152), and not only subvert the phenomenon, but work toward an alternative vision.

Gunter, Karen. "Women and the Information Revolution: Washed Ashore by the Third Wave." WOMEN, WORK, AND COMPUTERIZATION: BREAKING OLD BOUNDARIES, BUILDING NEW FORMS, ed. Alison Adam et al., pp.439-452. Amsterdam; New York: Elsevier, 1994.
Comparing the effects of the Industrial Revolution and the Information Revolution on the lives of women, concludes that "social and political action is the only way to ensure that women have equality of opportunity" in the Information Society (abstract, p.439).

Halberstam, Judith. "Automating Gender: Postmodern Feminism in the Age of the Intelligent Machine." FEMINIST STUDIES v.17, no.3 (Fall 1991): 439-459.
Halberstam examines the symbols of Apple computer's logo and Donna Haraway's cyborg in arguing that feminists and other cultural critics must take into account a "plurality of technologies," seeing gender as an "automated construct" (p.457) or "an electronic text that shifts and changes in dialogue with users and programs" (p.458).

Hapnes, Tove and Knut H. Sorensen. "Competition and Collaboration in Male Shaping of Computing: A Study of a Norwegian Hacker Culture." THE GENDER-TECHNOLOGY RELATION: CONTEMPORARY THEORY AND RESEARCH, ed. Keith Grint and Rosalind Gill, pp.174-191. Briston, PA: Taylor & Francis, 1995.

Haraway, Donna. "A Manifesto for Cyborgs." FEMINISM/POSTMODERNISM, ed. Linda Nicholson, pp.190-233. New York: Routledge, 1990.
Haraway sums up her classic essay by noting that the imagery of the cyborg -- "hybrid of machine and organism, a creature of social reality as well as a creature of fiction" (p.191) -- helps relate the argument that "totalizing theory" no longer works and that we must also refuse "antiscience metaphysics" that demonizes technology. (See also "A Cyborg Manifesto: Science, Technology, and Socialist-Feminism in the Late Twentieth Century" in Haraway's book SIMIANS, CYBORGS, AND WOMEN: THE REINVENTION OF NATURE [Routledge, 1991].)

Hastings, Maryam. "Women, Computers and Mathematics: A Case of Inequality." WOMEN'S VOICES, ed. Lorna Duphiney Edmundson et al., pp.62-66. Littleton, MA: Copley Publishing, 1987.

Hay, Alexandrea. "Do Computers Separate Men from Women? Thoughts Provoked by Turkle and Papert." THE JOURNAL OF MATHEMATICAL BEHAVIOR v.12, no.2 (June 1993): 205-207.
See "Epistemological Pluralism: Styles and Voices Within the Computer Culture" by Sherry Turkle and Seymour Papert in separate entry.

Hayes, R. Dennis. "Digital Palsy: RSI and Restructuring Capital." RESISTING THE VIRTUAL LIFE: THE CULTURE AND POLITICS OF INFORMATION, ed. James Brook and Iain A. Boal, pp.173-180. San Francisco: City Lights, 1995.
A scathing look at the dramatic increase in both computer use and repetitive stress injury (RSI) contrasted with the slight decrease in white (and pink?)-collar productivity over the same period.

Heinamaa, Sara. "Woman's Place in Artificial Intelligence: Observations on Metaphors of Thought and Knowledge." WOMEN, WORK AND COMPUTERIZATION: UNDERSTANDING AND OVERCOMING BIAS IN WORK AND EDUCATION, ed.Inger V. Eriksson et al., pp.41-52. New York: Elsevier, 1991.

Heller, Dorothy and June Bower. COMPUTER CONFIDENCE: A WOMAN'S GUIDE. Washington, DC: Acropolis Books, 1983. 256p. bibl. index. ill.

Hildenbrand, Suzanne. "Women's Studies Online: Promoting Visibility." RQ v.26, no.1 (Fall 1986): 63-74.
Discusses the possibilities and problems ofonline.html bibliographic retrieval for women's studies researchers. Type of indexing, quality of the databases used, and lack of coverage of women-related topics are three key problems cited. Results of a user survey study indicate significant end-user satisfaction with most searches in the study, and guidelines are offered for more effective database searching.

Hoath, Maria A. PERSONAL COMPUTING FOR WOMEN: EVERYTHING YOU ALWAYS WANTED TO KNOW ABOUT PERSONAL COMPUTERS BUT WERE AFRAID TO ASK. Write Byte, 1995. 152p.

Jacobs, Karrie. "Robo Babes. (Why Girls Play Less Video Games Than Boys)." I.D. v.41, no.3 (May/June 1994): 38+.

Jansen, Sue Curry. "Gender and the Information Society: A Socially Structured Silence." JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION v.39, no.3 (Summer 1989): 196-215.
Jansen ponders the "absence of a critical consciousness about gender in discussions of communications and technology" (p.196), sees old patterns being replicated, and urges "articulation of new languages, paradigms, and politics for creating and studying technologies" (p.198).

Kantrowitz, Barbara. "Men, Women and Computers." NEWSWEEK v.123 (May 16, 1994): 48-52+.
Compiling figures on the number of computers in U.S. homes, and noting a gender gap in the ways men and women use computers, this cover story stirred up some criticism that brought about defense of the article by one of its reporters. See also "Hackers 1, Media Elite 0" by Jon Katz in NEW YORK v.27 (May 30, 1994), pp.16-17.

Kaplan, Sidney and Shirley Kaplan. "Video Games, Sex and Sex Differences." JOURNAL OF POPULAR CULTURE, v.17 (Fall 1983): 61-66.

Keeton, Kathy. WOMAN OF TOMORROW. New York: St. Martin's, 1985. 313p.
On how new technologies affect women's lives.

Kirkup, Gill. "The Social Construction of Computers: Hammers or Harpsichords?" INVENTING WOMEN: SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, AND GENDER, ed. Gill Kirkup and Laurie Smith Keller, pp.267-281. Cambridge, MA: Basil Blackwell, 1992.
Traces women's involvement with computer technology and challenges what the author sees as Turkle's optimistic view about the potential of computers, noting that most of the world's women will interact with computers only in the form of machines controlled by microprocessors or in the manufacturing of component parts.

Kubey, Robert William and Reed Larson. "The Use and Experience of the New Video Media Among Children and Young Adolescents." COMMUNICATION RESEARCH v.17 (February 1990): 107-130.

Lehman, Sheila. "I Dreamed I Had a Computer Just Like the Kids: Access to Computing for the Older Woman." WOMEN, WORK, AND COMPUTERIZATION: BREAKING OLD BOUNDARIES, BUILDING NEW FORMS, ed. Alison Adam et al., pp.269-276. Amsterdam; New York: Elsevier, 1994.
Offers "preliminary results of an ongoing study of the experiences of older women (60 and above) with computer learning and use" (abstract, p.269).

Leone, Norma Leonardi. A MOTHER'S GUIDE TO COMPUTERS. Rochester, NY: Lion Publishers, 1986. (P.O. Box 92541, Rochester, NY 14692; 716-385-1269) 102p.
A guide to encourage women unfamiliar with computing by suggesting ways a computer can help manage information.

Lewyn, Mark. "PC Makers, Palms Sweating, Try Talking to Women." BUSINESS WEEK no.3141 (January 15, 1990): 48.
An interesting though brief look at marketing of computer products to women.

Lockheed, Marlaine E., ed. SEX ROLES v.13, nos.3/4 (August 1985); special issue: "Women, Girls, and Computers." Includes: "Women, Girls, and Computers: A First Look at the Evidence" (Marlaine E. Lockheed); "Differential Experiences of Men and Women in Computerized Offices" (Barbara A. Gutek and Tora K. Bikson); "Sex-Role Messages vis-a-vis Mic rocomputer Use: A Look at the Pictures' (Mary Catherine Ware and Mary Frances St uck). See "Education" section for other sites from this special issue.

Markussen, Randi. "Constructing Easiness: Historical Perspectives on Work, Computerization, and Women." THE CULTURES OF COMPUTING, ed. Susan Leigh Star. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell, 1995.

Marshall, Jon C. and Susan Bannon. "Race and Sex Equity in Computer Advertising." JOURNAL OF RESEARCH ON COMPUTING IN EDUCATION v.21, no.1 (Fall 1988): 15-27.
A survey of three computer magazines finds women and minorities largely in stereotypical roles in advertising.

McClain, E. "Do Women Resist Computers?" POPULAR COMPUTING (January 1983): 66-78.

Metselaar, Carolien. "Gender Issues in the Design of Knowledge Based Systems." WOMEN, WORK AND COMPUTERIZATION: UNDERSTANDING AND OVERCOMING BIAS IN WORK AND EDUCATION, ed. Inger V. Eriksson et al., pp.233-246. New York: Elsevier, 1991.

Michaelson, Greg. "Women & Men in Computer Cartoons from PUNCH: 1946-1982." WOMEN, WORK, AND COMPUTERIZATION: BREAKING OLD BOUNDARIES, BUILDING NEW FORMS, ed. Alison Adam et al., pp.171-184. Amsterdam; New York: Elsevier, 1994.

Miles, Ian. HOME INFORMATICS: INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND THE TRANSFORMATION OF EVERYDAY LIFE. New York: Pinter, 1988. 151p. bibl. index.
Although there's no specifically gender-related focus, the discussions of the transformation of the home via information technologies offers food for thought.

Milne, W., et al. "Computer Games: A Positive Introduction to IT or a Terminal Turn-off?" WOMEN, WORK, AND COMPUTERIZATION: BREAKING OLD BOUNDARIES, BUILDING NEW FORMS, ed. Alison Adam et al., pp.203-207. Amsterdam; New York: Elsevier, 1994.
Report of a conference plenary on computer games.

Okerson, Ann L. "Networked Serials, Scholarly Publishing, and Electronic Resource Sharing in Academic Libraries: A Dilemma of Ownership." WOMEN, INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, AND SCHOLARSHIP, ed. H. Jeanie Taylor et al., pp.44-51. Urbana, IL: Women, Information Technology, and Scholarship Colloquium, Center for Advanced Study, 1993.
Though not focused on feminist publishing, this discussion of the pitfalls of electronic resources, including issues of copyright and access, is clearly relevant to materials/information in women's studies.

Ong, Aihwa. "Disassembling Gender in the Electronics Age." FEMINIST STUDIES v.13 (Fall 1987): 609-626.

Perenson, Mellissa J., et al. "What Do Women Want?: Software for Women and Girls." PC MAGAZINE v.13, no.19 (November 8, 1994): 437+.
Evaluation of four software programs for women and girls.

Perez-Vitoria, Silvia, ed. IMPACT OF COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES ON WOMEN. Paris, France: Unesco, 1994. (Reports and papers on mass communication, no.108) 48p. bibl.
Centers more on "older" technologies such as telephone, television, but regional studies are of interest.

Potter, Rosanne G. "Empirical Literary Research on Women and Readers." COMPUTERS AND THE HUMANITIES v.28, no.6 (1994/1995): 375-381.

Pritchard, Sarah M. "Women and Computers in Public Libraries." NWSA PERSPECTIVES v.5, no.3 (Spring-Summer 1987): 32-34.
Pritchard briefly surveysonline.html catalogs, other databases, networks and bulletin boards, software for borrowing, cable delivery of information, and other ways women can use the computerized resources in libraries.

Provenzo, Eugene F., Jr. "The Portrayal of Women." VIDEO KIDS: MAKING SENSE OF NINTENDO, pp.99-117. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1991.
Some sobering analysis of the gender content of video games. Other chapters comment on gender differences in game playing, violence and aggression in games, etc.

Pryor, Sally. "Thinking of Oneself as a Computer." LEONARDO v.24, no.5 (1991): 585-590.
Pryor, a "computer artist/animator/programmer," explores her interest in "the somewhat disembodied landscape surrounding the human and the computer,..." an interest resulting from her experience with RPI (repetitive stress injury).

Rogerat, Chantal. "The Case of Elletel." MEDIA, CULTURE AND SOCIETY v.14, no.1 (January 1992): 73-88.
Set up in 1984 as an information and communication service under the Agence Femmes Information (a French news and information agency since unfunded), Elletel at one point comprised thirteen bulletin boards on such topics as health, leisure, legal issues, babysitting, current events, computing, and "lonely hearts."

Rothschild, Joan. TEACHING TECHNOLOGY FROM A FEMINIST PERSPECTIVE: A PRACTICAL GUIDE. New York: Pergamon Press, 1988.
Though not centered on information technology, Rothschild's book covers a number of relevant issues. Note particularly Chapter 6, "Passing the Litmus Test: What is a Feminist Resource on Technology?" which focuses on the language differences in two computer-centered books.

Rothschild, Joan. TURING'S MAN, TURING'S WOMAN, OR TURING'S PERSON? GENDER, LANGUAGE, AND COMPUTERS. Wellesley, MA: Wellesley College Center for Research on Women, 1986. (Working paper no.166)

Schwartz, John. "The Game Computers Play." NEWSWEEK v.108 (September 8, 1986): 42-43.
Notes software manufacturers' recognition of female buying power and development of computer games to tap that market.

Schwartz, Vanessa R., comp. "Gender and Technology: Women, International Development, and High-Technology Production: A Selected and Annotated Bibliography of Recent Research, 1977-1985." Princeton, NJ: Program in Women's Studies, Princeton University, 1985. (Women's Studies, 218 Palmer Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544) approx. 31p.

SIGNS v.16, no.1 (Autumn 1990); special section: "From Hard Drive to Software: Gender, Computers, and Difference," guest ed. Ruth Perry.
Includes: "Women and Computers: An Introduction" (Ruth Perry and Lisa Greber); "The Army and the Microworld: Computers and the Politics of Gender Equity" (Paul N. Edwards); "Epistemological Pluralism: Styles and Voices within the Computer Culture" (Sherry Turkle and Seymour Papert); and "Mismeasuring Women: A Critique of Research on Computer Ability and Avoidance" (Pamela E. Kramer and Sheila Lehman).

Smith, Caroline. "Chit-Chat in the New World." WOMEN'S ART MAGAZINE no.63 (March/April 1995): 14-15.
"Caroline Smith interviews women at the forefront of art and technology" (from subtitle). Women interviewed are Eva Pascoe, Nicky West, and Muriel Magenta.

Spender, Dale. NATTERING ON THE NET: WOMEN, POWER AND MULTIMEDIA. North Melbourne, Victoria, Australia: Spinifex, 1995.
Basing her argument on the view that in many ways "women were worse off after the print revolution than before" (p.161), Spender goes on to detail the history of women in print, concluding that unless women become involved in creating the new culture of cyberspace, they stand to lose not only much of their recent intellectual and educational gains but also much of women's accumulated scholarly progress over the past 400 years.

Springer, Claudia. "Sex, Memories, and Angry Women." THE SOUTH ATLANTIC QUARTERLY v.92 (Fall 1993): 713-733.
Discussion of cyberculture and visions of sexuality in fictional texts about computers. Also appears in FLAME WARS: THE DISCOURSE OF CYBERCULTURE, ed. Mark Dery (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1994), pp.157-177.

Star, Susan Leigh. "Invisible Work and Silenced Dialogues in Knowledge Representation." WOMEN, WORK AND COMPUTERIZATION: UNDERSTANDING AND OVERCOMING BIAS IN WORK AND EDUCATION, ed. Inger V. Eriksson et al., pp.81-92. New York: Elsevier, 1991.

Tarrant, Louise. "Women and Information Poverty." REFRACTORY GIRL (October 1987): 41-42.
Looks at information technology in Australia.

Taylor, H. Jeanie, Cheris Kramarae, and Maureen Ebben. WOMEN, INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, AND SCHOLARSHIP. Urbana, IL: Women, Information Technology, and Scholarship Colloquium, Center for Advanced Study, 1993. (912 West Illinois St., Urbana, IL 61801) 128p. bibl.
Tackling such overarching topics as different learning and communication styles in dealing with computers, changes being brought about by electronic scholarship, concepts of privacy and ownership of ideas, and community connections via computer to help overcome gender/race/class hierarchies, the essays and discussion summaries from an ongoing colloquium offer insight into "issues that we believe are central to decision-making at all universities in the U.S." (p.3). Contributors in addition to the editors include Dale Spender, Ann L. Okerson, Phyllis Hall, Judy Smith, and others. An annotated bibliography by Maureen Ebben and Maria Mastronardi occupies about a third of the book.

Turkle, Sherry and Seymour Papert. "Epistemological Pluralism: Styles and Voices Within the Computer Culture." SIGNS v.16, no.1 (Fall 1994): 128-157.
Acknowledging "the validity of multiple ways of knowing and thinking, an epistemological pluralism" (p.129) in how people approach programming and computer tasks, the authors suggest that feminist scholarship can promote recognition of this diversity of styles as well as "our profound human connection with our tools" (p.157). See also Alexandrea Hay's reaction, "Do Computers Separate Men from Women?" in separate entry.

Turkle, Sherry. "Child Programmers: The First Generation." THE CULTURE OF SCIENCE: ESSAYS AND ISSUES FOR WRITERS, ed. John Hatton and Paul B. Plouffe, pp.584-599. New York: Macmillan, 1993.
From Turkle's 1984 book THE SECOND SELF: COMPUTERS AND THE HUMAN SPIRIT, (Simon and Schuster) this essay explores her understandings of "hard" and "soft" mastery of the computer, as related primarily to gender.

Turkle, Sherry. "Computational Reticence: Why Women Fear the Intimate Machine." TECHNOLOGY AND WOMEN'S VOICES: KEEPING IN TOUCH, ed. Cheris Kramarae, pp.41-61. New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1988.
Turkle discusses young women's reticence about computers (too regimented, too removed from relationships), examines "the social construction of the computer as a male domain" and suggests it can be viewed instead as an expressive medium.

Turkle, Sherry. THE SECOND SELF: COMPUTERS AND THE HUMAN SPIRIT. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1984. 362p. bibl. index.
A classic that questions the impact of the computer on contemporary culture.

van der Ploeg, Irma and Ineke van Wingerden. "Celebrating the Cyborg? On the Fate of a Beautiful Metaphor in Later Users' Hands." EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF WOMEN'S STUDIES v.2, no.3 (August 1995): 397-400.

Van Gelder, Lindsy. "Help for Technophobes." MS. v.13 (January 1985): 89-91.

van Zoonen, Liesbet. "Feminist Theory and Information Technology." MEDIA, CULTURE & SOCIETY v.14, no.1 (January 1992): 9-29.
Explores several theoretical perspectives in relation to technology, including ecofeminism, finding "universalist and essentialist notions of gender" (p.19) to be problematic. Urges more specificity regarding thinking on information technology and gender.

Ware, Mary Catherine and Mary Frances Stuck. "Sex-Role Messages vis-a-vis Microcomputer Use: A Look at the Pictures." SEX ROLES v.13, no.1 (1985): 205-214.
Examines the representation of both genders, of different ages, in three mass-market computer magazines over a period of three months.

Workshop: Women and Information Technology (1991: University of Warwick). WORKSHOP: WOMEN AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY: UNIVERSITY OF WARWICK, COVENT RY, UNITED KINGDOM, JULY 17-20, 1991. [Zoetermeer, Netherlands?]: European Network for Women's Studies, 1991. 11p.

Zimmerman, Jan, ed. THE TECHNOLOGICAL WOMAN: INTERFACING WITH TOMORROW. New York: Praeger, 1983.
A number of chapters center on women and information technology. See separate listings for: "Gender and Industry on Mexico's New Frontier" (Maria Patricia Fernandez Kelly); "For Women, The Chips are Down" (Margaret Lowe Benston); "Word Processing: `This Is Not a Final Draft'" (Sally Otos and Ellen Levy); "Women's Work in the Office of the Future" (Barbara A. Gutek); "Cold Solder On a Hot Stove" (Rebecca Morales); "EQUALS in Computer Technology" (Nancy Kreinberg and Elizabeth K. Stage); and "The Next Move: Organizing Women in the Office" (Judith Gregory).

Zimmerman, Jan. ONCE UPON THE FUTURE: A WOMAN'S GUIDE TO TOMORROW'S TECHNOLOGY. New York: Routledge and Kegan Paul/Pandora, 1986. 230p. bibl. index.
Not restricted to information technology, this probing work nonetheless questions basic assumptions about new technologies that "encode old values of inferiority and subordination."

Computer Science and Education

Resources in this section center on women studying for careers or already working in computerscience.html, past or present. Included are undergraduates, graduate students, or those working in the field as teachers, consultants, managers, or the like. There is, of course, overlap between materials in this section and those cited in the "Education" section. Some brief and more popular pieces are included in this section as there are relatively few formal studies available on women working in the profession.

COMPUTER SCIENCE

Adam, Alison and Margaret Bruce. "The Expert Systems Debate: A Gender Perspective." GENDERED BY DESIGN? INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND OFFICE SYSTEMS, ed. Eileen Green et al., pp.81-92. Washington, DC: Taylor & Francis, 1993.

Adam, Alison. "Who Knows How? Who Knows That? Feminist Epistemology and Artificial Intelligence." WOMEN, WORK, AND COMPUTERIZATION: BREAKING OLD BOUNDARIES, BUILDING NEW FORMS, ed. Alison Adam et al., pp.143-156. Amsterdam; New York: Elsevier, 1994.

Adam, Alison. "Women and Computing in the UK." COMMUNICATIONS OF THE ACM v.38, no.1 (January 1995): 43.

Angier, Natalie. "The Glass Ceiling: In Theory Women Swell Ranks of Science, But Remain Invisible at the Top." ACM SIGACT NEWS v.22, no.3 (Summer 1991): 38-40.

Arnold, Carolyn Lee. SALARY AND OCCUPATION BY GENDER AMONG COMMUNITY COLLEGE COMPUTER SCIENCE GRADUATES. Stanford, CA: Ph.D. dissertation, Stanford University, 1988. 435p.

Astone, Mary Kathryn. GENDER STEREOTYPING OF COMPUTING. Auburn, AL: Ph.D. dissertation, Auburn University, 1995. 122p.
Development and testing of a Gender Typing Scale (GTS) regarding "gender typing perceptions of computing activities" (abstract).

Bank, B., et al. TEACHING COMPUTING: CONTENT AND METHODS. Keele, UK: Keele University Department of Computer Science, 1992.
Proceedings of The Women Into Computing Conference, July 1992. Includes: "Person-Friendly Computer Science" (Julia Dain); "The Status of Women in Computing: USA" (Louise E. Moses); and "Everybody Does Information Technology in Ystalyfera!" (Helen Yewlett), among other contributions. (Not examined.)

BARRIERS TO EQUALITY IN ACADEMIA: WOMEN IN COMPUTER SCIENCE AT M.I.T. Cambridge, MA: Female Graduate Students and Research Staff of the Laboratory for Computer Science and the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, [1983.] 44p. bibl.

Baum, Joan. THE CALCULATING PASSION OF ADA BYRON. Hamden, CT: Archon Books/Shoe String Press, 1986. 133p. bibl. index. ill.
The story of Ada Byron Lovelace, credited by some as the first programmer for her forty pages of "Notes" or technical essays on Charles Babbage's Analytical Engine, which though never built was credited as an early model for the computer.

Baylor, Sandra Johnson. "Graduate Fellowship Programs." COMMUNICATIONS OF THE ACM v.38, no.1 (January 1995): 37-42.
An excellent listing of sponsoring organizations, eligibility requirements, and amount of help available to graduate computer science students.

Beech, C. "Women and WIT." WOMEN, WORK AND COMPUTERIZATION: UNDERSTANDING AND OVERCOMING BIAS IN WORK AND EDUCATION, ed. Inger V. Eriksson et al., pp.335-346. New York: Elsevier, 1991.

Benston, Margaret Lowe. "For Women, the Chips are Down." THE TECHNOLOGICAL WOMAN: INTERFACING WITH TOMORROW, ed. Jan Zimmerman, pp.44-54. New York: Praeger, 1983.
Examines the history of automation and the deskilling of programming, with effects on women entering the profession.

Bernstein, Danielle R. "Comfort and Experience with Computing: Are They the Same for Women and Men?" SIGCSE BULLETIN v.23, no.3 (September 1991): 57-60.

Bohonak, Noni McCullough. "Attracting and Retaining Women in Graduate Programs in Computer Science." TEACHING THE MAJORITY: BREAKING THE GENDER BARRIER IN SCIENCE, MATHEMATICS, AND ENGINEERING, ed. Sue V. Rosser, pp.169-180. New York: Teachers College Press, 1995.

Borg, Anita and Telle Whitney. "The Grace Hopper Celebration." COMMUNICATIONS OF THE ACM v.38, no.1 (January 1995): 50-51.
Description of conference held in June 1994, Washington, D.C. with 450 women computer specialists attending. (See Web site listing under "Electronic" section.)

Borg, Anita. "Women Defining Technology for the 21st Century: A Report from America." WOMEN, WORK, AND COMPUTERIZATION: BREAKING OLD BOUNDARIES, BUILDING NEW FORMS, ed. Alison Adam et al., pp.231-238. Amsterdam; New York: Elsevier, 1994.
Reports on projects in the U.S. geared to "encourage women and minorities to enter the computing profession, and once there, to stay and thrive" (abstract, p.231).

Breene, L. Anne. "Women and Computer Science." INITIATIVES: JOURNAL OF THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF WOMEN IN ENGINEERING v.55, no.2 (May 1993): 39-44.
Briefly surveys women's place in computer science, from middle school to academic workplace, noting the sexism still present in the field and the curriculum.

Bromberg, Howard. "Grace Murray Hopper: A Remembrance." IEEE SOFTWARE v.9, no.3 (May 1992): 103.
U.S. Rear Admiral Hopper was co-inventor of the COBOL computer language and in charge of the deparment that produced the first language compiler, opening a new era in programming. Other obituaries appeared in COMMUNICATIONS OF THE ACM v.32, no.4 (April 1992): 128; DIGITAL REVIEW v.9, no.2 (January 20, 1992):40; FEDERAL COMPUTER WEEK v.6, no.1 (January 13, 1992): 26; and IEEE SOFTWARE v.9, no.2 (March 1992): 95 as well as elsewhere. Hopper died January 1, 1992.

Bruce, Margaret and Alison Adam. "Expert Systems and Women's Lives: A Technology Assessment." FUTURES v.21, no.5 (October 1989): 480-497.
This study begins "to explore aspects of gender dimensions of artificial intelligence (AI) and, in particular, the more recent work on expert and knowledge-based systems" (p.480).

Burton, Kathy. "Five Women Who Changed Their Lives." HOME OFFICE COMPUTING v.8 (April 1990): 43-48.
Describes five women with homebased computer businesses: Karla Blevins, Denise Marcil, Deborah Dawson, Christine Donovan, and Cari Warner.

Capek, Mary Ellen. "Wired Words: Building a National and International On-line Thesaurus and Dababase for Access to Women's Information Resources." COMMUNICATION AT THE CROSSROADS: THE GENDER GAP CONNECTION, ed. Ramona Rush and Donna Allen, pp.208-221. Norwood, NJ: Ablex, 1989.

Cole, K.C. "Kristina Hooper: Building Bridges for the Brain." DISCOVER v.5, (June 1984): 74-77+.

COMMUNICATIONS OF THE ACM v.38, no.1 (January 1995); special issue: "Women in Computing," guest ed. Amy Pearl. Includes: "Women in Computing: Where Are We Now?" (Maria Klawe and Nancy Levenson); "Graduate Fellowship Programs" (Sandra Johnson Baylor); "Women in Computing in the UK" (Alison Adam); "Announcing a New List: The WCAR List" (Laura L. Downey); "TAP: Tapping Internet Resources for Women in Computing" (Elisabeth Freeman and Susanne Hupfer); "Pioneering Women in Computer Science" (Denise W. Gurer); "The Grace Hopper Celebration" (Anita Borg and Telle Whitney); "Human Nature and Glass Ceiling in Industry" (Kathleen Hemenway); "Gender Discrimination in the Workplace: A Literature Review" (Ellen Isaacs); "Executive Mentoring: What Makes It Work?" (Shari Lawrence Pfleeger and Norma Mertz); "Mentoring Resources and Programs for Women" (Amita Goyal); "Situations and Advancement Measures in Germany" (Veronika Oechtering and Roswitha Behnke); plus several shorter pieces. See also discussion of the special issue in the April 1995 issue of COMMUNICATIONS OF THE ACM, pp.11-14.

Cooper, Christine, and Karin van Dam. "To Be (Certain) or Not To Be (Certain): A Feminist Perspective on Artificial Intelligence." WOMEN, WORK, AND COMPUTERIZATION: BREAKING OLD BOUNDARIES, BUILDING NEW FORMS, ed. Alison Adam et al., pp.157-169. Amsterdam; New York: Elsevier, 1994.
Suggests that "the underlying philosophy behind existing research needs to be rethought in order to advance AI" (p.157) and examines how French post-structuralist feminist philosophy might relate to the study of artificial intelligence.

Crutzen, Cecile K.M. "The Influence of Feminist Theory on Informatics Course Design." WOMEN, WORK, AND COMPUTERIZATION: BREAKING OLD BOUNDARIES, BUILDING NEW FORMS, ed. Alison Adam et al., pp.59-74. Amsterdam; New York: Elsevier, 1994.

Cushman, John H. "Admiral Hopper's Farewell -- 1986." NEW YORK TIMES BIOGRAPHICAL SERVICE v.17 (August 1986): 1036-1037.
Grace Murray Hopper retired from her second stint with the U.S. Navy in 1986, having helped develop the COBOL computer language and the first compiler. Other biographical information may be found in: "Pioneers" in ELECTRONICS WORLD & WIRELESS WORLD v.95 (December 1989): 1192+; VOICE OF AMERICA INTERVIEWS WITH EIGHT AMERICAN WOMEN OF ACHIEVEMENT by Chantal Mompoullan (Washington, DC?: U.S. Information Agency, 1985); THE HISTORY OF COMPUTING: A BIOGRAPHICAL PORTRAIT OF THE VISIONARIES WHO SHAPED THE DESTINY OF THE COMPUTER INDUSTRY by Marguerite Zientara (CW Communications, 1981); "Beacon for the Future" by George Leopold in DATAMATION v.32 (October 1986): 109-110; "An Admiral's Amazing Grace" by Marie Hodge in 50 PLUS v.26 (October 1986): 16-17; and a juvenile book, GRACE HOPPER: NAVY ADMIRAL AND COMPUTER PIONEER by Charlene W. Billings (Enslow Publishers, 1989).

Dain, Julia. "Getting Women into Computing." UNIVERSITY COMPUTING v.10, no.3 (September 1988): 154-157.

de Olde, Cora and Anneke van Doorne-Huiskes. "Positions of Women in Information Technology in The Netherlands; Education, Job Characteristics and Proposals for an Equal Opportunity Policy." WOMEN, WORK AND COMPUTERIZATION: UNDERSTANDING AND OVERCOMING BIAS IN WORK AND EDUCATION, ed. Inger V. Eriksson et al., pp.347-362. New York: Elsevier, 1991.

Donato, Katharine M. "Programming for Change? The Growing Demand for Women Systems Analysts." JOB QUEUES, GENDER QUEUES: EXPLAINING WOMEN'S INROADS INTO MALE OCCUPATIONS, ed. Barbara F. Reskin and Patricia A. Roos, pp.167-182. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1990.
Women gained in the field of systems analysis, the author summarizes, through employer demand due to rapid growth of the field. Once the occupation appeared more "feminized," men's leaving the field accelerated women's gains, although some gender segregation within the profession is evident.

Donato, Katharine M. and Patricia A. Roos. "Gender and Earnings Inequality Among Computer Specialists." WOMEN, WORK, AND TECHNOLOGY: TRANSFORMATIONS, ed. Barbara Drygulski Wright et al., pp. 291-317. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1987.

Dowling, Claudia. "The Testing of Dory Yochum." LIFE v.13 (August 1990): 54-60+.
An account of Dory Yochum's battle for an executive position at AT&T and her eventual installation as CEO of Interconnection Technologies, a part of AT&T's Microelectronics division.

Downey, Laura L. "Announcing a New List: The WCAR List." COMMUNICATIONS OF THE ACM v.38, no.1 (January 1995): 43-44.
Women in Computing Academic Resource list of colleges and universities with programs for encouraging women in computer science.

Durndell, Alan. "The Persistence of the Gender Gap in Computing." COMPUTERS AND EDUCATION v.16 (1991): 283-287.

"Dynamic Duo Builds Skills for the Future." HOME OFFICE COMPUTING v.8 (April 1990): 46-47.
On two women with a computer-based home publishing business.

Eastman, Caroline M. "Accommodating Diversity in Computer Science Education." TEACHING THE MAJORITY: BREAKING THE GENDER BARRIER IN SCIENCE, MATHEMATICS, AND ENGINEERING, ed. Sue V. Rosser, pp.160-168. New York: Teachers College Press, 1995.

Emms, Judy. "Workshop: Developing Our Own Mentoring Skills." WOMEN, WORK, AND COMPUTERIZATION: BREAKING OLD BOUNDARIES, BUILDING NEW FORMS, ed. Alison Adam et al., pp.325-332. Amsterdam; New York: Elsevier, 1994.
Mentoring for women in the computing professions.

Epstein, Susan L. "Anatomy of a Course: Program Keys in Success for Women and Minorities." LIBERAL EDUCATION v.79 (Summer 1993): 44-50.

Flack, Dave, editor-in-chief. OPEN COMPUTING v.11, no.12 (December 1994): special section on women and computing. Includes: "What Are You Ladies Doing Here?" (Bronwyn Fryer); "He Said, She Said, They Said" (Rusty Weston); "Open Computing's Top 100 Women in Computing" (Bronwyn Fryer and Roderick Simpson); profiles by Carolyn W.S. Wong, Vera Tweed, and Natalie Engler; "Help Is Where You Find It" (Natalie Engler); and "Women's Electronic Forums and Mailing Lists."

Folger, Tim. "Art for Science's Sake." DISCOVER v.12 (December 1991): 18-21.
Profiles Donna Cox, an artist turned computer animator and associate director of University of Illinois's National Center for Supercomputing Applications.

Frenkel, Karen A. "Women and Computing." COMMUNICATIONS OF THE ACM v.33, no.11 (November 1990): 34-46. (Also available electronically, with URL: http://www.cpsr.org/cpsr/gender/frenkel.cacm.womcomp)
Frenkel examines why women entering computing careers often drop out of the academic world, deciding against an advanced degree, and enter industry instead.

Fryer, Bronwyn. "What It Takes." WOMEN IN COMPUTING no.2 (1996): 7-11.
Offers personal anecdotes and summarizing comments about McGraw-Hill's second annual listing of "the top 100 women in computing." (See also: "The Top 100 Women.") Suggests ten strategies for "breaking the glass ceiling."

Gaio, Fatima Janine. "Women in Software Programming: The Experience of Brazil." WOMEN ENCOUNTER TECHNOLOGY: CHANGING PATTERNS OF EMPLOYMENT IN THE THIRD WORLD, ed. Swasti Mitter and Sheila Rowbotham, pp.205-232. New York: Routledge in association with the United Nations University Press, 1995.

Glenn, Evelyn Nakano and Charles M. Tolbert II. "Technology and Emerging Patterns of Stratification for Women of Color: Race and Gender Segregation in Computer Occupations." WOMEN, WORK, AND TECHNOLOGY: TRANSFORMATIONS, ed. Barbara Drygulski Wright et al., pp.218-331. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1987.
Analysis of data from the March 1983 portion of the Bureau of Census Current Population Survey, revealing that racial ethnic women often enter the lowest ranks of computer occupations and experience related wage discrimination. Goodness, Jeanne Marie. "Factors Which Influence Women's Decision to Major in Computer Science in College." Nashville, TN: Ed.D., Peabody College for Teachers of Vanderbilt University, 1990. 290p.

Goyal, Amita. "Mentoring Resources and Programs for Women." COMMUNICATIONS OF THE ACM v.38, no.1 (January 1995): 66-67.
Includes both print and organizational resources.

Griese, David and Dorothy Marsh. "The 1988-89 Taulbee Survey Report." COMPUTER v.23, no.10 (October 1990): 65-71.

Gruman, Galen. "Getting Women and Minorities into Computer Science." IEEE SOFTWARE v.7, no.4 (July 1990): 87-89, 92.

Gruman, Galen. "Women, Minorities, and Computer Science: Putting Them All Together." COMPUTER v.23, (July 1990): p.93.

Grundy, Frances. "Women in the Computing Workplace: Some Impressions." WOMEN, WORK, AND COMPUTERIZATION: BREAKING OLD BOUNDARIES, BUILDING NEW FORMS, ed. Alison Adam et al., pp.349-363. Amsterdam; New York: Elsevier, 1994.
Looks at sexism within computing departments and how it relates to status and types of work.
Gurer, Denise W. "Pioneering Women in Computer Science." COMMUNICATIONS OF THE ACM v.38, no.1 (January 1995): 45-54.
In addition to recognized names such as Augusta Ada Byron Lovelace and Grace Murray Hopper, there are Sister Mary Kenneth Keller, Judy Clapp, Mildred Koss, Adele Goldstine, Thelma Estrin, Mary K. Hawes, and a number of others.

Hacker, Sally L. "The Culture of Engineering: Woman, Workplace, and Machine." WOMEN'S STUDIES INTERNATIONAL QUARTERLY v.4, no.3 (1981): 341-353.

Hacker, Sally L. with Charles E. Starnes. "Computers in the Workplace: Stratification and Labor Process Among Engineers and Technicians." DOING IT THE HARD WAY: INVESTIGATIONS OF GENDER AND TECHNOLOGY, by Sally L. Hacker, pp.175-194. Boston: Unwin Hyman, 1990.
Looks at the degradation of parts of the engineering profession, with declining employment opportunities except at the top; examines the employment future of engineers and technicians due to computer-aided processes, with implications for comparable worth.

Hafner, Katie. "Woman, Computer Nerd -- and Proud." NEW YORK TIMES (August 29, 1993): sec.3, pp.1,4.
Brief biographical information on Stephanie Winner (Apple computer engineer), Ellen Spertus (M.I.T. student and part-time Microsoft programmer), and Megan Smith (engineer at General Magic).

Hal, Tracy. "No Quality Without Equality." IEEE SOFTWARE v.12 (March 1995): 101-102.
Results of a survey of more than 200 software engineers on software quality control. See also "What's the Gender-Quality Connection?" by Susan E. Kraterfield and Ron House in the July 1995 issue of IEEE SOFTWARE, pp.5-6.

Hall, W., and G. L. Lovegrove. "Women and AI." AI & SOCIETY v.2, no.3 (1988): 270-271.

Hapnes, Tove and Bente Rasmussen. "The Production of Male Power in Computer Science." WOMEN, WORK AND COMPUTERIZATION: UNDERSTANDING AND OVERCOMING BIAS IN WORK AND EDUCATION, ed. Inger V. Eriksson et al., pp.395-405. New York: Elsevier, 1991.
Examines the hacker culture and how it affects women computer science students.

Henley, F. Milene. "Good, Better, Best." WORKING WOMAN v.12 (December 1987): 86-89.
Describes the work of Deborah A. Coleman, who joined Apple Computer in 1981, moved on to manage the Macintosh computer factory and then became director of worldwide marketing, helping turn the company's fortunes around.

Henwood, Flis. "Establishing Gender Perspectives on Information Technology: Problems, Issues and Opportunities." GENDERED BY DESIGN? INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND OFFICE SYSTEMS, ed. Eileen Green et al., pp.31-49. Washington, DC: Taylor & Francis, 1993.
Explores general questions of "the gendering of technological skills and knowledges" as applied particularly to women working in information technology fields (author's abstract).

Hodge, Marie. "An Admiral's Amazing Grace." 50 PLUS v.26 (October 1986): 16-17.
On Rear Admiral Grace Hopper, pioneer in the use of computers during her Naval career, and a developer of the COBOL computer language.

Howell, Kathy. "The Experience of Women in Undergraduate Computer Science: What Does the Research Say?" SIGCSE BULLETIN v.25, no.2 (June 1, 1993): 1-8.

Huskey, Velma R. and Harry D. Huskey. "Ada, Countess of Lovelace, and Her Contribution to Computing." ABACUS v.1, no.2 (Winter 1984): 22-29.
Concise summary of the Countess' life and contributions.

Huskey, Velma R. and Harry D. Huskey. "Lady Lovelace and Charles Babbage." ANNALS OF THE HISTORY OF COMPUTING v.2, no.4 (1980): 299-329.
Reproduces and comments on correspondence between Lovelace and Babbage. Other material on Lovelace includes: "Lady Lovelace" by Vicki Birch and Coralee Evans, MATHEMATICS TEACHING v.131 (June 1990): 30-31; "Computing's First Lady" by Gren Manuel, THE ENGINEER v.269 (November 2, 1989): 58; "Babbage and the Countess" by Elizabeth S. Wall, ELECTRONIC EDUCATION v.5 (February 1986): 10; a section in WOMEN IN SCIENCE: ANTIQUITY THROUGH THE NINETEENTH CENTURY: A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY WITH ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY by Marilyn Bailey Ogilvie (MIT Press, 1986); and part of Chapter 11 in HYPATIA'S HERITAGE: A HISTORY OF WOMEN IN SCIENCE FROM ANTIQUITY THROUGH THE NINETEENTH CENTURY by Margaret Alic (Beacon Press, 1986), pp.157-163.

Isaacs, Ellen. "Gender Discrimination in the Workplace: A Literature Review." COMMUNICATIONS OF THE ACM v.38, no.1 (January 1995): 58-59.

Jagacinski, Carolyn M., et al. "Gender Differences in Persistence in Computer-Related Fields." JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL COMPUTING RESEARCH v.4, no.2 (1988): 185-202.

Jansen, Sue Curry. "The Ghost in the Machine: Artificial Intelligence and Gendered Thought Patterns." RESOURCES FOR FEMINIST RESEARCH v.17, no.4 (December 1988): 4-7.
Argues that the gendered constructions of AI scientists, who envision artificial intelligence as supremely male, offer both an opportunity for feminist research and an imperative for intervention.

Jensen, Poul Erik and Lars Klewe. "Gender Differences and Computer Use in Education." Copenhagen: Danish Institute for Educational Research, 1989. 40 leaves. ill.

Karasti, Helena. "What's Different in Gender Oriented ISD? Identifying Gender Oriented Information Systems Development Approach." WOMEN, WORK, AND COMPUTERIZATION: BREAKING OLD BOUNDARIES, BUILDING NEW FORMS, ed. Alison Adam, pp.45-58. Amsterdam; New York: Elsevier, 1994.

Kerner, Janet T. and Kathy Vargas. "Women and Computers: What We Can Learn From Science." SIGCSE BULLETIN v.26, no.2 (June 1, 1994): 52-56.

Klawe, Maria and Nancy Levenson. "Women in Computing: Where Are We Now?" COMMUNICATIONS OF THE ACM v.38, no.1 (January 1995): 29-35.

Kretchmar, Laurie. "Microsoft's Secret Weapon." WORKING WOMAN v.20 (July 1995): 52-54+. On Patricia Stonesifer's work with Microsoft Corporation.

Kurtzig, Sandra L. with Tom Parker. CEO: BUILDING A $400 MILLION COMPANY FROM THE GROUND UP. New York: Norton, 1991; Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1994. 307p. index.
The biography of a computer industry executive.

Kvande, Elin and Bente Rasmussen. "Men, Women and Data Systems." EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING EDUCATION v.14, no.4 (1989): 369-379.
Suggests changing the arrangement of computer courses from association with math and technical subjects toward "broader courses based on social subjects and arts as well" to increase numbers of women in the field (summary, p.369).

Laberis, Bill. "Katherine Hudson: Barrier Breaker." COMPUTERWORLD v.26, no.25 (June 22, 1992): 20.
Of the "Twenty-five People Who Changed the World" featured in this special anniversary edition of COMPUTERWORLD, Katherine Hudson, an Eastman Kodak information systems (IS) executive, is the only woman amid the likes of H. Ross Perot, Steve Jobs, Bill Gates, and Seymour Cray.

Lancaster, Ann-Marie and Bruce Smith. "Potential Contributions of Cooperative Education to the Retention of Women in Computer Science." COMPUTER SCIENCE EDUCATION v.5, no.1 (1994): 85-101.

Lear, Frances. "Lunch." LEAR'S v.6 (Fall 1994): 16-17.
Lear interviews Ellen Pack, cofounder and president of the on-line computer network for women, Women's Wire.

Lewis, Peter H. "She Defines Autodesk and Women's Issues, Too." NEW YORK TIMES (Late New York Edition), (November 7, 1993): sec.3, p.10.
An interview with Carol Ann Bartz, president and chief executive officer of Autodesk Inc., a large computer software company.

Lippitt, Jill. "The Feminist Face of Computer Technology." WOMAN OF POWER no.11 (Fall 1988): 56-57.
Subtitled "The Vision Behind the National Women's Mailing List," this brief piece argues for using computer technology for empowerment of women.

Lips, Hilary M. and Linda Temple. "Majoring in Computer Science: Causal Models for Women and Men." RESEARCH IN HIGHER EDUCATION v.31, no.1 (February 1990): 99-113.
While attitude toward mathematics seemed to be a stronger factor in men's attitudes toward computerscience.html in this questionnaire survey, for women the key was experience with computerscience.html.

Littman, Jonathan. "Hard Drive." WORKING WOMAN v.18 (June 1993): 44-47+.
Describes Carol Bartz's tenure as president and CEO at Autodesk, a software company in Silicon Valley, and the fight with breast cancer that began on her second day of work.

Lovelace, Augusta Ada Byron King, Countess of; narr. and ed. by Betty A. Toole. ADA, THE ENCHANTRESS OF NUMBERS: A SELECTION FROM THE LETTERS OF LORD BYRON'S DAUGHTER AND HER DESCRIPTION OF THE FIRST COMPUTER. Mill Valley, CA: Strawberry Press, 1992. 440p. index.
Quotes extensively from the Countess' letters, including her notes on the operation of Babbage's "analytical engine," with substantial commentary by Toole on the events of Ada Lovelace's life and work. Amply illustrated.

Mahony, Karen and Bret Van Toen. "Mathematical Formalism as a Means of Occupational Closure in Computing: Why `Hard' Computing Tends to Exclude Women." GENDER AND EDUCATION v.2, no.3 (1990): 319-331.

Markoff, John. "Reprogramming the Hacker Elite." NEW YORK TIMES (Late New York Edition), (January 2, 1994): Sec.3: p.6.
Describes the background and career of Donna Auguste, a black woman who helped create Apple Computer's Newton system.

Martin, C. Dianne and Rachelle S. Heller. "Bringing Young Minority Women to Computers and Science: Developing Intervention Programmes That Work." GATES: GREATER ACCESS TO TECHNOLOGY, ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE JOURNAL, no.1, 1994. From Deakin University, Victoria, Australia.

McCormick, Naomi and John McCormick. "Not for Men Only: Why So Few Women Major in Computer Science." COLLEGE STUDENT JOURNAL v.25, no.3 (September 1991): 345-350.
Though they include some rather sweeping statements about gendered use of and interest in computers, the authors suggest interesting ways to encourage women's participation in computerscience.html programs, including making the lab areas safe, hiring more women faculty, training lab aids in social skills as well as computer expertise, eliminating gender bias in software, curriculum, and assignments.

Meredith, Helen, ed. WOMEN IN TECHNOLOGY: TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE - IMPACT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY. Belconnen, ACT: National Information Technology Council, 1994.
Some history of women in the computing field in Australia.

Milano, Carol. "The Computer Secrets of Six Self-Starters." WORKING WOMAN v.16 (October 1991): 55-56+.
Describes six women-owned small businesses and how they dealt with their computer requirements.

Milic, Andjelka. "Women, Technology and Societal Failure in Former Yugoslavia." BRINGING TECHNOLOGY HOME: GENDER AND TECHNOLOGY IN A CHANGING EUROPE, ed. Cynthia Cockburn and Ruza Furst Dilic, pp.147-164. Philadelphia: Open University Press, 1994.
In a study of rural housewives and high-level computer engineers in the developing Yugoslav economy, the author found a startling similarity in the stereotyping and devaluing of women's work.

Murray, Fergus. "A Separate Reality: Science, Technology and Masculinity." GENDERED BY DESIGN? INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND OFFICE SYSTEMS, ed. Eileen Green et al., pp.64-80. Washington, DC: Taylor & Francis, 1993.

Myers, J. Paul, Jr. "Men Supporting Women Computer Science Students." SIGCSE BULLETIN v.24, no.1 (March 1992): 63-66.

Nebeker, Frederik. "Thelma Estrin, Biomedical Engineer: A Pioneer of Applied Computing." PROCEEDINGS OF THE IEEE v.81, no.10 (October 1993): 1370-1382.
The story of the first woman elected (in 1979) to the IEEE Board of Directors, and a longtime advocate for "`the five R's: recruitment of women students, retention of women students, retraining, redress for discriminated women, and re-education of the profession'" (p.1369, prologue).

Newton, Peggy. "Computing: An Ideal Occupation for Women?" WOMEN AT WORK: PSYCHOLOGICAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL PERSPECTIVES, ed. Jenny Firth-Cozens and Michael A. West, pp.84-97. Bristol, PA: Open University Press, 1991.
Examines the dramatic decrease in the number of women entering computing in the UK, noting problems such as the male-identified image of computers as "boys' toys," access to computers in secondary schools (related to location in science/mathematics departments, clubs, teachers' attitudes, etc.), and career perceptions.

Odedra-Straub, Mayuri. "Women and Information Technology in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Topic for Discussion?" WOMEN ENCOUNTER TECHNOLOGY: CHANGING PATTERNS OF EMPLOYMENT IN THE THIRD WORLD, ed. Swasti Mitter and Sheila Rowbotham, pp.256-277. New York: Routledge in association with the United Nations University Press, 1995.

Oechtering, Veronika and Roswitha Behnke. "Situations and Advancement Measures in Germany." COMMUNICATIONS OF THE ACM v.38, no.1 (January 1995): 75-82.

Ogozalek, Virginia. "A Comparison of Male and Female Computer Science Students' Attitudes Toward Computers." SIGCSE BULLETIN v.21, no.2 (June 1989): 8-14.

Parker, Marla, ed. SHE DOES MATH: REAL-LIFE PROBLEMS FROM WOMEN ON THE JOB. Washington, DC: Mathematical Association of America, 1995.
Women working in the field of mathematics/engineering/computer science pose real problems for the reader to solve. Relevant articles: "Mary E. Campione: Software Engineering; Computer Science" (pp.4-6); "Maryam Shayegan Hastings; Mathematics and Computer Science" (pp.14-17); "Marla Parker: Computer Science" (pp.76-86); "Susan J. LoVerso: Software Engineering" (pp.108-110); "Barbara Swetman: Computer Science and Computer Graphics" (pp.135-138); and "Polly Moore: Mathematics and Computing" (pp.139-141).

Perry, Ruth and Lisa Greber. "Women and Computers: An Introduction." SIGNS, v.16, no.1 (Autumn 1990): 74-101.
A substantial essay on the history of women in computing, from early programmers to microelectronics manufacturing to new women's networks, with analysis of women's interactions with computer technology and a plea for feminists to "keep human concerns foremost in our critique of changing technology" (p.101).

Pfleeger, Shari Lawrence and Mertz, Norma. "Executive Mentoring: What Makes It Work?" COMMUNICATIONS OF THE ACM v.38, no.1 (January 1995): 63-73.
Extensive description and analysis of an actual 18-month mentoring program.

Preston, Christina. "Creative Telematics." WOMEN, WORK, AND COMPUTERIZATION: BREAKING OLD BOUNDARIES, BUILDING NEW FORMS, ed. Alison Adam et al., pp.187-201. Amsterdam; New York: Elsevier, 1994.
"Traces the life story of an educational computing professional" (a "late entrant to computing" from the fields of English and drama) and offers a female perspective of the future of computing (author's abstract).

Rasmussen, Bente and Tove Hapnes. "Excluding Women from the Technologies of the Future? A Case Study of the Culture of Computer Science." FUTURES v.23, no.10 (December 1991): 1107-1119.
Explores the culture of hackers and other males in the field of computerscience.html and their impact on women students.

Rifkin, Glenn. "The `Iron Lady' Keeping Lotus on Track." NEW YORK TIMES (Late New York Edition), (January 23, 1994): sec.3, p.10.
A look at June L. Rokoff, senior vice-president for software development at Lotus Development, who is a target for executive-seeking recruiters due to her success in both dealing with new technology and managing people.

Schelhowe, Heidi and Karin Vosseberg. "Aspects of Women's Research in Computer Science." WOMEN, WORK AND COMPUTERIZATION: UNDERSTANDING AND OVERCOMING BIAS IN WORK AND EDUCATION, ed. Inger V. Eriksson et al., pp.67-80. New York: Elsevier, 1991.

Schneider, Karen. "Four Librarians of the Apocalypse." WILSON LIBRARY BULLETIN v.69, no.2 (October 1994): 35-38.
Schneider examines the email comments of four librarians working with automation issues, concluding that in order to preserve the professional service function of the "librarian" title, such "technowomen" need to "seek support [mentors], promote yourself, publish, and re-image your skills not only to react to the present, but also to shape the future."

Schwartz, Evan. "The Lucie Show: Shaking Up a Stodgy IBM." BUSINESS WEEK (April 6, 1992): 64-65.
A look at Lucie J. Fjeldstad, vice-president and general manager of IBM's multimedia division, and her attempts to move IBM toward more consumer electronics marketing.

Shapiro, G. "Informal Processes and Women's Careers in Information Technology Management." WOMEN, WORK, AND COMPUTERIZATION: BREAKING OLD BOUNDARIES, BUILDING NEW FORMS, ed. Alison Adam et al., pp.423-437. Amsterdam; New York: Elsevier, 1994.

Shatin, Judith. "Women in Computer Music: A Sampling." AWC NEWS/FORUM, v.ix (Spring/Summer 1991): 3-7.
Surveys the accomplishments of musicians Joanne D. Carey, Emma Lou Diemer, Janis Mattox, Linda Seltzer, Judith Shatin, and Diane Thome, with brief biographies and a discography.

Sonnentag, S. "Team Leading in Software Development: A Comparison Between Women and Men." WOMEN, WORK, AND COMPUTERIZATION: BREAKING OLD BOUNDARIES, BUILDING NEW FORMS, ed. Alison Adam et al., pp.379-391. Amsterdam; New York: Elsevier, 1994.

Sproull, Lee S., et al. "Encountering an Alien Culture." JOURNAL OF SOCIAL ISSUES v.40, no.3 (Fall 1984): 31-48.

Stanley, Autumn. "Daughters of the Enchantress of Numbers and Grandma Cobol: Women Inventors and Innovators in Computers and Related Technology." MOTHERS AND DAUGHTERS OF INVENTION: NOTES FOR A REVISED HISTORY OF TECHNOLOGY, pp.629-745. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1993.
This extensive treatment of women in the field of computers/information technology looks at pioneers such as Ada Lovelace and Grace Hopper, notes the machine/hardware designers from the "ENIAC girls" onward, describes the work of many women in software/applications development, and offers an extensive bibliography.

Stein, Dorothy. "Sex and the Cobol Cabal." NEW SCIENTIST v.115 (September 1987): 79-80.
A brief history of women computer programmers and the development of the Cobol language.

Stein, Dorothy. ADA: A LIFE AND A LEGACY. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1985. 321p. ill. index.
Biography of Ada Byron, Countess of Lovelace, a contributor to the early computational machine put together by Babbage. An earlier book on the Countess is ADA, COUNTESS OF LOVELACE: BYRON'S LEGITIMATE DAUGHTER by Doris Langley Moore (New York: Harper & Row, 1977).

Stoltenberg, John. "Turning Problems into Profits." WORKING WOMAN v.13 (May 1988): 63-64+.
Profiles four women whose businesses teach new users about hardware and software.

Strober, Myra H. and Carolyn L. Arnold. INTEGRATED CIRCUITS/SEGREGATED LABOR: WOMEN IN THREE COMPUTER-RELATED OCCUPATIONS. Stanford, CA: Institute for Research on Educational Finance and Governance, School of Education, Stanford University, 1984. 46p.

Teague, Joy and Valerie Clarke. "Fiction and Fact: Students' and Professionals' Perceptions of Women in Computer Science." WOMEN, WORK AND COMPUTERIZATION: UNDERSTANDING AND OVERCOMING BIAS IN WORK AND EDUCATION, ed. Inger V. Eriksson et al., pp.363-375. New York: Elsevier, 1991.

Teague, Joy. "Raising the Self Confidence and Self-Esteem of Final Year Female Students Prior to Job Interviews." SIGCSE BULLETIN v.24, no.1 (March 1992): 67-71.
Describes a "one-day seminar on handling job interviews" (abstract) with positive evaluations both immediatedly post-seminar and six months later.

Tierney, Margaret. "Negotiating a Software Career: Informal Work Practices and `The Lads' in a Software Installation." THE GENDER-TECHNOLOGY RELATION: CONTEMPORARY THEORY AND RESEARCH, ed. Keith Grint and Rosalind Gill, pp.192-209. Bristol, PA: Taylor and Francis, 1995.

Tijdens, Kea. "Women in EDP Departments." WOMEN, WORK AND COMPUTERIZATION: UNDERSTANDING AND OVERCOMING BIAS IN WORK AND EDUCATION, ed. Inger V. Eriksson et al., pp.377-390. New York: Elsevier, 1991.

"The Top 100 Women." WOMEN IN COMPUTING no.2 (1996): 16-34.
McGraw-Hill Publishing Companies' second annual listing of women in computing offers paragraph-length career briefs (and many photos) of women in both larger companies (Coca-Cola and Xerox among them) and smaller firms.

Tropp, Henry S. "Grace Hopper: The Youthful Teacher of Us All." ABACUS v.2, no.1 (1984): 7-18.

Turkle, Sherry. "Women and Computer Programming: A Different Approach." TECHNOLOGY REVIEW v.87 (November/December 1984): 48-50.

van Oost, E.C.J. "The Process of Sex-Typing of Computer Occupations." WOMEN, WORK AND COMPUTERIZATION: UNDERSTANDING AND OVERCOMING BIAS IN WORK AND EDUCATION, ed. Inger V. Eriksson et al., pp.407-421. New York: Elsevier, 1991.

Vare, Ethlie Ann and Greg Ptacek. "Hopper, Grace, Naval Officer and Computer Scientist." MOTHERS OF INVENTION: FROM THE BRA TO THE BOMB: FORGOTTEN WOMEN & THEIR UNFORGETTABLE IDEAS. New York: Quill, 1987.
Other brief biographical passages appear in James Cortada's HISTORICAL DICTIONARY OF DATA PROCESSING: BIOGRAPHIES (Greenwood Press, 1987) and PORTRAITS IN SILICON by Robert Slater (MIT Press, 1987). MOTHERS OF INVENTION also includes a piece on Ada Lovelace.

Vehvilainen, Marja. "Living Through the Boundaries of Information Systems Expertise: A Work History of a Finnish Woman Systems Developer." WOMEN, WORK, AND COMPUTERIZATION: BREAKING OLD BOUNDARIES, BUILDING NEW FORMS, ed. Alison Adam et al., pp.107-120. Amsterdam: New York: Elsevier, 1994.
Uses an oral work history and texts to explore how "women's subjectivities" can be considered in systems development.

"Where Career Ladders are Like Roller Coasters." WORKING WOMAN v.14 (May 1989): 55-56+.
Profiles of five women working in large high-tech corporations, noting that regular upheavals in such industries create opportunities for women's advancement. The women are: Patricia Higgins (AT&T), Kathryn Braun (Western Digital), Susan Kelly Barnes (Next), Anne-Lee Verville (IBM), and Patricia Wallington (Massachusetts Mutual Life Insurance).

Whitehouse, Diane. "Women, Employment, and Information Technology: A View from the United Kingdom." THE INFORMATION SOCIETY: EVOLVING LANDSCAPES, ed. Jacques Berleur et al., pp.340-355. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1990.

Wilder, Clinton. "Women in Charge." COMPUTERWORLD v.26, no.20 (May 18, 1992): 155.
Profiles three women executives who crossed over from information systems management to business management: Katherine Hudson (Eastman Kodak), Patricia Barron (Xerox), and Susan Mersereau (Weyerhaeuser).

"The Wizards of Oz." MADEMOISELLE v.100 (September 1994): 227.
Interviews with Phoebe Sengers and Alma Whitten on their careers in computer work.

WOMEN OF COMPUTER HISTORY: FORGOTTEN PIONEERS. Wilmington, DE: World Information Institute, 1989. unpaged. (Not examined.)

WOMEN, MINORITIES, AND PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES IN SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING: 1994. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation, 1994. 404p.
Statistical tables and analyses offer information on undergraduate and graduate women in computerscience.html, number of degrees awarded, etc.

Wright, Rosemary. WOMEN IN COMPUTER CAREERS: CONTROLLED PROGRESS IN A MALE OCCUPATION. Philadelphia, PA: Ph.D. dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1994. 258p.
Using statistics from the Department of Education, the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and a National Science Foundation survey including 6,200 computer workers, this study concluded that although "the earnings gap narrowed and gender segregation lessened during the 1980s,...after two decades of rising, women's representation in computer work began to fall" and that "many women are disadvantaged by their lack of engineering credentials and experience" (author's abstract).

Yap, Chee Sing and Helen Tng. "Factors Associated with Attitudes Towards Telecommuting." INFORMATION AND MANAGEMENT v.19 (November 1990): 227-235.

Zientara, Marguerite. WOMEN, TECHNOLOGY AND POWER: TEN STARS AND THE HISTORY THEY MADE. New York: Amacom, 1987. 282p. bibl. index.
Interviews with ten women who worked in the development of the microcomputer industry between 1975 and 1985, in such areas as hardware and software design, venture capital, analysis, and consulting.

EDUCATION

There are so many studies available on gender and information technology in the field of education that it's impossible to evaluate them without subject expertise. Not a comprehensive listing, this collection is more of a sampling of the studies analyzing gender factors in attitudes toward and use of computers, stereotypes, gendered computer games, cross-cultural comparisons, and the like. Many citations come from other bibliographies or indexes, so be aware that the serious researcher in this area will have some sifting and winnowing to do to find the most relevant information. The resources included in this section are focused more on K-12 and general undergraduate use of computers, as opposed to the study of women computer science students (see the "Computer Science" section for these), though there is obviously overlap between these categories.

This section is very selective of pre-1988 materials, relying instead on more recent reviews of the literature (see citations marked with *). Some earlier articles are included due to their particular angle of the research (mathematics, women's studies, counseling, age group, etc.) or the "classic" nature of the study. A number of more general studies on gender and technology or gender and mathematics are not included here but are likely cited by some of the articles listed and may provide useful information for researchers.

Anderson, Ronald E. "Females Surpass Males in Computer Problem Solving: Findings From the Minnesota Computer Literacy Assessment." JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL COMPUTING RESEARCH v.3, no.1 (1987): 39-51.

Angell, Marion D. "A Program to Develop through LOGO the Computer Self-Confidence of Seventh Grade Low-Achieving Girls." M.S. Practicum, Nova University, 1991. 70p. Available from ERIC: ED 341382.
Results showed the seventh-grade low-achieving girls increased their self-confidence regarding computers through LOGO programming work.

Apple, Michael and Susan Jungck. "'You Don't Have to Be a Teacher to Teach This Unit': Teaching, Technology, and Gender in the Classroom." AMERICAN EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL v.27, no.2 (Summer 1990): 227-251.
Reports on a study of use of a computer literacy curriculum by teachers. While use of the prepackaged curriculum seemed to not enhance their skills, it did ease the intensity of some teachers' dual-job (work and home) schedules by saving planning/preparation time.

Arenz, Bernard and Miheon J. Lee. "Gender Differences in the Selection of Elective Computer Science Courses." 1989. 33p. From "Proceedings of Selected Research Papers presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (Dallas, TX, February 1-5, 1989)." Available from ERIC: ED308806.

Arenz, Bernard W. and Miheon J. Lee. "Gender Differences in the Attitude, Interest and Participation of Secondary Students in Computer Use." 1990. ED 327389. 68p. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Boston, MA, April 16-20, 1990). Available from ERIC: ED327389.
Summary of a series of studies carried out over three years in middle and high school levels.

Baines, S. "Personal Computing, Gender and Distance Education." WOMEN, WORK AND COMPUTERIZATION: UNDERSTANDING AND OVERCOMING BIAS IN WORK AND EDUCATION, ed. Inger V. Eriksson et al., pp.267-282. New York: Elsevier, 1991.

Becker, Henry J. and Carleton W. Sterling. "Equity in School Computer Use: National Data and Neglected Considerations." JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL COMPUTING RESEARCH v.3, no.3 (1987): 289-311.

Beeson, Betty Spillers and R. Ann Williams. "The Effects of Gender and Age on Preschool Children's Choice of the Computer as a Child-Selected Activity." JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR INFORMATION SCIENCE v.36, no.5 (1985): 339-341.

Bell, Margaret. "By George, She's Got IT!" WOMEN, WORK, AND COMPUTERIZATION: BREAKING OLD BOUNDARIES, BUILDING NEW FORMS, ed. Alison Adam et al., pp.225-230. Amsterdam; New York: Elsevier, 1994.
Examines the concerns of the National Council for Educational Technology (Great Britain) as to girls' educational participation with information technology.

Bernhard, Judith K. "Gender-Related Attitudes and the Development of Computer Skills: A Preschool Intervention." ALBERTA JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH v.38, no.3 (September 1992): 177-188.

Bitter, Gary G. "Technology and Minorities: A Local Program Aimed at Increasing Technological Capabilities of Hispanic Women." COMPUTERS IN THE SCHOOLS v.9, no.1 (1992): 7-29.

Bland, Jana. "Gender Inequity a Decade Later: Still Hampering Female Potential in Educational Technology." THE DELTA KAPPA GAMMA BULLETIN v.61 (Summer 1995): 29-32.

Bohlin, Roy M. "Computers and Gender Differences: Achieving Equity." COMPUTERS IN THE SCHOOLS v.9, nos.2-3 (1993): 155-166.

* Borgo, Suzanne Lavon. "Ideology and Science: An Interpretive Analysis of Research on Gender, Computers, and Education." Charlottesville, VA: Ph.D. dissertation, University of Virginia, 1992. 202p.
Reviews 104 empirical studies on gender, computers and education.

Brady, Holly and Twila Slesnick. "Girls Don't Like Fluffware Either." CLASSROOM COMPUTER LEARNING v.5 (April/May 1985): 22-24+.

Bromley, Hank. ENGENDERING TECHNOLOGY: THE SOCIAL PRACTICE OF EDUCATIONAL COMPUTING. Madison, WI: Ph.D. dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1995. 474p.

Brunet, Jean and Serge Prouix. "Formal Versus Grass-Roots Training: Women, Work and Computers." JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION v.39, no.3 (1989): 77-84.
Descriptions of two microcomputer training programs offered in Montreal, one based on more traditional methods, another run by a neighborhood group.

Brunner, Corneila. "Gender and Distance Learning." ANNALS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF POLITICAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCE v.514 (March 1991): 133-145.
Part of special issue titled "Electronics for Learning," ed. by Vivian M. Homer and Linda G. Roberts.

Burstyn, Joan N. "'Who Benefits and Who Suffers': Gender and Education at the Dawn of the Age of Information Technology." YEARBOOK (National Society for the Study of Education) 92nd, part 1 (1993): 107-125.

Busch, Tor. "Gender Differences in Self-Efficacy and Attitudes Toward Computers." JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL COMPUTING RESEARCH v.12, no.2 (1995): 147-158.

* Cambre, Marjorie A. and Desmond L. Cook. "Computer Anxiety: Definition, Measurement, and Correlates." 1984. 33p. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (New Orleans, LA, April 23-27, 1984). Available from ERIC: ED246085.
Though not specifically focused on gender, this review of available research is potentially useful in examining an anxiety often expressed by women students.

* Canada, Katherine and Frank Brusca. "The Technological Gender Gap: Evidence and Recommendations for Educators and Computer-Based Instruction Designers." EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT v.39, no.2 (1991): 43-51.
Reviewing research that documents different computer-related attitudes, behaviors, and skills from elementary through college level, the authors suggest interventions ranging from acknowledging the problem to restructuring computer facilities to redesigning software.

Chen, Milton. "Gender and Computers: The Beneficial Effects of Experience on Attitudes." JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL COMPUTING RESEARCH v.2, no.3 (1986): 265-282.

* Chivers, Geoff. "Information Technology -- Girls and Education: A Cross-Cultural Review." WOMEN AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, ed. Marilyn J. Davidson and Cary L. Cooper, pp.13-32. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1987.

Cianni, Mary and Andrea Growney. "PC Squared: Programming Computers, Planning Careers." JOURNAL OF THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR WOMEN DEANS, ADMINISTRATORS, & COUNSELORS v.50 (Spring 1987): 33-38.

Clariana, Roy B. and Charles W. Schultz. "Gender by Content Achievement Differences in Computer-based Instruction." THE JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS IN MATHEMATICS AND SCIENCE TEACHING v.12, nos.3-4 (1993): 277-288.

Clarke, V.A. "Sex Differences in Computing Participation: Concerns, Extent, Reasons and Strategies." AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF EDUCATION v.34 (1990): 52-66.

Clarke, Valerie and Susan M. Chambers. "Gender-Based Factors in Computing Enrollments and Achievement: Evidence from a Study of Tertiary Students." JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL COMPUTING RESEARCH v.5, no.4 (1989): 409-429.

Clewell, Beatriz C. INTERVENTION PROGRAMS IN MATHEMATICS, SCIENCE, AND COMPUTER SCIENCE FOR MINORITY AND FEMALE STUDENTS IN GRADES FOUR THROUGH EIGHT. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service, 1987. 120p. ill.

Clewell, Beatriz C., et al. "The Prevalence and Nature of Mathematics, Science, and Computer Science Intervention Programs Serving Minority and Female Students in Grades Four Through Eight." EQUITY & EXCELLENCE v.25 (Winter 1992): 209-215.

* Cole, Anne, et al. "Information Technology and Gender: Problems and Proposals." GENDER AND EDUCATION, v.6, no.1 (1994): 77-85.
This survey of recent research on gender bias in favor of males at the secondary level in Scotland highlights problem areas and offers suggestions for classroom teaching.

Colley, Ann M., et al. "Effects of Gender Role Identity and Experience on Computer Attitude Components." JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL COMPUTING RESEARCH v.10, no.2 (1994): 129-137.

Colley, Ann M., et al. "Gender Effects in the Stereotyping of Those With Different Kinds of Computing Experience." JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL COMPUTING RESEARCH v.12, no.1 (1995): 19-27.

Collis, Betty and Lloyd Ollila. "The Effect of Computer Use on Grade 1 Children's Gender Stereotypes About Reading, Writing and Computer Use." JOURNAL OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT IN EDUCATION v.24 (Fall 1990): 14-20.

Collis, Betty and Richard Williams. "Cross-cultural Comparison of Gender Differences in Adolescents' Attitudes Toward Computers and Selected School Subjects." JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH v.81 (Sept./Oct. 1987): 17-27.

Collis, Betty. "Adolescent Females and Computers: Real and Perceived Barriers." DESPITE THE ODDS: ESSAYS ON CANADIAN WOMEN AND SCIENCE, ed. Marianne Gosztonyi Ainley, pp.272-283. Montreal: Vehicule Press, 1990.

Collis, Betty. "Psychosocial Implications of Sex Differences in Attitudes Toward Computers: Results of a Survey." INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF WOMEN'S STUDIES v.8, no.3 (1985): 207-213.
A survey of attitudes among 3,000 secondary school students found strong differences between young men and women, with women convinced of the overall abilities of their gender but less confident about their individual competence with computers (dubbed the "we can, but I can't" paradox). See also: "Sex-Related Differences in Attitudes Toward Computers: Implications for Counselors" in SCHOOL COUNSELOR v.33, no.2 (1985): 120-130.

Collis, Betty. "Sex Differences in the Association Between Secondary School Students' Attitudes Toward Mathematics and Toward Computers." JOURNAL FOR RESEARCH IN MATHEMATICS EDUCATION v.18, no.5 (1987): 394-402.

* "Computers for All Children: A Literature Review of Equity Issues in Computer Utilization." San Francisco, CA: Far West Laboratory for Educational Research and Development, 1985. 31p.

THE COMPUTING TEACHER v.11, no.8 (April 1984); special issue: "Computer Equity: Overview, Research, Practical Ideas," ed. Sharon Franklin.
Includes: "Inequities in Opportunities for Computer Literacy" (Ronald E. Anderson et al.); "Equity in Computer Education" (Sen. Frank R. Lautenberg); "Computer Education for ALL Students" (Anthony J. Alvarado); "Sex Equity: Increasing Girls' Use of Computers" (Marlaine E. Lockheed and Steven B. Frakt); "Computer Equity and Computer Educators (You)" (John Lipkin); "Enrollment Differences in Computer Camps and Summer Classes" (Irene T. Miura and Robert D. Hess); "Access to Computers" (Glenn Fisher); "Practical Solutions to Overcoming Equity in Computer Use" (Jane G. Schubert and Thomas W. Bakke); "The Computer: Male, Female, or Androgynous?" (Jo Shuchat Sanders).

Crutzen, C.K.M., et al. "Women in Informatics at the Open University of The Netherlands." WOMEN, WORK AND COMPUTERIZATION: UNDERSTANDING AND OVERCOMING BIAS IN WORK AND EDUCATION, ed. Inger V. Eriksson et al., pp.282-296. New York: Elsevier, 1991.

Culley, Lorraine. "Girls, Boys and Computers." EDUCATIONAL STUDIES v.14, no.1 1988: 3-8.
A study of 974 fourth and fifth-year students in British secondary schools, including those in two all-girls' schools, plus a survey of 238 additional school programs. See also: GENDER DIFFERENCES AND COMPUTING IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS (Loughborough, UK: Department of Education, Loughborough University of Techology, 1986), a 77-page, illustrated study.

Culley, Lorraine. "Option Choice and Careers Guidance: Gender and Computing in Secondary Schools." WESTERN EUROPEAN EDUCATION v.21. no.4 (Winter 1989-90): 41-53.
British secondary school career guidance personnel, according to this analysis of a previous study, attribute sex-stereotyped choices to non-school factors and tend not to intervene within the school program. (See "Girls, Boys and Computers.")

Damarin, Suzanne K. "Equity, Caring, and Beyond: Can Feminist Ethics Inform Educational Technology?" EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY v.34 (February 1994): 34-39.

Damarin, Suzanne K. "Rethinking Science and Mathematics Curriculum and Instruction: Feminist Perspectives in the Computer Era." JOURNAL OF EDUCATION v.173, no.1 (1991): 107-123.
Basing her thinking on such researchers as Harding, Bleier, Fausto-Sterling, Keller, McKee, and others, the author suggests that though existing educational computing curricula are more male-oriented, "computers have much unexplored potential" (p.109), and offers guidelines for feminist instructional software.

Damarin, Suzanne K. "Women and Information Technology: Framing Some Issues for Education." FEMINIST TEACHER v.6, no.2 (Fall 1991): 16-20.
A questioning look at the relationship of computers to women, in both education and work settings, and discussion of the need for women's perspectives and attitudes in the ongoing development of new technologies.

Daniels, Jane Zimmer. "Expanding the Pipeline: Programs Target Women, Girls." COMPUTING RESEARCH NEWS v.6, no.3 (May 1994).

DeRemer, Mary. "The Computer Gap in Elementary School." COMPUTERS IN THE SCHOOLS v.6, no.3/4 (1989): 39-49.

Durndell, Alan and P. Lightbody. "Gender and Computing: Change Over Time?" COMPUTERS & EDUCATION v.21 (November 1993): 331-336.

Durndell, Alan D. "Why Do Female Students Tend to Avoid Computer Studies?" RESEARCH IN SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGICAL EDUCATION v.8, no.2 (1990): 163-170.
A sample of 210 students of naturalscience.htmls and business responded to a questionnaire as to why they chose not to study computing. Both sexes, particularly females, preferred working with humans rather than sitting at a machine, with other factors having less impact. See also: "Gender Differences and Computing in Course Choice at Entry into Higher Education" in BRITISH EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL v.16, no.2 (1990): 149-162.

Eager, C.J. "Developing a Computing Access Course for Women: A Course Tutor's Perspective." WOMEN, WORK AND COMPUTERIZATION: UNDERSTANDING AND OVERCOMING BIAS IN WORK AND EDUCATION, ed. Inger V. Eriksson et al., pp.297-312. New York: Elsevier, 1991.

Eastman, Susan T. and Kathy A. Krendl. "Computers and Gender: Differential Effects of Electronic Search on Students' Achievement and Attitudes." JOURNAL OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT IN EDUCATION v.20, no.3 (Spring 1987): 41-48.

Ekljaer, Bente. "Girls and Information Technology in Denmark: An Account of a Socially Constructed Problem." GENDER & EDUCATION v.4, nos.1/2 (1992): 25-40.

Eley, Penny and Penny Simons. "Languages and the Computer: Opportunities to Develop IT Skills." WOMEN, WORK, AND COMPUTERIZATION: BREAKING OLD BOUNDARIES, BUILDING NEW FORMS, ed. Alison Adam et al., pp.255-268. Amsterdam; New York: Elsevier, 1994.
Relates the "experiences of two women academics in introducing information technology into the curriculum of a university French department" as an alternative to students experiencing potentially alienating computer courses.

Elliott, Alison. "Effects of Gender on Preschoolers' Play and Learning in Logo Environments." JOURNAL OF COMPUTING IN CHILDHOOD EDUCATION v.4, no.2 (1993): 103-124.

Ellsworth, Elizabeth. "Computer Equity Through Gendered Software?" FEMINIST COLLECTIONS v.7, no.3 (Spring 1986): 6-9.

Fish, Marian, et al. "The Effect of Equity Strategies on Girls' Computer Usage in School." COMPUTERS IN HUMAN BEHAVIOR v.2, no.2 (1986): 127-134.
This study found that intervention strategies significantly increased middle school girls' computer usage. Intervention techniques were based on THE NEUTER COMPUTER by Jo Shuchat and Antonia Stone (see that entry).

Forsyth, Alfred S. "Girls and Microcomputers: A Hopeful Finding Regarding Software." COMPUTERS IN THE SCHOOLS v.6, no.3/4 (1989): 51-59.

Francis, Leslie J. "Measuring Attitude Toward Computers Among Undergraduate College Students: The Affective Domain." COMPUTERS & EDUCATION v.20, no.3 (April 1993): 251-255.

Francis, Leslie J. "The Relationship between Computer Related Attitudes and Gender Stereotyping of Computer Use." COMPUTERS & EDUCATION v.22 (May 1994): 283-289.

Fuchs, Lucy. "Closing the Gender Gap: Girls and Computers." January 1986. Paper presented at the Florida Instructional Computing conference (Orlando, Fl, January 21-24, 1986). 10p. Available from ERIC: ED271103.

Gailey, Stavroula K. "The G.A.M.E.S. Experience." THE DELTA KAPPA GAMMA BULLETIN v.58 (Summer 1992): 47-52.
Discusses the "Girls and Mathematics Equals Success" program.

Gattiker, Urs E. "Individual Differences and Acquiring Computer Literacy: Are Women More Efficient Than Men?" Edmonton, Alberta, Canada: Lethbridge University Faculty of Management, 1989. 63p. Available from ERIC: ED311344.
Finds evidence for women being more successful in transferring computer practice into better learning performance across ability groups.

George, Yolanda S., et al. "Computer Equity for the Future." COMMUNICATIONS OF THE ACM v.36 (May 1993): 78-81.
As VCR's, CD players, microwaves, and other equipment move more people toward interactions with computer technology, educators are working on training for teachers and children in low-income areas.

Gilstrap, Myrna Loy Minter. INFLUENCE OF COMPUTER LITERACY UPON RE-ENTRY WOMEN IN OFFICE SYSTEMS AND OFFICE TECHNOLOGY CLASSES (WOMEN STUDENTS). Lubbock, TX: Ph.D. dissertation, Texas Woman's University, 1994. 150p.

Griffiths, Morwenna and Margaret Alfrey. "A Stereotype in the Making: Girls and Computers in Primary Schools." EDUCATIONAL REVIEW v.41, no.1 (1989): 73-79.
Noting that sex differences in computer use in schools likely results from the way computers are introduced, associated with math and science and of use primarily with older children, the authors argue that integration of the computer across the whole primary curriculum would help diminish stereotypes.

Grignon, Jerilyn R. "Computer Experience of Menominee Indian Students: Gender Differences in Coursework and Use of Software." JOURNAL OF AMERICAN INDIAN EDUCATION v.32 (May 1993): 1-15.

Harrington, Susan Marie. "Barriers to Women in Undergraduate Computer Science: The Effects of the Computer Environment on the Success and Continuance of Female Students." Eugene, OR: Ph.D. dissertation, University of Oregon, 1990. 202p.
From interviews, enrollment and achievement records in computer science courses, and review of the literature, the author found that women students in computerscience.html achieved better overall grades yet dropped out at a higher rate than men, suggesting that "enculturating and socializing forces" rather than any deficiency in ability was the cause of women's underrepresentation in the field.

Hattie, John and Donald Fitzgerald. "Sex Differences in Attitudes, Achievement and Use of Computers." AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF EDUCATION v.31, no.1 (April 1987): 3-26.

Hesse-Biber, Sharlene and Melissa Kesler Gilbert. "Closing the Technological Gender Gap: Feminist Pedagogy in the Computer-assisted Classroom." TEACHING SOCIOLOGY v.22 (January 1994): 19-31.

Hodes, Carol L. "Gender Representations in Mathematics Software." [1995]. 13p. Available from ERIC: ED380277.
Examines representation of gender in popular mathematics software for grades K-6 (12 % of main characters were female, all in traditional female roles).

Huff, Charles and Joel Cooper. "Sex Bias in Educational Software: The Effect of Designers' Stereotypes on the Software They Design." JOURNAL OF APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY v.17, no.6 (1987): 519-532.

Inkpen, Kori, et al. "'We Have Never-Forgetful Flowers in Our Garden': Girls' Responses to Electronic Games." JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS IN MATHEMATICS AND SCIENCE TEACHING v.13, no.4 (1994): 383-403.

Jacobson, Frances F. "Finding Help in All the Right Places: Working Toward Gender Equity." JOURNAL OF YOUTH SERVICES IN LIBRARIES v.7 (Spring 1994): 289-293.
Discusses the use of computers in libraries and how to help girls in making use of computer opportunities.

Jacobson, Frances F. "Gender Differences in Attitudes toward Using Computers in Libraries: An Exploratory Study." LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE RESEARCH v.13, no.3 (July-September 1991): 267-279.
Looks at the relationship between library anxiety and computer anxiety.

Jennings, Mary and Robyn Smits. TEACHING COMPUTING TO WOMEN: A RESOURCE PACK. Cambridge: National Extension College, 1986. 87p. bibl. ill.
Geared to women who believe they know little about computers, with reproducible materials, a feminist perspective, and information on Third World women's participation in electronics manufacturing, health and safety concerns, and the effects of computers on employment.

Jones, Trudi and Valerie A. Clarke. "Diversity as a Determinant of Attitudes: A Possible Explanation of the Apparent Advantage of Single-Sex Settings." JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL COMPUTING RESEARCH v.12, no.1 (1995): 51-64.

Kay, J., et al. "Not Even Well Begun: Women in Computing Courses." HIGHER EDUCATION v.18, no.5 (1989): 511-527.
Based on a 1985 Australian study, this review finds that overemphasis on the technology of computers and on mathematics feeds into gender stereotypes that eliminate many women from beginning computer courses, though women's performance equals or exceeds men's by the final year of the program.

* Kay, Robin H. "An Analysis of Methods Used to Examine Gender Differences in Computer-related Behavior." JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL COMPUTING RESEARCH v.8, no.3 (1992): 277-290.
Reviews the literature on gender differences in computing and finds conflicting results, largely, the author concludes, due to sloppy methodology, including faulty sample selection, scale development, and analysis. Five suggested guides for better research are presented. See also: "A Critical Evaluation of Gender Differences in Computer-related Behavior" in COMPUTERS IN THE SCHOOLS v.9, no.4 (1993): 81-93.

* Kay, Robin H. "An Examination of Gender Differences in Computer Attitudes, Aptitude, and Use." April 1992. 28p. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the American Educational Research Association (San Francisco, CA, April 20-24, 1992). Available from ERIC: ED346848.
Critiques the confusing array of studies of gender differences in computer-related behaviors, suggesting that results depend on attitudes assessed, skills being measured, use of the computer, and age group. See also: "Understanding Gender Differences in Computer Attitudes, Aptitude, and Use: An Invitation to Build Theory" in JOURNAL OF RESEARCH ON COMPUTING IN EDUCATION v.25 (Winter 1992): 159-171.

Kay, Robin H. "Gender Differences in Computer Attitudes, Literacy, Locus of Control and Commitment." JOURNAL OF RESEARCH ON COMPUTING IN EDUCATION v.21 (Spring 1989): 307-316.

Kiesler, Sara, et al. "Pool Halls, Chips, and War Games: Women in the Culture of Computing." PSYCHOLOGY OF WOMEN QUARTERLY, v.9, no.4 (1985): 451-462.
Noting that "the world of computing seems to be more consistent with male adolescent culture than with feminist values and goals," the authors conclude th at games and software need to be designed differently in order to reach girls. Better teacher training programs are also suggested.

Kim, Young Hoi. A LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF THE INTERACTION BETWEEN GENDER, COMPUTER ANXIETY, MATH ANXIETY, AND TEST ANXIETY IN A COLLEGE-LEVEL COMPUTERIZED TESTING SITUATION. Lubbock, TX: Ed.d. dissertation, Texas Tech University, 1992.

Kirk, David. "Gender Issues in Information Technology as Found in Schools: Authentic/Synthetic/Fantastic?" EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY v.32, no.4 (April 1992): 28-31.

Kirkup, Gill. "Considering the Effect on Women Students of an Increased Use of Microcomputers in Distance Education." Walton, Bletchley, Buck, England: Open University, Institute of Educational Technology, 1988. CITE Report No. 28. 13p. Paper presented at the International Council for Distance Education World Conference (Oslo, Norway, August 9-16, 1988). Available from ERIC: ED327180.
Questions the impact of a requirement for home computer use among female Open University students who have less access to computers and are less likely to register for courses requiring computer use.

Kirkup, Gill. "Sowing Seeds: Initiatives for Improving the Representation of Women." TOWARDS NEW HORIZONS FOR WOMEN IN DISTANCE EDUCATION, ed. K. Faith, pp.287-312. New York: Routledge, 1988.

Klein, Reva. "Canterbury at the Cutting Edge." THE TIMES EDUCATIONAL SUPPLEMENT v.4056 (March 25, 1994), Update: 24-25.

Koch, Melissa. "No Girls Allowed!" TECHNOS v.3, no.3 (Fall 1994): 14-19.

Koch, Melissa. "Opening Up Technology to Both Genders." EDUCATION DIGEST v.60 no.3 (November 1994): 18-22

Kramer, Pamela E. and Sheila Lehman. "Mismeasuring Women: A Critique of Research on Computer Ability and Avoidance." SIGNS v.16, no.1 (Fall 1990): 158-172.
Suggests that measurement of computer learning needs to be redefined away from mathematics-related criteria toward more sociocultural contexts of computing.

Krendl, Kathy, et al. "Children and Computers: Do Sex-Related Differences Persist?" JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION v.39, no.3 (Summer 1989): 85-93.
A three-year longitudinal study concludes that gender differences persist in measures of both interest in computers and confidence in computer skills eve n after experience over time.

Lage, Elizabeth. "Boys, Girls, and Microcomputing." EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF MICROCOMPUTING v.6, no.1 (March 1991): 29-44.
This study found younger students more accepting of technical fields for both sexes; older students were more negative about technical fields for girls.

Leach, Juliette D. and Shirley L. Roberts. "A Soft Technology: Recruiting and Retaining Women and Minorities in High Tech Programs." COMMUNITY, TECHNICAL, AND JUNIOR COLLEGE JOURNAL v.59 (Oct./Nov. 1988): 34-37.

Lewis, Linda H. "Females and Computers: Fostering Involvement." WOMEN, WORK, AND TECHNOLOGY: TRANSFORMATIONS, ed. Barbara Drygulski Wright et al., pp.268-280. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1987.
Examines factors that make for inequities in use of computers by girls and women: media portrayals of computer users, peer approval and support, parental encouragement, female mentors, types of software, attention to cognitive learning styles, etc.

Liu, Min, et al. "Teacher Education Students and Computers: Gender, Major, Prior Computer Experience, Occurrence, and Anxiety." JOURNAL OF RESEARCH ON COMPUTING IN EDUCATION v.24 (Summer 1992): 457-467.

Lockheed, Marlaine E. SEX ROLES v.13, nos.3-4 (August 1985): special issue: "Women, Girls, and Computers."
Articles on education-related topics (see "General" section for other articles) include: "Cognitive Engagement Variations Among Students of Different Ability Level and Sex in a Computer Problem Solving Game" (Ellen B. Mandinach and Lyn Corno); "Computers and Girls: Rethinking the Issues" (Jan Hawkins); "Fostering Equitable Consequences from Computer Learning Environments" (Marcia C. Linn); "Gender and Computers: Two Surveys of Computer-Related Attitudes" (Gita Wilder et al.); "Gender Differences in Enrollment in Computer Camps and Classrooms" (Robert D. Hess and Irene T. Miura); "Men and Women as Computer-Using Teachers" (Henry J. Becker); "Sex Differences on the California Statewide Assessment of Computer Literacy" (Mark Fetler); and "Teachers as Role Models: Are There Gender Differences in Microcomputer-Based Mathematics and Science Instruction?" (Cathleen Stasz et al.).

* Lockheed, Marlaine. "Sex and Ethnic Differences in Middle School Mathematics, Science and Computer Science; What Do We Know?" Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service, 1985. 194p. bibl. Available from ERIC: ED303353.
A review of some 400 studies on participation by female and minority students in mathematics andscience.html, finding that grades four through eight are critical years.

Lovegrove, Gillian and Barbara Segal, eds. WOMEN INTO COMPUTING: SELECTED PAPERS 1988-1990. London: Springer-Verlag with the British Computer Society, 1991.
Papers from the 1990 conference, Women Into Computing, centering mostly on how to get girls into working with computers at school.

Loyd, Brenda, et al. "Gender and Computer Experience as Factors in the Computer Attitudes of Middle School Students." JOURNAL OF EARLY ADOLESCENCE v.7, no.1 (Spring 1987): 13-19.

Makrakis, Vasilios. "Cross-Cultural Comparison of Gender Differences in Attitude towards Computers in Japan and Sweden." SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH v.36, no.4 (1992): 275-287.

Makrakis, Vasilios. "Gender and Computing in Schools in Japan: The 'We Can, I Can't' Paradox." COMPUTERS AND EDUCATION v.20 (March 1993): 191-198.

Martin, C. Dianne and Eric Murchie-Beyma, eds. "In Search of Gender Free Paradigms for Computer Science Education." [Proceedings of a Preconference Research Workshop at the National Educational Computing Conference (Nashville, Tennessee, June 24, 1990).] International Society for Technology in Education, Eugene, OR. 1992. 160p. Available from ERIC: ED349941.
Includes nine papers delivered at the preconference workshop and one previously unpublished paper: "Report on the Workshop: In Search of Gender Free Paradigms for Computer Science Education" (C. Dianne Martin); "Understanding Gender Biases in Computer-related Behavior: Are We Using the Wrong Metaphor?" (Robin Kay); "Gender Differences in Human Computer Interaction" (Charles W. Huff et al.); "Gender and Attitude Toward Computers" (James R. Aman); "Female Students' Underachievement in Computer Science and Mathematics: Reasons and Recommendations" (Lesley S. Klein); "Implications of the Computer Culture for Women of Color" (Carol Edwards); "Strategies for Involving Girls in Computer Science" (Valerie Clark); "A New Introduction to Computer Science" (Danielle R. Bernstein); "Restructuring Departments for Equality" (Henry Etzkowitz et al.); "Gender Equity: A Partial List of Resources" (Cincy Meyer Hancher). See also C. Dianne Martin's "In Search of Gender-Free Paradigms for Computer Science Education in COMPUTER SCIENCE EDUCATION v.5, no.3 (Spring 1991): 10-15.

* Maurer, Matthew M. "Computer Anxiety Correlates and What They Tell Us: A Literature Review." COMPUTERS IN HUMAN BEHAVIOR v.10, no.3 (Fall 1994): 369-376.

McGrath, Diane, et al. "Sex Differences in Computer Attitudes and Beliefs Among Rural Middle School Children after a Teacher Training Intervention." JOURNAL OF RESEARCH ON COMPUTING IN EDUCATION v.24 (Summer 1992): 468-485.

Miller, Fayneese S. and Narendra Varma. "The Effects of Psychosocial Factors on Indian Children's Attitudes Toward Computers." JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL COMPUTING RESEARCH v.10, no.3 (1994): 223-238.
Discusses gender differences among junior high school-age children in India.

Miura, Irene T. "The Relationship of Computer Self-Efficacy Expectations to Computer Interest and Course Enrollment in College." SEX ROLES v.16, no.5/6 (1987): 303-311.

Mol, Anne-Lieke. "Experimenting with Home Language Instruction for Moroccan Women via Interactive Cable." MEDIA DEVELOPMENT v.38, no.2 (1991): 28-29.
Analysis of this small experiment in interactive instruction concludes that failure was largely due to greater concern for technological ends than the needs and gender of the users.

* Moore, Barbara G. "Equity in Education: Gender Issues in the Use of Computers: A Review and Bibliography." REVIEW AND EVALUATION BULLETINS v.6, no.1 (1986). 73p. bibl.
Reviews research on computer use at elementary and secondary levels and suggests interventions.

* Morse, Frances K. and Colette Daiute. "I LIKE Computers versus I LIKERT Computers: Rethinking Methods for Assessing the Gender Gap in Computing." April 1992. 37p. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the American Educational Research Association (San Francisco, CA, April 20-24, 1992). Available from ERIC: ED349939.
Reviews previous studies on gender differences in attitudes and behavior regarding computers, describes a study that challenges Likert scaling on computer attitude surveys as unfair to women, and suggests more research on computing activity not related to mathematics or programming.

Moses, Louise E. "Our Computer Science Classrooms: Are They 'Friendly' to Female Students?" SIGCSE BULLETIN v.25, no.3 (1993): 3-12. Also available at: URL: http://www.muc.edu/cwis/person/moses/comments/paper.html

Munger, Gail F. and Brenda H. Loyd. "Gender and Attitudes Toward Computers and Calculators: Their Relationship to Math Performance." JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL COMPUTING RESEARCH v.5, no.2 (1989): 167-177.

* Nelson, Carole S. and J. Allen Watson. "The Computer Gender Gap: Children's Attitudes, Performance, and Socialization." JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY SYSTEMS v.19, no.4 (1990-91): 345-353.
This review of research studies on gender differences in computer-based education from preschool through high school pulls out 18 factors that significantly affect development of the discrepancy. Attitude, family, software, and educational environment are some broad areas affecting student use of computers.

Neuman, Delia. "Beyond the Chip: A Model for Fostering Equity." SCHOOL LIBRARY MEDIA QUARTERLY v.18, no.3 (Spring 1990): 158-164.

* Neuman, Delia. "Technology and Equity: ERIC Digest." Syracuse, NY: ERIC Clearinghouse On Information Resources, 1991. 4p. Available at URL: gopher://ericir.syr.edu:70/11/Digests (search for "technology and equity").
Review of some of the literature on computer equity.

O'Hare, Sharon L. and Arnold S. Kahn. "A Computer Bulletin Board in Women's Studies Courses." TRANSFORMATIONS: THE NEW JERSEY PROJECT JOURNAL v.5 (1994): 64-73. Also availableonline.html. URL: http://www.inform.umd.edu:8080/EdRes/Topic/WomensStudies/Computing/Articles+ResearchPapers/email+womensstudies
Examines the postings on a computer bulletin board set up for an introductory women's studies evening class team-taught in 1992.

Okebukola, Peter Akinsola. "The Gender Factor in Computer Anxiety and Interest Among Some Australian High School Students." EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH v.35 (Summer 1993): 181-189.

O'Rourke, J. "Mentor Project Targets Female Undergrads." COMPUTING RESEARCH NEWS v.5, no.4 (September 1993): 3-5.

Pope-Davis, Donald B. and Walter P. Vispoel. "How Instruction Influences Attitudes of College Men and Women Towards Computers." COMPUTERS IN HUMAN BEHAVIOR v.9, no.1 (Spring 1993): 83-93.
Replicates earlier findings indicating instruction can improve attitudes toward computers, but fails to account for self-selection of the group receiving training.

Pozzi, Stefano, et al. "Learning and Interaction in Groups With Computers: When Do Ability and Gender Matter?" SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT v.2, no.3 (1993): 222-241.

Rauner, Felix for the European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training. WOMEN STUDY MICROCOMPUTER TECHNOLOGY: A REPORT ABOUT INITIAL SURVEY FINDINGS CONCERNING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY/MICROCOMPUTER PROJECTS FOR WOMEN IN EC COUNTRIES. Berlin: The Centre, 1985. Bundesallee 22, D-1000, Berlin, Germany 74p. ill.
Includes brief descriptions of 15 projects for training adult women in European countries in technical and/or applications aspects of microcomputers; a preliminary study based on newly begun projects.

Reece, Carol C. "Boys, Girls, and a Scarcity of Microcomputers: 'They Get On It Before We Can Get To It.'" 1987. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Mid-South Educational Research Association (Mobile, AL, November 13, 1987). 12p. Available from ERIC: ED291356.
This survey of 212 fourth through sixth graders looked at perceptions of students, preference at working alone or with others, girls' access to computers at home, and parents' use of computers.

Reinen, Ingeborg Janssen, and Tj Plomp. "Some Gender Issues in Educational Computer Use: Results of an International Comparative Survey." COMPUTERS & EDUCATION v.20 (January 1993): 353-365.

Sacks, Colin H., et al. "Attitudes Toward Computers and Computer Use: The Issue of Gender." JOURNAL OF RESEARCH ON COMPUTING IN EDUCATION v.26, no.2 (1994): 256-269.

Sanders, Ian and Vashti Galpin. "A Survey of Attitudes to Computing at the University of Witwatersrand." WOMEN, WORK, AND COMPUTERIZATION: BREAKING OLD BOUNDARIES, BUILDING NEW FORMS, ed. Alison Adam et al., pp.209-223. Amsterdam; New York: Elsevier, 1994.
"Attitudinal survey, among first yearscience.html students at a South African university" (p.209).

Sanders, Jo Shuchat and Antonia Stone. THE NEUTER COMPUTER: COMPUTERS FOR GIRLS AND BOYS. New York: Neal-Schuman, 1986. 279p.
Based on a 27-month computer equity project in public schools across the country, this work suggests causes and results of sexism in computer training and offers guidelines and activities for addressing the inequities.

Sanders, Jo Shuchat and Mary McGinnis. COMPUTER EQUITY IN MATH AND SCIENCE: A TRAINER'S WORKSHOP GUIDE. New York: Women's Action Alliance; Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1991. 134p. bibl. See also: COUNTING ON COMPUTER EQUITY: A QUICK AND EASY GUIDE FOR FINDING OUT IF YOUR SCHOOL HAS A COMPUTER GENDER GAP by the same authors (New York: Scarecrow Press, 1991), 14p.

Sanders, Jo Shuchat. "Closing the Computer Gap." EXECUTIVE EDUCATOR v.15 (September 1993): 32-33.

Sanders, Jo Shuchat. "Computer Equity for Girls." SEX EQUITY IN EDUCATION: READINGS AND STRATEGIES, ed. Anne O'Brien Carelli, pp.157-173. Springfield, IL: C.C. Thomas, 1988.

Sanders, Jo Shuchat. "Girls and Technology: Villain Wanted." TEACHING THE MAJORITY: BREAKING THE GENDER BARRIER IN SCIENCE, MATHEMATICS, AND ENGINEERING, ed. Sue V. Rosser, pp.147-159. New York: Teachers College Press, 1995.
Sanders suggests that while no single factor is likely responsible for girls' underrepresentation in work with computers, the combination of factors over a period of years has a significant effect.

Schaefer, Lyn and Joan E. Sprigle. "Gender Differences in the Use of the Logo Programming Language." JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL COMPUTING RESEARCH v.4, no.1 (1988): 49-55.

Schulz-Zander, R. "Concepts and Strategies Concerning Information Technology Education for Girls and Young Women." COMPUTERS IN EDUCATION, ed. A. McDougall and C. Dowling, pp.195-200. North Holland, MI: Elsevier, 1990.

Shashaani, Lily. "Gender-based Differences in Attitudes Toward Computers." COMPUTERS & EDUCATION v.20 (March 1993): 169-181.

Shashaani, Lily. "Socioeconomic Status, Parents' Sex-Role Stereotypes, and the Gender Gap in Computing." JOURNAL OF RESEARCH ON COMPUTING IN EDUCATION v.26 (Summer 1994): 433-451.

Siann, Gerda, et al. "The Effect of Computer Use on Gender Differences in Attitudes to Computers." COMPUTERS AND EDUCATION v.14, no.2 (1990): 183-191.
Examines a study of a logo programming exercise with primary school children in Scotland.

Siann, Gerda, et al. "Stereotyping in Relation to the Gender Gap in Participation in Computing." EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH v.30, no.2 (June 1988): 98-103.

Smith, Dorothy E. and Linda Harasim. "Making Connections, Thinking Change Together: Women Teachers and Computer Networks." FEMINISM AND EDUCATION: A CANADIAN PERSPECTIVE, v.2, ed. Paula Bourne et al. Toronto: Centre for Women's Studies in Education, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, 1994.

Stepulevage, Linda, et al. "Women-Only Computing in Higher Education." WOMEN, WORK, AND COMPUTERIZATION: BREAKING OLD BOUNDARIES, BUILDING NEW FORMS, ed. Alison Adam et al., pp.277-291. Amsterdam; New York: Elsevier, 1994.
Examines a "women-only hands-on IT unit" that explored the "gendered nature of office technology," received as not necessarily beneficial by students, depending on their previous work and computer experience.

Stitt, Beverly A. "Computers." GENDER EQUITY IN EDUCATION: AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY, pp.26-29. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 1994.
Lists some articles and books, plus software for girls. (Mostly older resources.)

Strang, Wilma. "Wider Opportunities for Women: Emancipatory CAL as the Integrating Factor in a Course Provided for Women Returners." COMPUTERS & EDUCATION v.15, nos.1-3 (1990): 21-26.

* Sutton, Rosemary E. "Equity and Computers in the Schools: A Decade of Research." REVIEW OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH v.61, no.4 (Winter 1992): 475-503.
Looks at research factors such as gender, social class, access to computers, teacher attitudes, curriculum, student interactions and attitudes, concluding that existing inequities are maintained and strengthened by the presence of computers in K-12 and that research is particularly needed on minority and poor children.

Teh, George P.L. and Barry J. Fraser. "Gender Differences in Achievement and Attitudes Among Students Using Computer-assisted Instruction." INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INSTRUCTIONAL MEDIA v.22, no.2 (1995): 111-120.

Thurston, Linda P. "Girls, Computers, and Amber Waves of Grain: Computer Equity Programming for Rural Teachers." 1990. 18p. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the National Women's Studies Association (Towson, MD, June 14-18, 1989). Available from ERIC: ED319660.

Underwood, Geoffrey, et al. "Gender Differences and Effects of Co-operation in a Computer-based Language Task." EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH v.36, no.1 (Spring 1994): 63-74.

Vernon-Gerstenfeld, Susan. "Serendipity? Are There Gender Differences in the Adoption of Computers? A Case Study." SEX ROLES v.21, no.3-4 (August 1989): 161-173.

Wei, Chin-lung. "Instructional Use of Computers in Boys', Girls' and Coeducational Senior High Schools in Taiwan, the Republic of China." JOURNAL OF COMPUTER-BASED INSTRUCTION v.20 (Winter 1993): 15-20.

Weinberg, Sandy. "Expanding Access to Technology: Computer Equity for Women." WOMEN, WORK, AND TECHNOLOGY: TRANSFORMATIONS, ed. Barbara Drygulski Wright et al., pp.281-290. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1987.
Describes an experiential program at a Philadelphia university that puts students into automation consulting teams for local human services organizations.

Wiburg, Karin. "Gender Issues, Personal Characteristics, and Computing." COMPUTING TEACHER v.22 (December 1994/January 1995): 7-10.

Wienre, Richard G. "The Impact of Gender, Computer Experience, Mathematics Achievement, and Grade Level Upon Computer Attitudes Among High School Students." New Brunswick, NY: Ed.D. dissertation, Rutgers State University of New Jersey, 1992. 95p.

Williams, Sue Winkle, et al. "Gender Roles, Computer Attitudes, and Dyadic Computer Interaction in College Students." SEX ROLES: v.29, no.7 (October 1993): 515-525.
Researchers looked at sex of experimenter, sex of dyads in experiment, sex typing, and past computer experience as related to performance of a particular computer task.

Wilson, Davie, et al. "Cognitive Effects of LOGO and Computer-aided Instruction Among Black and White Zimbabwean Primary School Girls." JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY v.131, no.1 (February 1991): 107-116.

Wu, Yi-Kuo and Michael J. Morgan. "Computer Use, Computer Attitudes, and Gender: Differential Implications of Micro and Mainframe Usage Among College Students." JOURNAL OF RESEARCH ON COMPUTING IN EDUCATION v.22 (Winter 1989): 214-228.

Yelland, Nicola J. "A Case Study of Six Children Learning With Logo." GENDER AND EDUCATION 6, no.1 (1994): 19-33.
A case study of three pairs of six-year-old children working with computer tasks: girl/girl, girl/boy, and boy/boy pairs.

Employment and Health

EMPLOYMENT

Computers have had enormous impact on many aspects of women's work, but particularly on the manufacturing end and on office work. For that reason, this chapter is divided into entries under the general heading of "Employment" as well as headings for "Manufacturing" and "Office Work." Some studies of the impact of new technologies on the workplace are not listed as they don't reflect specifically on women's experiences (though serious researchers would want to track such resources as they often discuss female-dominated occupations such as clerk or secretary). Materials on health consequences of work with computers are grouped into a subcategory on "Health." Some health-related information on use of VDT screens is included even though women are not specifically discussed, as women are often primary users and health effects seem to be noticed most by women. Some shorter articles on this topic are included as there is not a lot of material available.

Adam, Alison, et al., eds. WOMEN, WORK, AND COMPUTERIZATION: BREAKING OLD BOUNDARIES, BUILDING NEW FORMS: PROCEEDINGS OF THE IFIPTC9/WG9.1 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON WOMEN, WORK AND COMPUTERIZATION, MANCHESTER, U.K., 2-5 JULY, 1994. Amsterdam; New York: Elsevier, 1994. 452p. ill. bibl.
Papers/articles included in this compilation are listed individually under title of each paper.

Albin, Peter S., and Eileen Appelbaum. "The Computer Rationalization of Work: Implications for Women Workers." FEMINIZATION OF THE LABOR FORCE: PARADOXES AND PROMISES, ed. Jane Jenson et al., pp.137-152. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.
Contrasts an algorithmic organization of computer-based work (prescribed, limiting the need for workers' skills) with a robust system (flexible, adaptive, encouraging of skilled input and decision-making), noting the particularly negative impact on women clerical workers of an algorithmic job design.

Armistead, Colin G. "The Influence of Information Technology on Women in Service Industries: A European Perspective." WOMEN AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, ed. Marilyn J. Davidson and Cary L. Cooper, pp.121-149. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1987.

Arnold, Erik, et al. "Women and Microelectronics: The Case of Word Processors." WOMEN'S STUDIES INTERNATIONAL QUARTERLY v.4, no.3 (1981): 321-340.
Examines the impact of microelectronics on potential loss of women's jobs, deskilling, control of work, class divisions and social relations in the office, concluding that new technology may increase women's unionization, thereby helping change unions' attitude toward women's jobs.

Arvanitaki, Katerina and Maria Stratigaki. "Computerization in Greek Banking: The Gendering of Jobs and Payment Practices." BRINGING TECHNOLOGY HOME: GENDER AND TECHNOLOGY IN A CHANGING EUROPE, ed. Cynthia Cockburn and Ruza Furst Dilic, pp.59-76. Philadelphia: Open University Press, 1994.

Banks, Martha E. and Rosalie J. Ackerman. "Ethnic and Gender Computer Employment Status." SOCIAL SCIENCE COMPUTER REVIEW v.8, no.1 (1990): 75-82.

Barnes, Linda R. "Midwifery in the Information Age." MIDWIFERY TODAY no.28 (Winter 1993): 12-13.
Urges midwives to overcome aversion to computers and use the technology to help their practices and possibly to develop a national data set. Also in this issue: "PC, IBM, Mac, DOS -- Making Sense of the Alphabet Soup" by Daphne Singingtree, who describes her use of computers for bookkeeping, scheduling, statistics, writing, and more.

Barras, R. and J. Swann. THE ADOPTION AND IMPACT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN THE UK INSURANCE INDUSTRY. London: Technical Change Centre, 1983.

Bentson, Margaret Lowe. "A New Technology But the Same Old Story." CANADIAN WOMAN STUDIES/LES CAHIERS DE LA FEMME v.13, no.2 (Winter): 68-81.
Lowe worries about the impact of increased automation on women's employment opportunities as capitalism teams up with the new technology for greater profits and control.

Birkenes, Turid and Annita Fjuk. "A Feminist Approach to Design of Computer Systems Supporting Co-operative Work: The Troublesome Issue of Co-operation Seen from a Women's Perspective." WOMEN, WORK, AND COMPUTERIZATION: BREAKING OLD BOUNDARIES, BUILDING NEW FORMS, ed. Alison Adam et al., pp.75-89. Amsterdam; New York: Elsevier, 1994.

Bjerknes, Gro, and Bratteteig, Tone. "Florence in Wonderland: System Development with Muses." COMPUTERS & DEMOCRACY: A SCANDINAVIAN CHALLENGE, ed. Gro Bjerknes et al., pp.279-295. Aldershot, UK: Avebury, 1987.

Bradley, Gunilla. "Women, Work and Computers." WOMEN AND HEALTH v.13, nos.3-4 (1988): 117-132.

Bucar, Maja. "Information Technology and Women's Employment in Manufacturing in Eastern Europe: The Case of Slovenia." WOMEN ENCOUNTER TECHNOLOGY: CHANGING PATTERNS OF EMPLOYMENT IN THE THIRD WORLD, ed. Swasti Mitter and Sheila Rowbotham, pp.111-126. New York: Routledge in association with the United Nations University Press, 1995.

Calabrese, Andrew. "Home-based Telework and the Politics of Private Woman and Public Man: A Critical Appraisal." WOMEN AND TECHNOLOGY, ed. Urs E. Gattiker, pp.161-199. New York: Walter de Gruyter, 1994. (Technological innovation and human resources, v.4)

Campbell, Marie. "Systematization of Nursing and the Promise of Computers: A New Phase in Nurses' Struggle for Control of their Practice?" COMPUTERS IN HOSPITAL CARE, ed. E. Dimitz. Vienna: Osterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1990.

Christensen, Kathleen. "Home-based Clerical Work: No Simple Truth, No Single Reality." HOMEWORK: HISTORICAL AND CONTEMPORARY PERSPECTIVES ON PAID LABOR AT HOME, ed. Eileen Boris and Cynthia R. Daniels, pp.183-197. Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1989.
Offers research that challenges the impact of new technology on home-based work and notes that work at home is not a reasonable child care alternative for most working mothers.

Cockburn, Cynthia. BROTHERS: MALE DOMINANCE AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE. London: Pluto Press, 1983. 264p. index.
Cockburn's study of male compositors from four London newspapers examines the changes wrought by conversion of typesetting to computer technology. She relates class/status issues to sex/gender issues in the trade, exploring how gender relations derive from both patriarchy and capitalism in the business world.

Cockburn, Cynthia. MACHINERY OF DOMINANCE: WOMEN, MEN AND TECHNICAL KNOW-HOW. Dover, NH: Pluto Press, 1985. 282p. index.
Looks at the effects of electronic technology on "the relations between employer and worker and the relative position of female and male workers" (p.1) in such areas as clothing manufacturing, mail order, medical x-ray, and engineering.

Dangler, Jamie Faricellia. HIDDEN IN THE HOME: THE ROLE OF WAGED HOMEWORK IN THE MODERN WORLD-ECONOMY. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1994. 225p. bibl. index.
Examines industrial homeworking in electronics in New York State, offering background on the origins of homework enterprises and a broader view of contemporary home-based work as it relates to world economic development, labor, and market theory.

Dolan, Darlene J. "The Developing Role of Women in Communications Industries: Can Technology Be the Turning Point?" COMMUNICATIONS AT THE CROSSROADS: THE GENDER GAP CONNECTION, ed. Romona R. Rush and Donna Allen, pp.106-119. Norwood, NJ: Ablex, 1989.
Using the case of Susan Wagner Leisner who, with a group of other women, successfully sued their employer, the New York Telephone Company, for sex discrimination in areas of employment, placement, promotions, and compensation, the authors emphasize that "the high technology marketplace affords natural opportunities for women to enhance their fulfillment" (p.118) but that women must push to achieve the advancement.

D'Onofrio-Flores, Pamela, and Sheila Pfafflin, eds. SCIENTIFIC-TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE AND THE ROLE OF WOMEN IN DEVELOPMENT. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, for the United Nations Institute for Training and Research, 1982.
Includes in one of its chapters (pp.131-140) a look at off-shore sourcing plants for electronic parts, in addition to other discussion of effects of automation on office work.

Dumas, Lynne S. "Home Work: The Telecommuting Option." WORKING MOTHER v.17 (July 1994): 22+.
Looks at the growing trend of home-based work via computer; more than half the Fortune 500 companies offer such an option, as part of saving office space and complying with the Clean Air Act by getting employees off the road. More than four million women do telecommuting at least part of the time, according to one study.

DuMont, Paul F. and Rosemary Ruhig DuMont. "The Information Professional and the New Technology: An Investigation of Possible Differential Responses by Gender." LIBRARY TRENDS v.37, no.4 (Spring 1989): 510-520.
Preliminary/exploratory study of the connection between attitudes toward technology and gender imbalance in academic library management positions.

Dunkle, Debora E., et al. "Women, Men, and Information Technology: A Gender-based Comparison of the Impacts of Computing Experienced by White Collar Workers." WOMEN AND TECHNOLOGY, ed. Urs E. Gattiker, pp.31-63. New York: Walter de Gruyter, 1994. (Technological innovation and human resources, v.4)

Duxbury, L.E., et al. "After-hours Telecommuting and Work-Family Conflict: A Comparative Analysis." INFORMATION SYSTEMS RESEARCH v.3 (1992): 173-190.

Eriksson, Inger V., et al., eds. WOMEN, WORK, AND COMPUTERIZATION: UNDERSTANDING AND OVERCOMING BIAS IN WORK AND EDUCATION: PROCEEDINGS OF THE IFIP TC9/WG 9.1 CONFERENCE ON WOMEN, WORK, AND COMPUTERIZATION, HELSINKI, FINLAND, 30 JUNE-2 JULY 1991. Amsterdam; New York: North-Holland; distr. in U.S. Elsevier Science, 1991. 437p. ill. bibl.
Papers/articles included in this compilation are listed individually under title of each paper.

Evans, Pam. "Women Homeworkers and Information Technology -- the F International Experience." WOMEN AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, ed. Marilyn J. Davidson and Cary L. Cooper, pp.227-242. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1987.

Fisher, Susan R. "Librarians and Networks: Breaking the Boundaries that Bind Us." WOMEN, WORK, AND COMPUTERIZATION: BREAKING OLD BOUNDARIES, BUILDING NEW FORMS, ed. Alison Adam et al., pp.393-407. Amsterdam; New York: Elsevier, 1994.

FOR BUSINESS ONLY: GENDER AND NEW INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES. Amsterdam: SISWO, 1990. 75p. bibl.

Ford, Bill. "Technology, Women and Employment: The Australian Experience." MICROPROCESSORS, MANPOWER AND SOCIETY: A COMPARATIVE, CROSS-NATIONAL APPROACH, ed. by Malcolm Warner, pp.339-348. Aldershot, England: Gower, 1984.

Fothergill, Anne. "Telework: Women's Experiences and Utilisation of Information Technology in the Home." WOMEN, WORK, AND COMPUTERIZATION: BREAKING OLD BOUNDARIES, BUILDING NEW FORMS, ed. Alison Adam et al., pp.333-347. Amsterdam; New York: Elsevier, 1994.
Examines the "social, gender and family aspects of teleworking and their implications for teleworkers and their families" (abstract, p.333).

Goldberg, Joan Rachel. HIGH-TECH CAREER STRATEGIES FOR WOMEN. New York: Collier Books, 1984. 290p. bibl. index.
Includes discussion of overcoming technophobia, finding high-tech jobs, career advancement, and entrepreneurship, plus a list of networks/organizations that may be of help.

Goodman, Sara. "The Implications of Computerization and Microelectronics on Women's Employment in South-east Asia." TECHNOLOGY AND GENDER: WOMEN'S WORK IN ASIA, ed. Cecilia Ng, pp.64-83. Selangor, Malaysia: Women's Studies Unit, Department of Extension Education, Universiti Pertanian Malaysia, 1987.
Goodman examines the similarities and differences in microelectronic influences on women's work in Western and Southeast Asian countries, noting effects on the electronics industry, sales and service, clerical, and professional employment.

Gutek, Barbara A. and Laurie Larwood. "Information Technology and Working Women in the USA." WOMEN AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, ed. Marilyn J. Davidson and Cary L. Cooper, pp.71-94. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1987.

Gutek, Barbara. WOMEN MANAGERS, WOMEN WORKERS, & INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY. London, Ont.: National Centre for Management Research and Development, University of Western Ontario, 1990. (Working paper series) 24p. bibl.

Hacker, Sally L. "Feminist Perspectives on Computer Based Systems and Democracy at the Workplace." COMPUTERS AND DEMOCRACY: A SCANDINAVIAN CHALLENGE, ed. Gro Bjerknes et al., pp.177-190. Brookfield, VT: Gower Publishing, 1987.
Hacker looks at liberal, socialist, and radical feminist approaches to emerging computer technology, noting the social structures of both technology and eroticism are based on men's needs and desires.

Hackett, Edward J., et al. "Women's and Men's Expectations About the Effects of New Technology at Work." GROUP AND ORGANIZATION STUDIES v.16, no.1 (March 1, 1991): 60-85.

Hanson, Jarice. "Women in Telecommunications: The Executive Woman in Informatics." COMMUNICATIONS AT THE CROSSROADS: THE GENDER GAP CONNECTION, ed. Ramona R. Rush and Donna Allen, pp.120-125. Northwood, NJ: Ablex, 1989.

This research study of 26 women in middle or upper-level management positions concludes that "young informatics industries tend to support the career mobility of women within the organization" (p.123).

Harris, Roma M. "Technology and the Deskilling of Women's Work." LIBRARIANSHIP: THE EROSION OF A WOMAN'S PROFESSION, pp.121-143. Norwood, NJ: Ablex, 1992.
Speculates on the deprofessionalism of work in the library field through automation, which has most impact on women making their way up the hierarchy of the profession.

Harris, Roma. "Information Technology and the De-Skilling of Librarians; or The Erosion of a Woman's Profession." COMPUTERS IN LIBRARIES v.12, no.1 (January 1992): 8-16.
Harris notes the displacement in areas where women's work is concentrated, such as clerical library work, the automation of cataloging, and the like. Hope is seen in the move toward more advisory, instructor roles in reference work.

Hartmann, Heidi I. et al., eds. COMPUTER CHIPS AND PAPER CLIPS. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1986. 2 vols. (216p.; 438p.)
Volume I discusses historical changes in such work situations as telephone operator, printing/publishing, information/data processing, retail sales, and nursing. In Volume II are case studies of technology's impact on women's work, from bookkeeping in the early 20th century to telecommunications today.

Hemenway, Kathleen. "Human Nature and the Glass Ceiling in Industry." COMMUNICATIONS OF THE ACM v.38, no.1 (January 1995): 55-62.

Henwood, F. and S. Wyatt. "Women's Work, Technological Change and Shifts in the Employment Structure." THE GEOGRAPHY OF DE-INDUSTRIALISATION, ed. Ron L. Martin and Bob Rowthorn, pp.106-137. London: Macmillan, 1986.

Henwood, Felicity. "Microelectronics and Women's Employment: An International Perspective." WOMEN AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, ed. Marilyn J. Davidson and Cary L. Cooper, pp.97-119. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1987.

Holtgrewe, Ursula. "Everyday Experts? Professionals' Women Assistants and Information Technology." WOMEN, WORK, AND COMPUTERIZATION: BREAKING OLD BOUNDARIES, BUILDING NEW FORMS, ed. Alison Adam et al., pp.121-128. Amsterdam, New York: Elsevier, 1994.
Discusses how women assistants to professionals (legal secretaries, doctors' assistants, etc.) become informal computer experts.

"Home-based Clerical Workers: Are They Victims of Exploitation?" Washington, DC: U.S. House of Representatives, 1986. (H.R. Report No. 99-677, 99th Congress, 2nd Session, 1986)

Huws, Ursula. "New Technology Homeworker." EMPLOYER GAZETTE v.92, no.1 (1984): 13-17.

Huws, Ursula. "Terminal Isolation: The Atomisation of Work and Leisure in a Wired Society." MAKING WAVES: THE POLITICS OF COMMUNICATIONS, ed. Radical Science Collective, pp.9-25. London: Free Association Books, 1985.
Huws' discussion touches on the structure of employment, the transfer of work to the home, and the gendered implications of home as workplace.

Huws, Ursula. "The Effect of IT on Women's Lives." ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE FOR SOCIETY, ed. Karamjit S. Gill, pp.169-177. West Sussex, England: Wiley, 1986.
Comments primarily on employment-related issues: job loss, skill changes, home-based work, and work transferred to Third World countries.

Huws, Ursula. "The Fading of the Collective Dream? Reflections on Twenty Years' Research on Information Technology and Women's Employment." WOMEN ENCOUNTER TECHNOLOGY: CHANGING PATTERNS OF EMPLOYMENT IN THE THIRD WORLD, ed. Swasti Mitter and Sheila Rowbotham, pp.314-340. New York: Routledge in association with the United Nations University Press, 1995.

"Information and Communication Technology Homeworking." HOMEWORKING WOMEN: GENDER, RACE, AND CLASS AT WORK, by Annie Phizacklea and Carol Wolkowitz, pp.101-122. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1995.
Surveys the rather slow growth of the "electronic cottage," noting issues of authority/supervision and child care, particularly, in the differences between high-end and low-end telecommunications employees.

Jules-Rosette, Bennetta. "Women and New Technologies in Comparative Perspective: Case Studies in Ivory Coast and Kenya." AFRICAN URBAN STUDIES v.21 (1985): 25-37.
New technologies have not improved women's employment status in Kenya and the Ivory Coast, according to this paper, due to both inadequate training and on-the-job discrimination.

Katsikides, Savvas and Margit Pohl. "Dichotomous Thinking, Women, and Technology." WOMEN, WORK, AND COMPUTERIZATION: BREAKING OLD BOUNDARIES, BUILDING NEW FORMS, ed. Alison Adam et al., pp.35-43. Amsterdam; New York: Elsevier, 1994.
The authors propose a "more dynamic approach" to explain "gender differences in attitudes and performance with regard to computer systems" (abstract, p.35).

Kraemer, Kenneth L. and James N. Danziger. "The Impacts of Computer Technology on the Worklife of Information Workers." SOCIAL SCIENCE COMPUTER REVIEW v.8, no.4 (1990): 592-613.

Kraft, Joan Federico. WOMEN, COMPUTERS, AND INFORMATION WORK. Washington, DC: Ph.D. dissertation, The American University, 1987. 249p.
Examines how work dealing with information is growing, how microcomputers change that work, and how industry growth and changes in work conditions affect men and women differently.

Kreinberg, Nancy and Elizabeth K. Stage. "EQUALS in Computer Technology." THE TECHNOLOGICAL WOMAN: INTERFACING WITH TOMORROW, ed. Jan Zimmerman, pp.251-259. New York: Praeger, 1983.

Larwood, Laurie. "Women Workers as Users of Computer Technology." COMPUTERS IN LIBRARIES v.12, no.3 (March 1992): 38-39.
Argues that although deskilling is a problem of computerization, "many of the dire predictions for the computer revolution do not appear to have happened for most people" (p.39) who have been able to alter their work patterns.

Lie, Merete. "Technology and Masculinity: The Case of the Computer." EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF WOMEN'S STUDIES v.2, no.3 (August 1995): 379-394.

Lloyd, Anne and Liz Newell. "Women and Computers." SMOTHERED BY INVENTION: TECHNOLOGY IN WOMEN'S LIVES, ed. Wendy Faulkner and Erik Arnold, pp.238-251. London: Pluto Press, 1985.

Mackinnon, Alison G. "Autonomy and Control: Women, Work and Computerization." WOMEN, WORK AND COMPUTERIZATION: UNDERSTANDING AND OVERCOMING BIAS IN WORK AND EDUCATION, ed. Inger V. Eriksson et al., pp.113-124. New York: Elsevier, 1991.

"Mathematical and Computer Skills and Workplace Literacy in Labor Markets: An Analysis of Their Actual and Potential Effect on the Economic Status of Women. Final Report." Washington, DC: Joel Popkin & Co., 1993. 167p. Available from ERIC: ED367829.

McConnel, Patricia. THE WOMAN'S WORK-AT-HOME HANDBOOK: INCOME AND INDEPENDENCE WITH A COMPUTER. New York: Bantam Books, 1987.

Menzies, Heather. WOMEN AND THE CHIP: CASE STUDIES OF THE EFFECTS OF INFORMATICS ON EMPLOYMENT IN CANADA. Montreal: The Institute for Research on Public Policy, 1981. (IRPP/L'Institut de Recherches Politiques, 2149 Mackay St., Montreal, Quebec H3G 2J2 Canada)

"Micro-Chip Technology: Its Impact on Women Workers." International Council for Adult Education, Participatory Research Group (229 College St., Suite 309, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 1R4 Canada). VOICES RISING: A BULLETIN ABOUT WOMEN AND POPULAR EDUCATION (May/June 1987): special section.
Report from Philippines Consultation, October 1986.

Miles, Ian. "The Electronic Cottage: Myth or Near Myth?" FUTURES v.20, no.4 (August 1988): 355-366.

Mitter, Swasti. "Beyond the Politics of Difference: An Introduction." WOMEN ENCOUNTER TECHNOLOGY: CHANGING PATTERNS OF EMPLOYMENT IN THE THIRD WORLD, ed. Swasti Mitter and Sheila Rowbotham, pp.1-18. New York: Routledge in association with United Nations University Press, 1995.

Mitter Swasti. "Information Technology and Working Women's Demands." WOMEN ENCOUNTER TECHNOLOGY: CHANGING PATTERNS OF EMPLOYMENT IN THE THIRD WORLD, ed. Swasti Mitter and Sheila Rowbotham, pp.19-43. New York: Routledge in association with United Nations University Press, 1995.

Mitter, Swasti and Sheila Rowbotham, eds. WOMEN ENCOUNTER TECHNOLOGY: CHANGING PATTERNS OF EMPLOYMENT IN THE THIRD WORLD. New York: Routledge in association with United Nations University Press, 1995. 356p. bibl. index.
Focusing on information technology in its broader role as part of "knowledge-intensive" modes of production, including computer-aided manufacturing, this collection examines how such technological "modernization" affects women in developing nations differently than it may in Western nations. Among the articles: "Beyond the Politics of Difference: An Introduction" (Swasti Mitter); "Information Technology and Working Women's Demands" (Swasti Mitter); "Feminist Approaches to Technology: Women's Values or a Gender Lens?" (Sheila Rowbotham); "Information Technology and Women's Employment in Manufacturing in Eastern Europe: The Case of Slovenia" (Maja Bucar); "Computerization and Women's Employment in India's Banking Sector" (Sujata Gothoskar); "Information Technology, Gender and Employment: A Case Study of the Telecommunications Industry in Malaysia" (Cecilia Ng Choon Sim and Carol Yong); "Women in Software Programming: The Experience of Brazil" (Fatima Janine Gaio); "Something Old, Something New, Something Borrowed... The Electronics Industry in Calcutta" (Nirmala Banerjee); "Women and Information Technology in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Topic for Discussion?" (Mayuri Odedra-Straub); "Gender Perspectives on Health and Safety in Information Processing: Learning from International Experience" (Ruth Pearson); "Using Information Technology as a Mobilizing Force: The Case of The Tanzania Media Women's Association (TAMWA): (Fatma Alloo); and "The Fading of the Collective Dream? Reflections on Twenty Years' Research on Information Technology and Women's Employment" (Ursula Huws).

Mohseni, Navid. "The Labor Process and Control of Labor in the U.S. Computer Industry." THE LABOR PROCESS AND CONTROL OF LABOR: THE CHANGING NATURE OF WORK RELATIONS IN THE LATE TWENTIETH CENTURY, ed. Berch Berberoglu, pp.59-77. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1993.
An interesting overview of the history of computers in the U.S. Though only briefly focusing on exploitation of women's labor, the author surveys the "commodification of creativity" (as in programming) and its relation to the prod uction process (using women workers).

Morris, Judith. WOMEN IN COMPUTING. Sutton, Surrey, UK: Computer Weekly Publications, 1989. 124p. bibl. index. ill.

Nystuen, John D., et al. "Computer-aided Management Advice for Loan Programs Run by Indonesian Village Women." WORLD DEVELOPMENT v.19, no.12 (December 1991): pp.1753-1766.

Oldfield, Margaret A. "The Electronic Cottage: Boon or Bane for Mothers?" RESOURCES FOR FEMINIST RESEARCH/DOCUMENTATION SUR LA RECHERCHE FEMINISTE v.16, no.4 (December 1987): 42-44.
The author's study questions why women feel a need to work at home in order to handle the "double day" of paid work and domestic duties and maintain the flexibility for child care that most can't find in employment outside the home.

Olerup, Agneta, et al., eds. WOMEN, WORK, AND COMPUTERIZATION: OPPORTUNITIES AND DISADVANTAGES: PROCEEDINGS OF THE IFIP WG 9.1 FIRST WORKING CONFERENCE ON WOMEN, WORK, AND COMPUTERIZATION, RIVA DEL SOLE, TUSCANY, ITALY, 17-21 SEPTEMBER, 1984. Amsterdam; New York: North-Holland; distr. in U.S. Elsevier Science, 1985. 372p. bibl. index.

Olson, Margrethe H. and Sophia B. Primps. "Working at Home with Computers: Work and Nonwork Issues." JOURNAL OF SOCIAL ISSUES v.40, no.3 (1984): 97-112.

Parasuraman, Saroj and Magid Igbaria. "An Examination of Gender Differences in the Determinants of Computer Anxiety and Attitudes Toward Microcomputers Among Managers." INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MAN-MACHINE STUDIES v.32, no.3 (March 1990): 327-340.

Peitchinis, Stephen G. "Computer Effects on Employment and Occupations." WOMEN AT WORK: DISCRIMINATION AND RESPONSE, by Stephen G. Peitchinis, pp. 78-100. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1989.
This chapter focuses most intently on the relationship of the computer to women's work, but sections of other chapters ("Occupational Distribution of Women" and "Perceptions of Threat to Employment") also comment on information technology's impact on women's employment.

Rees, Teresa; Commission of the European Communities. SKILL SHORTAGES, WOMEN AND THE NEW INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 1992. 38p.
This report examines barriers to women's recruitment and employment in information technology-related jobs in Europe and suggests how training geared t o women (from school onward) may help address some of the skill shortages keeping women out of careers in the field.

Roos, Patricia. "Hot-Metal to Electronic Composition: Gender, Technology, and Social Change." JOB QUEUES, GENDER QUEUES: EXPLAINING WOMEN'S INROADS INTO MALE OCCUPATIONS, ed. Barbara F. Reskin and Patricia A. Roos, pp.275-298. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1990.
Roos analyzes the transition of printing from a male-dominated occupation to female-dominated following the introduction of electronic composition and a new perception of print production as more akin to "women's work."

Rowbotham, Sheila. "Feminist Approaches to Technology: Women's Values or a Gender Lens?" WOMEN ENCOUNTER TECHNOLOGY: CHANGING PATTERNS OF EMPLOYMENT IN THE THIRD WORLD, ed. Swasti Mitter and Sheila Rowbotham, pp.44-69. New York: Routledge in association with United Nations University Press, 1995.

Sanders, Jo Shuchat and Mary McGinnis. WHAT IS COMPUTER EQUITY? A TRAINER'S WORKSHOP GUIDE. New York: Women's Action Alliance; Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1991. 159p. bibl. ill.

Shiga, Hiroko. "Microelectronics and Women in Japan." TECHNOLOGY AND GENDER: WOMEN'S WORK IN ASIA ed. Cecilia Ng, pp.84-91. Selangor, Malaysia: Women's Studies Unit, Department of Extension Education, Universiti Pertanian Malaysia, 1987.
Shiga discusses the influence of microelectronics on the overall employment structure, on quality and form of work, health hazards, and changes in the household and effects on children.

Shuttleworth, Teresa. "Women and Computer Technology: Have the Promises of Equal Opportunities Been Fulfilled?" WOMEN IN MANAGEMENT REVIEW v.7, no.7 (1992): 24-30.

Simons, G. L. WOMEN IN COMPUTING. Manchester, England: The National Computing Centre Limited, 1981. 210p. bibl. index.
Looks at women's position in the computer industry, from manufacturing to management, the office, and freelance/home-based work, with some attention to relevant history.

Soriyan, Bimbo and Bisi Aina. "Women's Work and Challenges of Computerisation: The Nigerian Case." WOMEN, WORK AND COMPUTERIZATION: UNDERSTANDING AND OVERCOMING BIAS IN WORK AND EDUCATION, ed. Inger V. Eriksson et al., pp.199-212. New York: Elsevier, 1991.

SPRU Women and Technology Studies. "Microelectronics and the Jobs Women Do." SMOTHERED BY INVENTION: TECHNOLOGY IN WOMEN'S LIVES, ed. Wendy Faulkner and Erik Arnold, 200-221. London: Pluto Press, 1985.

Sundin, Elisabeth. "The Social Construction of Gender and Technology: A Process With No Definitive Answer." EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF WOMEN'S STUDIES v.2, no.3 (August 1995): 335-353.

Swarbrick, Ailsa. "Information Technology and New Training Initiatives for Women." WOMEN AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, ed. Marilyn J. Davidson and Cary L. Cooper, pp. 255-280. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1987.

Swords-Isherwood, N., et al. "Technical Change and Its Effects on Employment Opportunities for Women." NEW TECHNOLOGY AND THE FUTURE OF WORK AND SKILLS, ed. Pauline Marstrand, pp.191-213. Dover, NH: Frances Pinter, 1984. "Proceedings of a Symposium organised by Section X at the Annual Meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, August 1993."
Offers a broader analysis of the impact of information technology on women in various jobs, including sales, manufacturing, and other jobs in addition to clerical work.

Tijdens, Kea, et al., eds. WOMEN, WORK AND COMPUTERIZATION: FORMING NEW ALLIANCES: PROCEEDINGS OF THE IFIP TC 9/WG 9.1 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON WOMEN, WORK, AND COMPUTERIZATIO N, AMSTERDAM, THE NETHERLANDS, 27-29 APRIL, 1988. Amsterdam; New York: North-Holland; distr. in U.S., Elsevier Science, 1989. 333p. ill. bibl.

Wagner, Ina. "Hard Times: The Politics of Women's Work in Computerised Environments." WOMEN, WORK AND COMPUTERIZATION: BREAKING OLD BOUNDARIES, BUILDING NEW FORMS, ed. Alison Adam et al., pp.23-34. Amsterdam; New York: Elsevier, 1994.
Uses nursing as an example for looking at "the tensions between the images and practice of women's work and the pressure for 'modernisation' as it becomes visible in current computer applications" (abstract, p.23). Also included in EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF WOMEN'S STUDIES v.2, no.3 (August 1995), pp.295-314.

Wagner, Ina. "Networking Actors and Organisations." COMPUTER SUPPORTED COOPERATIVE WORK v.2, nos.1-2 (1994): 5-20.

Wagner, Ina. "Women's Voice: The Case of Nursing Information Systems." AI & SOCIETY v.7, no.4 (1993): 295-310.

Wajcman, Judy and Belinda Probert. "New Technology Outwork." TECHNOLOGY AND THE LABOUR PROCESS: AUSTRALASIAN CASE STUDIES, ed. Evan Willis, pp.51-67. Sydney: Allen & Unwin, 1988.

Wajcman, Judy. "Patriarchy, Technology, and Conceptions of Skill." WORK AND OCCUPATIONS v.18, no.1 (February 1991): 29-45.
Critiques the "deskilling" view of the introduction of information technology, positing that men's control and shaping of technology and definitions of skill are what position most women in inferior status in the workplace.

Wajcman, Judy. "The Technology of Production: Making a Job of Gender." FEMINISM CONFRONTS TECHNOLOGY, pp.27-53. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania University Press, 1991.
Though not focused wholly on the impact of computerization, topics such as office automation, homework, and deskilling of women's work are key parts of the chapter.

Webster, Juliet. "Gender and Technology at Work: 15 Years On." WOMEN, WORK, AND COMPUTERIZATION: BREAKING OLD BOUNDARIES, BUILDING NEW FORMS, ed. Alison Adam et al., pp.311-324. Amsterdam; New York: Elsevier, 1994.
Reviews research on gender and workplace technologies since the late 1970's.

Webster, Juliet. "What Do We Know About Gender and Information Technology at Work? A Discussion of Selected Feminist Research." EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF WOMEN'S STUDIES v.2, no.3 (August 1995): 315-334.

Weggelaar, Margaret. "Women, Employment, and Information Technology: A View from the Netherlands." THE INFORMATION SOCIETY: EVOLVING LANDSCAPES, ed. Jacques Berleur et al., pp.356-363. New York: Spring-Verlag, 1990.

Westlander, Gunnela and Bjorn Magnusson. "Swedish Women and New Technology." WOMEN & HEALTH v.13, nos.3-4 (1988): 95-116.
Based on a survey of computer use in Sweden, June 1984, by Statistics Sweden. See also "Women, Work and Computers" by Gunilla Bradley in the same issue.

Winker, Gabriele. "Female Interests in the Design of Technology Supported Work Systems as Exemplified in the Bremen Administration." WOMEN, WORK AND COMPUTERIZATION:UNDERSTANDING AND OVERCOMING BIAS IN WORK AND EDUCATION, ed. Inger V. Eriksson et al., pp.159-170. New York: Elsevier, 1991.

Wright, Barbara Drygulski. "Women, Work, and the University-Affiliated Technology Park." WOMEN, WORK, AND TECHNOLOGY: TRANSFORMATIONS, ed. Barbara Drygulski Wright et al., pp.353-370. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1987.

Zimmerman, Jan. "Don't Bother Your Pretty Little Head." ONCE UPON THE FUTURE: A WOMAN'S GUIDE TO TOMORROW'S TECHNOLOGY, pp.54-64. New York: Pandora, 1986.
Zimmerman examines the division of the world of new technology along gender lines, particularly information technology and its impact on women's work. Other chapters touch on computers as well.

Zimmerman, Jan. "Some Effects of the New Technology on Women." COMPUTERS, ETHICS, & SOCIETY, ed. M. David Ermann et al., pp.201-213. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.

EMPLOYMENT: Manufacturing

In this section and the one on health issues, Third World Women appear much more prominent, due to their part in the production of components for the computers that have created the information revolution. Women's role in this less-than-glamorous end of information technology is clearly a part of the overall picture.

Banerjee, Nirmala. "Something Old, Something New, Something Borrowed... The Electronics Industry in Calcutta." WOMEN ENCOUNTER TECHNOLOGY: CHANGING PATTERNS OF EMPLOYMENT IN THE THIRD WORLD, ed. Swasti Mitter and Sheila Rowbotham, pp.233-255. New York: Routledge in association with the United Nations University Press, 1995.

Catanzarite, Lisa M. and Myra H. Strober. "The Gender Recomposition of the Maquiladora Workforce in Ciudad Juarez." INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS v.32, no.1 (Winter 1993): 133-147.

Charoenloet, Voravidh, et al. FACTORY MANAGEMENT, SKILL FORMATION AND ATTITUDES OF WOMEN WORKERS IN THAILAND: A COMPARISON BETWEEN AN AMERICAN OWNED ELECTRICAL FACTORY AND A JAPANESE OWNED ELECTRICAL FACTORY. Bangkok, Thailand: Institute for Population and Social Research, Mahidol University, 1991.
One company surveyed is an American-owned factory producing integrated circuits, located in Bangkok.

Dangler, Jamie Faricellia. "Electronics Subassemblers in Central New York: Nontraditional Homeworkers in a Traditional Homework Industry." HOMEWORK: HISTORICAL AND CONTEMPORARY PERSPECTIVES ON PAID LABOR AT HOME, ed. Eileen Boris and Cynthia R. Daniels, pp.147-164. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1989.

Elson, Diane and Ruth Pearson. "Nimble Fingers Make Cheap Workers: An Analysis of Women's Employment in Third World Manufacturing." FEMINIST REVIEW no.7 (Spring 1981): 87-107.

Eskenazi, Brenda, et al. "A Preliminary Study of Reproductive Outcomes of Female Maquiladora Workers in Tijuana, Mexico." AMERICAN JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL MEDICINE v.24, no.6 (1993): 667-676.
The authors found significantly lower birthweights among infants of maquiladora (border factory) workers than among infants of women doing service work. In another study, Sylvia Guendelman and Monica Jasis discovered that the overall health of maquiladora workers was no worse -- and perhaps better -- than a sample of service workers, although no longterm monitoring was possible. See also: "Health Consequences of Maquiladora Work: Women on the U.S.-Mexico Border" in AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH v.83 (1993): 37-44.

Fernandez-Kelly, Maria Patricia. "Gender and Industry on Mexico's New Frontier." THE TECHNOLOGICAL WOMAN: INTERFACING WITH TOMORROW, ed. Jan Zimmerman, pp.18-29. New York: Praeger, 1983.
"Examines the proliferation of electronics assembly plants under the Mexican Border Industrialization and **Maquiladora* Programs" (p.18).

Fernandez-Kelly, Maria Patricia. A COLLABORATIVE STUDY OF HISPANIC WOMEN IN THE GARMENT AND ELECTRONICS INDUSTRIES: FINAL REPORT. New York: Center for Latin American and Caribbean Studies, New York University, 1991. 163p.

Fernandez-Kelly, Maria Patricia. FOR WE ARE SOLD, I AND MY PEOPLE: WOMEN AND INDUSTRY IN MEXICO'S FRONTIER. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1983.
For this study, Fernandez-Kelly worked in a border manufacturing plant, also gathering information and doing extensive interviewing. Examines the history of border industrialization; demographic characteristics of women workers; how offshore production centers affect local economies and culture; the work situation inside the "maquiladoras"; and how the work affects family organization. Substantial bibliography.

Fuentes, Annette and Barbara Ehrenreich. WOMEN IN THE GLOBAL FACTORY. Boston: South End Press, 1983. 64p. bibl.
A classic early introduction to the exploitation of women workers outside the U.S. Information on the conditions of work for electronics assemblers appears throughout.

Gemoets, Leopoldo A. "An Information Systems Technology Profile of the Maquiladora Industry." SOUTHWEST JOURNAL OF BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS v.6, no.4 (Fall 1989): 7-13.
Highly business-oriented, without specific discussion of women workers, but includes some potentially useful information.

Global Electronics. "Bombay Women Organize." GLOBAL ELECTRONICS No.111 (1991).
Describes how the attempts of electronics manufacturing workers, mostly women, to organize a union at the Santacruz Electronics Export Processing Zone, Bombay, have been suppressed by employers.
Goldstein, Nance. "Silicon Glen: Women and Semiconductor Multinationals." WOMEN'S EMPLOYMENT AND MULTINATIONALS IN EUROPE, ed. Diane Elson and Ruth Pearson, pp.111-128. London: Macmillan, 1989.

Grossman, Rachael. "Women's Place in the Integrated Circuit." SOUTHEAST ASIA CHRONICLE no.66 (Jan./Feb. 1979); PACIFIC RESEARCH v.9, no.5/6 (July-Oct. 1978): 2-17.
An early but relevant study of microelectronics manufacturing, based on a "ten-week factfinding trip to Southeast Asia as well as previous research on the electronics industry in northern California's 'Silicon Valley.'" Offers a revealing look at the production process, the culture of the global assembly line, and worker resistance.

Hayes, Dennis. "Making Chips with Dust-free Poison." SCIENCE AS CULTURE No.1 (1987): 89-104.
Details the conditions in Silicon Valley's "clean rooms," where integrated circuits are etched onto silicon wafers. Workers, who are mostly women, are gowned to protect the chips, not the people, and are regularly exposed to such toxic gases as chlorine and arsine (gaseous arsenic).

Hirata, Helena. "Production Relocation: An Electronics Multinational in France and Brazil." WOMEN'S EMPLOYMENT AND MULTINATIONALS IN EUROPE, ed. Diane Elson and Ruth Pearson, pp.129-143. London: Macmillan, 1989.

Hossfeld, Karen J. "'Their Logic Against Them': Contradictions in Sex, Race, and Class in Silicon Valley." WOMEN WORKERS AND GLOBAL RESTRUCTURING, ed. Kathryn Ward, pp. 149-178. Ithaca, NY: ILR Press, 1990.
Hossfeld studied how gender, race, and class divisions are used by predominantly white, male managers to control workers on shop floors in Silicon Valley, but also by the predominantly immigrant women laborers in their informal resistance strategies.

Huel, G., et al. "Evidence for Adverse Reproductive Outcomes Among Women Microelectronic Assembly Workers." BRITISH JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL MEDICINE v.47 (1990): 400-404. See also: "Pregnancy Outcomes in Women Potentially Exposed to Occupational Solvents and Women Working in the Electronic Industry" by J.A. Lipscomb, et al., JOURNAL OF OCCUPATIONAL MEDICINE v.35 (1991): 597-604.

Kean, Tan Boon. "Women Workers in the Electronics Industry." WOMEN & EMPLOYMENT IN MALAYSIA, ed. Ai Yun Hing and Rokiah Talib, pp.17-32. Kuala Lumpur: Dept. of Anthropology and Sociology, University of Malaya, 1986.

Kopinak, Kathryn. "Gender As a Vehicle for the Subordination of Women Maquiladora Workers in Mexico." LATIN AMERICAN PERSPECTIVES v.22, no.1 (Winter 1995): 30-48.

Lee, Ching Kwan. "Familial Hegemony: Gender and Production Politics on Hong Kong's Electronics Shopfloor." GENDER & SOCIETY v.7, no.4 (December 1993): 529-547.
Lee discusses "the social construction of women workers' paid labor as defined and confined by their gender role in the family, and the pervasive use of familial relations as metaphor for shopfloor relations" (p.530) in a Hong Kong computer factory.

Levidow, Les. "Women Who Make the Chips." SCIENCE AS CULTURE v.2, part 1 (No.10, 1991): 103-124.
Describes the lives and work of Malaysian women employed in microelectronics firms, noting how cultural values of obedience are exploited in pressuring workers for more production, with labor organization and protest largely prohibited.

Lim, Linda Y.C. "Women's Work in Multinational Electronics Factories." WOMEN AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES, ed. Roslyn Dauber and Melinda L. Cain, pp.181-190. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, for the American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1981. (AAAS selected symposium, 53)
This older work focuses on Malaysia and Singapore, but draws parallels to similar conditions in Taiwan, Mexico, Brazil, El Salvador, and other countries.

Morales, Rebecca. "Cold Solder on a Hot Stove." THE TECHNOLOGICAL WOMAN: INTERFACING WITH TOMORROW, ed. Jan Zimmerman, pp.169-180. New York: Praeger, 1983.
Examines employment in "high tech" industries, primarily in the Silicon Valley area of California, and the practice of homework, or sending microcomputer assembly work home with workers.

Moure-Eraso, Rafael, et al. "Back to the Future: Sweatshop Conditions on the Mexico-U.S. Border. I. Community Health Impact of Maquiladora Industrial Activity." AMERICAN JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL MEDICINE v.25, no.3 (1994): 311-324.

Pena, Devon. "Tortuosidad: Shop Floor Struggles of Female Maquiladora Workers." WOMEN ON THE U.S.-MEXICO BORDER: RESPONSES TO CHANGE, ed. Vicki Ruiz and Susan Tiano, pp.129-154. Boston: Allen & Unwin, 1987.
Examines the demographics and tactics of women maquiladora workers along the U.S.-Mexico border (most in electronics manufacturing) in resisting Fordist-type work speedups. "Tortuosidad" refers to working at a turtle's pace. See also "Gender Identification and Working-Class Solidarity among Maquila Workers in Ciudad Juarez: Stereotypes and Realities" by Gay Young in the same volume, pp.105-127.

Pineda-Ofreneo, Rosalinda. "Women in the Electronics Industry in the Philippines." TECHNOLOGY AND GENDER: WOMEN'S WORK IN ASIA, ed. Cecilia Ng, pp.92-106. Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia: Women's Studi Education, Universiti Pertanian Malaysia, 1987.
Summarizes the work process in transnational semiconductor manufacturing, offering U.S.-Asian wage comparisons, and discusses the limited employment options, health hazards, and job insecurity faced by the predominantly women workers.

Sen, G. and L. Gulati. WOMEN WORKERS IN KERALA'S ELECTRONIC INDUSTRY. Geneva: International Labour Office, Rural Employment Policy Research Programme, 1987. (Rural employment policy research program, working paper no.45) 53p.

Seung-Kyung, Kim. "Capitalism, Patriarchy, and Autonomy: Women Factory Workers in the Korean Economic Miracle." New York: Ph.D. dissertation, City University of New York, 1990.

Tiano, Susan. "Maquiladora Women: A New Category of Workers?" WOMEN WORKERS AND GLOBAL RESTRUCTURING, ed. Kathryn Ward, pp.193-223. Ithaca, NY: ILR Press, 1990.
Looks at various "push-pull" factors in explaining the number of women employed in maquiladora work along the U.S.-Mexico border, concluding that women take such jobs largely because men's wages aren't enough to cover family expenses.

Women Working Worldwide, ed. COMMON INTERESTS: WOMEN ORGANISING IN GLOBAL ELECTRONICS. London: Women Working Worldwide, 1991. (Box 92, 190 Upper St., London N1 1RQ, England) 237p. bibl.
An anthology of the experiences of women in thirteen countries working on the assembly line for the microelectronics industry. Covers South Korea, the U.S., Scotland, Hong Kong, China, Taiwan, Thailand, Italy, Malaysia, Japan, India, Pakistan, and the Philippines.

Wong, Aline K. and Yiu-Chung Ko. WOMEN'S WORK AND FAMILY LIFE: THE CASE OF ELECTRONICS WORKERS IN SINGAPORE. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 1984. (Working paper no.64) 37p.
The findings of "intensive interviews with a small sample of single and married women workers in the electronics industry in Singapore" (p.1).

EMPLOYMENT: Office

Andolsen, Barbara Hilkert. GOOD WORK AT THE VIDEO DISPLAY TERMINAL: A FEMINIST ETHICAL ANALYSIS OF CHANGES IN CLERICAL WORK. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1989. 213p. bibl. index.
Offers a Christian ethical analysis of changes in clerical work brought about by the computer, focusing on displacement of workers, restrictions on worker automony, and health risks.

Applebaum, Eileen. "Technology and the Redesign of Work in the Insurance Industry." WOMEN, WORK, AND TECHNOLOGY: TRANSFORMATIONS, ed. Barbara Drygulski Wright et al., pp.182-201. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1987.

Avner, Eva. "Trade Unions, IT and Equal Opportunities in Sweden." GENDERED BY DESIGN? INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND OFFICE SYSTEMS, ed. Eileen Green et al., pp.194-206. Washington, DC: Taylor & Francis, 1993.

Baran, Barbara. "Office Automation and Women's Work: The Technological Transformation of the Insurance Industry." HIGH TECHNOLOGY, SPACE AND SOCIETY, ed. Manuel Castells, pp.143-171. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, 1985.

Barker, Jane and Hazel Downing. "Word Processing and the Transformation of Patriarchal Relations of Control in the Office." THE SOCIAL SHAPING OF TECHNOLOGY: HOW THE REFRIGERATOR GOT ITS HUM, ed. Donald MacKenzie and Judy Wajcman, pp.147-164. Philadelphia: Open University Press, 1985.

Bentson, Margaret Lowe. "Feminism and System Design: Questions of Control." THE EFFECTS OF FEMINIST APPROACHES ON RESEARCH METHODOLOGIES, ed. Winnie Tomm, pp.205-223. Waterloo, Ontario: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 1989.
The author proposes a model of "technology and science 'with the people'" in empowering everyone, particularly women, in dealing with new computer systems in a more collaborative way.

Bevan, Stephen M. "New Office Technology and the Changing Role of Secretaries." WOMEN AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, ed. Marilyn J. Davidson and Cary L. Cooper, pp.179-191. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1987.

Board on Telecommunications and Computer Applications, Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems, National Research Council. OFFICE WORKSTATIONS IN THE HOME. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1985. 160p. index.
Papers from this 1983 national forum are grouped into "Case Studies," "Issues and Problems," and "The Future." Among the articles: "American Express Company: Project Homebound" (James G. Raney, Jr.); "Blue Cross/Blue Shield of South Carolina: Program for Clerical Workers" (Greg Geisler); "U.S. Army: Prototype Program for Professionals" (Mary McDavid); "Mountain Bell: Program for Managers" (Nelson Phelps); "Control Data Corporation: Alternate Work Site Programs" (Ronald A. Manning); "F International: Twenty Years' Experience in Homeworking" (V.S. Shirley); "Legalities" (Donald Elisburg); "Effects of Work Location on Motivation" (Arthur P. Brief); "Use and Misuses of Workstations at Home" (Dennis Chamot and John L. Zalusky); "Technology Forecast" (Frederic G. Withington); "Clerical Workers and New Office Technologies" (Judith Gregory); "The Potential of Remote Work for Professionals" (Margrethe H. Olson); and "Commentary" (Jack M. Nilles).

Bodker, Susanne and Joan Greenbaum. "Design of Information Systems: Things versus People." GENDERED BY DESIGN? INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND OFFICE SYSTEMS, ed. Eileen Green et al., pp.53-63. Washington, DC: Taylor & Francis, 1993.

Carter, Valerie J. "Office Technology and Relations of Control in Clerical Work Organization." WOMEN, WORK, AND TECHNOLOGY: TRANSFORMATIONS, ed. Barbara Drygulski Wright et al., pp.202-219. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1987.
Challenges the model of office automation as inherently deskilling, noting that clerical workers develop office cultures of their own and many express enthusiasm about VDT work. Theorizes that the consequences of office automation "vary according to structural differences in office settings."

Cassell, Catherine. "A Woman's Place is at the Word Processor: Technology and Change in the Office." WOMEN AT WORK: PSYCHOLOGICAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL PERSPECTIVES, ed. Jenny Firth-Cozens and Michael A. West, pp.172-184. Bristol, PA: Open University Press, 1991.

Chalude, Monique; scientific direction, Marcel Bolle de Bal. OFFICE AUTOMATION AND WORK FOR WOMEN. Luxembourg: Commission of the European Communities; distr., Washington, DC: European Community Information Service, 1984. 135p. bibl.
Explores the "technical evolution" and the "employment and social issues associated with its growth," using case studies such as a personnel department, a legal service, a purchasing center, and a banking firm. Researchers found office automation to be reaffirming the existing office culture in most cases.

Clement, Andrew. "Designing Without Designers: More Hidden Skill in Office Computerization?" WOMEN, WORK AND COMPUTERIZATION: UNDERSTANDING AND OVERCOMING BIAS IN WORK AND EDUCATION, ed. Inger V. Eriksson et al., pp.15-32. New York: Elsevier, 1991.

Cohen, Marcy and Margaret White. TAKING CONTROL OF OUR FUTURE: CLERICAL WORKERS & NEW TECHNOLOGY. Burnaby, BC: Women's Skill Development Society, 1987. 4340 Carson St., Burnaby, BC V5J 2X9 Canada

"Computer Monitoring and Other Dirty Tricks." Cleveland, OH: 9 to 5, 1986. 9p.

Crompton, Rosemary and Gareth Jones. WHITE-COLLAR PROLETARIAT: DESKILLING AND GENDER IN CLERICAL WORK. London: Macmillan Press, 1984. 277p. bibl. index.
Based on research from 1979-1981 in three large bureaucracies, the authors found that clerical work has been deskilled, men being promoted out of that rank. They also explore class-related issues around clerical work and upward mobility, suggesting that men as well as women will increasingly become part of the "office proletariat."

Crompton, Rosemary and Stuart Reid. "The Deskilling of Clerical Work." THE DEGRADATION OF WORK? SKILL, DESKILLING AND THE LABOUR PROCESS, ed. Stephen Wood, pp.163-178. London: Hutchinson, 1982.

de Cindio, Fiorella and Carla Simone. "The Universes of Discourse for Education and Action/Research." GENDERED BY DESIGN? INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND OFFICE SYSTEMS, ed. Eileen Green et al., pp.173-193. Washington, DC: Taylor & Francis, 1993.
Describes an analytical tool called "The Universes of Discourse" used by the authors in examining computerization of work situations.

Downing, Hazel. "Word Processors and the Oppression of Women." THE MICROELECTRONICS REVOLUTION, ed. Tom Forester, pp.275-287. Oxford: Blackwell, 1980.

Feldberg, Roslyn and Evelyn Nakano Glenn. "Technology and Work Degradation: Effects of Office Automation on Women Clerical Workers." TEACHING TECHNOLOGY FROM A FEMINIST PERSPECTIVE: A PRACTICAL GUIDE, ed. Joan Rothschild, pp.59-78. New York: Pergamon, 1988.
Previously published as part of MACHINA EX DEA: FEMINIST PERSPECTIVES ON TECHNOLOGY, ed. Joan Rothschild (New York: Pergamon, 1983), pp.59-78.

Garson, Barbara. "The Electronic Sweatshop: How Computers are Transforming the Office of the Future into the Factory of the Past." New York: Simon & Schuster, 1988. 288p. bibl. index.
Based on interviews with workers and managers, and noting abuses of electronic monitoring, Garson worries about the negative, dehumanizing impact of computers in the workplace.

Gothoskar, Sujata. "Computerization and Women's Employment in India's Banking Sector." WOMEN ENCOUNTER TECHNOLOGY: CHANGING PATTERNS OF EMPLOYMENT IN THE THIRD WORLD, ed. Swasti Mitter and Sheila Rowbotham, pp.150-176. New York: Routledge in association with United Nations University Press, 1995.

Green, Eileen and Den Pain. "Integrated Gender Perspectives on Human-Centred Approached to Developing Computerised Office Systems." NET WORKING: CONNECTING WORKERS IN AND BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONS, ed. Andrew Clement et al. New York: North-Holland, 1994.
Part of proceedings of the IFIP WG9.1 Working Conference on NetWORKing, Vienna, Austria, June 16-18, 1993.

Green, Eileen, et al. "`City Libraries': Human-Centred Opportunities for Women?" GENDERED BY DESIGN? INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND OFFICE SYSTEMS, ed. Eileen Green et al., pp.127-152. Washington, DC: Taylor & Francis, 1993.
Case study of the use of "Human-Centred Systems" design in library automation, with attention to gender differences within the workforce.

Green, Eileen, et al. "Developing Computerised Office Systems: A Gender Perspective in UK Approaches." WOMEN, WORK AND COMPUTERIZATION: UNDERSTANDING AND OVERCOMING BIAS IN WORK AND EDUCATION, ed. Inger V. Eriksson et al., pp.217-232. New York: Elsevier, 1991.

Green, Eileen, et al. "Human-Centred Systems... Women-Centred Systems? Gender Divisions and Office Computer Systems Design." GENDER, POWER, & SEXUALITY, ed. Pamela Abbott and Claire Wallace, pp.77-96. London: Macmillan, 1991.

Green, Eileen, Jenny Owen, and Den Pain, eds. GENDERED BY DESIGN: INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND OFFICE SYSTEMS. Bristol, PA: Falmer Press, 1993. 218p. bibl. index.

Green, Eileen. "Gender Perspectives, Office Systems and Organizational Change." WOMEN, WORK, AND COMPUTERIZATION: BREAKING OLD BOUNDARIES, BUILDING NEW FORMS, ed. Alison Adam et al., pp.365-377. Amsterdam; New York: Elsevier, 1994.

Greenbaum, Joan. "Toward Participatory Design: The Head and the Heart Revisited." WOMEN, WORK AND COMPUTERIZATION: UNDERSTANDING AND OVERCOMING BIAS IN WORK AND EDUCATION, ed. Inger V. Eriksson et al., pp.33-39. New York: Elsevier, 1991.

Gutek, Barbara A. "Clerical Work and Information Technology: Implications of Managerial Assumptions." WOMEN AND TECHNOLOGY, ed. Urs E. Gattiker, pp.205-226. New York: Walter de Gruyter, 1994. (Technological innovation and human resources, v.4)

Gutek, Barbara A. "Women's Work in the Office of the Future." THE TECHNOLOGICAL WOMAN: INTERFACING WITH TOMORROW, ed. Jan Zimmerman, pp.159-168. New York: Praeger, 1983. See also in the same book: "The Next Move: Organizing Women in the Office " by Judith Gregory (pp.159-168).

Gutek, Barbara A. and Tora K. Bikson. "Differential Experiences of Men and Women in Computerised Offices." SEX ROLES v.13, no.1 (1985): 123-136. Also listed in COMPUTERISED OFFICES by the same authors (New York: Plenum, 1986).

Hales, Mike and Peter O'Hara. "Strengths and Weaknesses of Participation: Learning by Doing in Local Government." GENDERED BY DESIGN? INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND OFFICE SYSTEMS, ed. Eileen Green et al., pp.153-172. Washington, DC: Taylor & Francis, 1993.
Use of a participatory design approach in automation of a government social services office.

Hartman, Karen. "Secretaries and Computers." COMPUTING AND CHANGE ON CAMPUS, ed. Sara Kiesler and Lee Sproull, pp.114-130. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

Hedstrom, Margaret L. AUTOMATING THE OFFICE: TECHNOLOGY AND SKILL IN WOMEN'S CLERICAL WORK, 1940-1970. Madison, WI: Ph.D. dissertation, UW-Madison, 1988. 454 leaves, bibl.
The detail of this study offers a wealth of information on office automation before the advent of microcomputers. The chapter on "Installing Computers: From Brute Force to Blue Sky, 1955-1965," is worth particular attention, including such factors as the unexpected difficulties of early computer automation efforts, workers' resistance tactics, and women's exclusion from higher-paying programming jobs.

Holvikivi, Jaana. "Working With Microcomputer Users in Developing Countries: Cases from Tanzania, Micronesia and the Maldives." WOMEN, WORK AND COMPUTERIZATION: UNDERSTANDING AND OVERCOMING BIAS IN WORK AND EDUCATION, ed. Inger V. Eriksson et al., pp.175-184. New York: Elsevier, 1991.

Johansson, Gunn and Gunnar Aronsson. "Stress Reactions in Computerized Administrative Work." JOURNAL OF OCCUPATIONAL BEHAVIOUR, v.5, no.3 (1984):159-181.
A study of 95 clerical workers in a Swedish insurance company, locating stress in such computer-related problems as delayed computer response time and routine and long periods of data entry.

Knights, David and Andrew Sturdy. "Women's Work in Insurance-Information Technology and the Reproduction of Gendered Segregation." WOMEN AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, ed. Marilyn J. Davidson and Cary L. Cooper, pp.151-175. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1987.

Liff, Sonia. "Information Technology and Occupational Restructuring in the Office." GENDERED BY DESIGN? INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND OFFICE SYSTEMS, ed. Eileen Green et al., pp.95-110. Washington, DC: Taylor & Francis, 1993.

Maching, Anne. "Word Processing: Forward for Business, Backward for Women." MY TROUBLES ARE GOING TO HAVE TROUBLE WITH ME, ed. Karen Sacks and Dorothy Remy, pp.124-139. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1984.

Machung, Anne. "`Who Needs a Personality to Talk to a Machine?': Communication in the Automated Office." TECHNOLOGY AND WOMEN'S VOICES: KEEPING IN TOUCH, ed. Cheris Kramarae, pp.62-81. New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1988.

Morgall, Janine Marie. "The Clerical Sector." TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT: A FEMINIST ASSESSMENT, pp.155-176. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1993.
Examines how the introduction of computers has affected the female-dominated clerical sector, looking particularly at the difficulties and importance of including gender analysis in technological assessment.

Morgall, Janine. "Typing our Way to Freedom: Is It True that New Office Technology can Liberate Women?" BEHAVIOUR AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY v.2, no.3 (1983): 215-226.

Mumford, Enid. DESIGNING SECRETARIES: A PARTICIPATIVE DESIGN OF A WORD PROCESSING SYSTEM. Manchester, UK: Manchester Business School, 1983. 114p. ill.

Ng, Cecilia Choon Sim. "Office Automation in Malaysia: The Case of the Telecommunications Industry." The Hague, The Netherlands: Publications Office, Institute of Social Studies, 1992. (P.O. Box 90733, 2509 LS The Hague, The Netherlands) (Working paper series no.132) 41p. bibl.
Examines the recently privatized TELMAL telecommunications company, finding no major changes in employment, but some increased stress and loss of control of work at lowest levels, limited headway of women into professional/managerial positions. "Women's position in the labour force is still secondary and ideologically constructed" (p.32), the author concludes.

NOT OVER OUR HEADS: WOMEN AND COMPUTERS IN THE OFFICE: CONFERENCE REPORT. London: Microsyster, 1988. 79p. ill.

Otos, Sally and Ellen Levy. "Word Processing: 'This Is Not a Final Draft.'" THE TECHNOLOGICAL WOMAN: INTERFACING WITH TOMORROW, ed. Jan Zimmerman, pp.149-158. New York: Praeger, 1983.
Two office workers describe their experience with word processing work, including expectations, supervision, health concerns, stress, etc.

Piotrkowski, Chaya S., et al. "Working Conditions and Well-Being Among Women Office Workers." INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HUMAN-COMPUTER INTERACTION v.4, no.3 (July-Sept., 1992): 263+. See also: "Working Conditions and Health Complaints of Women Office Workers," by B.G.F. Cohen et al., in G. Salvendy et al., eds., SOCIAL, ERGONOMIC AND STRESS ASPECTS OF WORK WITH COMPUTERS (Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1987).

Probert, Belinda and Bruce Wilson, eds. PINK COLLAR BLUES: WORK, GENDER AND TECHNOLOGY. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press, 1993. 173p. bibl. index.
Among articles of interest: "The Masculine Mystique: A Feminist Analysis of Science and Technology" (Judy Wajcman); "Women's Skills and Word Processors: Gender Issues in the Development of the Automated Office" (Juliet Webster); "New Technology and Work Organisation: The Role of Gender Relations" (Eileen Appelbaum); and "Human-centred Systems, Gender and Computer Supported Co-operative Work" (Mike Hales).

Roessner, J. David, et al. THE IMPACT OF OFFICE AUTOMATION ON CLERICAL EMPLOYMENT, 1985-2000: FORECASTING TECHNIQUES AND PLAUSIBLE FUTURES IN BANKING AND INSURANCE. Westport, CT: Quorum Books, 1985. 297p. bibl. index.

Salomon, Ilan and Meira Salomon. "Telecommuting: The Employee's Perspective." TECHNOLOGY FORECASTING AND SOCIAL CHANGE v.25 (1984): 15-28.
Surveys previous research on telecommuting, noting especially social interaction needs and separation of home-work sites and roles.

Samper, Maria-Luz Daza. "A Comparative Survey of Responses to Office Technology in the United States and Western Europe." WOMEN, WORK, AND TECHNOLOGY: TRANSFORMATIONS, ed. Barbara Drygulski Wright et al., pp.332-351. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1987.
Surveys effects of new technologies on clerical workers (largely female) in Western Europe and the U.S.; suggests more humanistic ways to cope with new technologies.

Sim, Cecilia Ng Choon and Carol Yong. "Information Technology, Gender and Employment: A Case Study of the Telecommunications Industry in Malaysia." WOMEN ENCOUNTER TECHNOLOGY: CHANGING PATTERNS OF EMPLOYMENT IN THE THIRD WORLD, ed. Swasti Mitter and Sheila Rowbotham, pp.177-204. New York: Routledge in association with United Nations University Press, 1995.

Softley, Elena. "Word Processing: New Opportunities for Women Office Workers?" SMOTHERED BY INVENTION: TECHNOLOGY IN WOMEN'S LIVES, ed. Wendy Faulkner and Erik Arnold, 222-237. London: Pluto Press, 1985.

Stellman, Jeanne and Mary Sue Henifin; ill. Lyda Pola. "Video Display Terminals: The Computer Connection." OFFICE WORK CAN BE DANGEROUS TO YOUR HEALTH: A HANDBOOK OF OFFICE HEALTH AND SAFETY HAZARDS AND WHAT YOU CAN DO ABOUT THEM, pp.41-70. New York: Pantheon, 1983. 240p. bibl. index.
Stellman and Henifin look at the visual (lighting, glare), workstation design, radiation, and job stress aspects of office work with computers. While some specific information is now dated, basic information is still relevant to office environments.

Tremblay, Diane-Gabrielle. "Computerization, Human Resources Management and Redirection of Women's Skills." WOMEN, WORK AND COMPUTERIZATION: UNDERSTANDING AND OVERCOMING BIAS IN WORK AND EDUCATION, ed. Inger V. Eriksson et al., pp.129-143. New York: Elsevier, 1991.

U.S. Dept. of Labor. WOMEN AND OFFICE AUTOMATION: ISSUES FOR THE DECADE AHEAD. Washington, DC: Women's Bureau, 1985. 48p.

Vehvilainen, Marja Leena. "Women Defining their Information Technology -- Struggles for Textual Subjectivity in an Office Workers' Study Circle." EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF WOMEN'S STUDIES v.1, no.1 (Spring 1994): 73-93.
A group of Finnish office workers defined information technology for themselves, analyzed their own work in relation to new technologies over a period of 7 months, and "defined their subjectivities: their practices and their thinking" (p.89), bridging "the personal and the public, like cyborgs" (p.90).

Vehvilainen, Marja. "Gender in Information Systems Development -- A Women Office Workers' Standpoint." WOMEN, WORK AND COMPUTERIZATION: UNDERSTANDING AND OVERCOMING BIAS IN WORK AND EDUCATION, ed. Inger V. Eriksson et al., pp.247-262. New York: Elsevier, 1991.

Webster, Juliet. "From the Word Processor to the Micro: Gender Issues in the Development of Information Technology in the Office." GENDERED BY DESIGN? INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND OFFICE SYSTEMS, ed. Eileen Green et al., pp.111-123. Washington, DC: Taylor & Francis, 1993.

Webster, Juliet. "The Social Office: Secretaries, Bosses and New Technology." WOMEN, WORK AND COMPUTERIZATION: UNDERSTANDING AND OVERCOMING BIAS IN WORK AND EDUCATION, ed. Inger V. Eriksson et al., pp.145-158. New York: Elsevier, 1991.

Webster, Juliet. OFFICE AUTOMATION: THE LABOUR PROCESS AND WOMEN'S WORK IN BRITAIN. New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1990. 141p. bibl. index.
Based on review of the literature as well as on interviews with supervisory and clerical staff at several companies, Webster concludes that this major change in office technology was "accompanied by remarkably little in the way of organisational change" (p.129).

Werneke, Diane. MICROELECTRONICS AND OFFICE JOBS: THE IMPACT OF THE CHIP ON WOMEN'S EMPLOYMENT. Geneva: International Labour Office, 1983. 102p.

West, Jackie. "New Technology and Women's Office Work." WORK, WOMEN AND THE LABOUR MARKET, ed. Jackie West, pp.61-79. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1982.

Wilson, Fiona. "Women, Office Technology and Equal Opportunities -- The Role of Trade Unions." WOMEN AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, ed. Marilyn J. Davidson and Cary L. Cooper, pp.243-254. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1987.

Women's Bureau in cooperation with the Panel on Technology and Women's Employment, National Research Council. WOMEN, CLERICAL WORK, AND OFFICE AUTOMATION: ISSUES FOR RESEARCH: REPORT OF A CONFERENCE. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Labor, Women's Bureau, 1986. 64p.

Wood, Stephen. "The Deskilling Debate, New Technology and Work Organization." ACTA SOCIOLOGICA 30 (1987): 1, 3-24.

Zuboff, Shoshana. "Office Technology as Exile and Integration." IN THE AGE OF THE SMART MACHINE: THE FUTURE OF WORK AND POWER, pp.124-173. New York: Basic Books, 1988.
Observation and interaction with two large institutions in the midst of technological transformation led the author to explore how computerization can cause a feeling of "exile" among clerical workers, and how the change to an "informated" office environment changes the basis of knowledge handling within the institution.

HEALTH ISSUES

Citations primarily refer to works examining health effects of computer use and manufacture, including toxic chemical exposure, radiation from video display terminals, pregnancy outcomes, mental and physical stress, and the like. Some works are included here, although they don't specifically focus on women or gender differences, because of the large number of women employed in manufacturing or clerical occupations.

Baker, Robin and Sharon Woodrow. "The Clean, Light Image of the Electronics Industry: Miracle or Mirage?" DOUBLE EXPOSURE: WOMEN'S HEALTH ON THE JOB AND AT HOME, ed. Wendy Chavkin, M.D., pp.21-36. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1984.

Bazzell, Sally. DIFFUSION OF AN INNOVATION: NETWORKING FOR COMPUTER SAFETY LEGISLATION (WORKPLACE HAZARDS, VDT SYNDROME). Milwaukee, WI: Ph.D. dissertation, University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee, 1991. 245p.
Describes the diffusion of guidelines for reducing health problems related to VDT work via women's organizations and unions.

BEHIND THE CHIP: PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONFERENCE ON SAFETY AND HEALTH IN ELECTRONICS, PETALING JAYA, MALAYSIA, DECEMBER 1992. Selangor, Malaysia: Women's Development Collective and Persatuan Sahabat Wanita, 1994. (W.D.C. Sdn. Bhd., 16 Jalan SS4/16, 47301 Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia). RM10.00 (Malaysia); US$10 (outside Malaysia). (Checks/money orders payable to W.D.C. Sdn. Bhd.) Contents: "Facing the Challenge: Trends and Implications of the Electronics Industry in Malaysia" (Rajah Rasiah); "Clean But Not Safe: Working Conditions of Electronics Workers in Malaysia" (Irene Xavier); "From Chips to Devices: A Brief Overview of Work Processes in the Electronics Industry" (Steve Cheong); "Chipping Away at Health: Two Research Studies on the Reproductive Health of Women Electronics Workers" (Brenda Eskenazi); "Research for Change: Health and Safety in Two West German Electronics Factories" (Henning Wriedt); "Speaking Out: Women Workers Talk About Safety and Health in Electronics" (Chee Heng Leng and Mano Subramaniam); "Pioneering Health and Safety: Fighting for Protection for Electronics Workers in the Santa Clara Valley" (Robin Baker); "Action for Health: The Struggle for Safety and Health of Electronics Workers in Korea" (Yang Gil-Seong); and "Laws are Not Enough: The Role of Health and Safety Legislation in the UK" (Pat Stuart).

Binashi, S., et al. "Study on Subjective Symptomatology of Fatigue in VDU Operators." ERGONOMIC ASPECTS OF VISUAL DISPLAY TERMINALS, ed. E. Grandjean and E. Vigliani, pp.219-225. London: Taylor & Francis, 1982.

Bowler, Rosemarie M., et al. "Affective and Personality Disturbance of Women Former Microelectronics Workers." JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY v.47 (1991): 41-52. See also: "Neuropsychological Impairment of Former Microelectronics Workers" by the author and others in NEURO TOXICOLOGY [?] v.12 (1991): 87-104.

Bowler, Rosemarie M., et al. "Stability of Psychological Impairment: Two-Year Follow-up of Former Microelectronics Workers' Affective and Personality Disturbance." WOMEN & HEALTH v.18, no.3 (Fall 1992): 27-48.
This study of 63 former microelectronics workers (56 of them women) using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) found that the workers "manifested affective and personality disturbances, consistent with organic solvent toxicity, which persisted over a two year period, indicating that they were not reactive, transient hysterical neurosis" (authors' abstract).

Bramwell, Rosalind S. and Marilyn J. Davidson. "Reproductive Hazards at Work." WOMEN AT WORK: PSYCHOLOGICAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL PERSPECTIVES, ed. Jenny Firth-Cozens and Michael A. West, pp.84-97. Bristol, PA: Open University Press, 1991.
Not exclusively, but predominantly, on the suggested connection between work with video display terminals and rate of miscarriage. Discusses methodological issues of epidemiological studies, statistical clustering, and possible psychosocial causes.

Briggs, Linda L. "VDTs: Back in the Hot Seat." WOMEN COMPUTING (September/October 1988): 5-8.
Notes both the New York county of Suffolk's 1988 law regulating the use of VDT's in private companies and a Kaiser Permanente study that found a connection between miscarriages and women with high VDT use.

Bromet, Evelyn J., et al. "Effects of Occupational Stress on the Physical and Psychological Health of Women in a Microelectronics Plant." SOCIAL SCIENCE & MEDICINE v.34, no.12 (June 15, 1992): 1377+(7p.)

Cardinali, Richard. "Computer Hazards: Real or Imaginary?" HEALTH CARE FOR WOMEN INTERNATIONAL v.12, no.3 (July-September, 1991): 351-358.
Cardinali presents summary data on pregnancy outcomes in studies of workers using VDTs and suggests basic safety considerations.

"Chemical Caution." TIME v.140 (October 26, 1992): 27.
A study by Johns Hopkins suggests a possible link between chemicals used in manufacturing silicon chips and rate of miscarriage in women semiconductor workers handling the chemicals.

Cohen, Marcy and Margaret White. PLAYING WITH OUR HEALTH: HAZARDS IN THE AUTOMATED OFFICE. Burnaby, BC: Women's Skill Development Society, 1986. (4340 Carson St., Burnaby BC V5J 2X9 Canada) 106p. bibl.
A booklet dealing with office stress and radiation hazards, with suggestions for actions clerical workers can take to improve health and safety in the workplace.

DeMatteo, Bob. TERMINAL SHOCK: THE HEALTH HAZARDS OF VIDEO DISPLAY TERMINALS. Toronto: NC Press, Ltd., 2nd ed., 1985. 239p. ill. index. bibl.

Dow, Caroline and Douglas C. Covert. "Monitor Tone Generates Stress in Computer and VDT Operators: A Preliminary Study." July 1988. Available from ERIC: ED 298551. 24p.

Elias, R., et al. "Investigations in Operators Working with CRT Display Terminals: Relationships Between Task Content and Psychophysiological Alterations." ERGONOMIC ASPECTS OF VISUAL DISPLAY TERMINALS, ed. E. Grandjean and E. Vigliani, pp.211-217. London: Taylor & Francis, 1982.

Ericson, Anders and Bengt Kallen. "An Epidemiological Study of Work with Video Screens and Pregnancy Outcome: I - A Registry Study; II - A Case-Control Study." AMERICAN JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL MEDICINE v.9, no.5 (1986): 447-457 (I); 459-475 (II).

Goldhaber, Marilyn K., et al. "The Risk of Miscarriage and Birth Defects Among Women Who Use Visual Display Terminals During Pregnancy." AMERICAN JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL MEDICINE v.13, no.6 (June 1988): 695-706.

Guendelman, Sylvia and Monica Silberg. "Health Consequences of Maquiladora Work: Women on the US-Mexican Border." AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH v.83, no.1 (January 1993): 37-44.

Harwin, Ronald, M.D. and Colin Haynes. HEALTHY COMPUTING: RISKS AND REMEDIES EVERY COMPUTER-USER NEEDS TO KNOW. New York: Amacom, 1992.
Clear presentation of causes of health problems such as repetitive stress injuries as well as ways to overcome them. Also discusses unknowns of radiation hazards.

"Health Effects of Video Display Terminals." JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION v.257 (March 20, 1987): 1508-1512.

Henifin, Mary Sue. "The Particular Problems of Video Display Terminals." DOUBLE EXPOSURE: WOMEN'S HEALTH ON THE JOB AND AT HOME, ed. Wendy Chavkin, M.D., pp.69-80. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1984.

Ilinitch, Ron C. AN EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF A PROGRAM TO PROMOTE HEALTH RISK REDUCTION AT VIDEO DISPLAY TERMINALS. Raleigh, NC: Ph.D. dissertation, North Carolina State University, 1993. 220p.
"This study provides significant evidence to support employee education and training as a means to initial behavior change and likely health risk reduction" (abstract).

Kalimo, Raija and Anneli Leppanen. "Visual Display Units -- Psychosocial Factors in Health." WOMEN AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, ed. Marilyn J. Davidson and Cary L. Cooper, pp.193-224. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1987.

Kurppa, K., et al. "Birth Defects and Exposure to Video Display Terminals During Pregnancy." SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF WORK AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH v.11 (1985): 353-356.

LaRue, James. "Terminal Illnesses." WILSON LIBRARY BULLETIN v.66 (September 1991): 85-88.

Makower, Joel. OFFICE HAZARDS: HOW YOUR JOB CAN MAKE YOU SICK. Washington, DC: Tilden Press, 1981. (1737 DeSales St., NW, Washington, DC 20036)
A chapter on VDT's ("Terminal Illnesses") focuses mostly on stress of machine-centered work and related eye problems. Radiation and pace-induced stress are discussed in additional chapters.

Marriott, Ian A., M.D., and Maria A. Stuchly. "Health Aspects of Work with Visual Display Terminals." JOURNAL OF OCCUPATIONAL MEDICINE v.28, no.9 (September 1986): 833-847.

McDonald, Alison D., M.D., et al. "Visual Display Units and Pregnancy: Evidence from the Montreal Survey." JOURNAL OF OCCUPATIONAL MEDICINE v.28, no.12 (December 1986): 1226-1231.

Mogensen, Vernon Lee. OFFICE POLITICS: VIDEO DISPLAY TERMINALS AND THE FIGHT FOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH IN THE POSTINDUSTRIAL AGE. New York: Ph.D. dissertation, City University of New York, 1994. 575p.
"This is a study about power and the fight by office workers using video display terminals (VDTs) to secure occupational safety and health protection in the face of opposition from capital and the state" (abstract).

Morris, Anne. "Working with Display Screen Equipment: Do You Know Your Rights?" THE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY v.10 (August 1992): 209-218.
Information systems/VDT's and working conditions in Great Britain and the European Community.

Pearce, Brian, ed. HEALTH HAZARDS OF VDTs? New York: Wiley, 1984. 244p. index.
Based on an early (1980-81) series of public meetings in Great Britain, covering rashes, radiation emissions, ergonomics, eye problems, lighting, postural problems, humanizing computers, and more.

Pearson, Ruth. "Gender Perspectives on Health and Safety in Information Processing: Learning from International Experience." WOMEN ENCOUNTER TECHNOLOGY: CHANGING PATTERNS OF EMPLOYMENT IN THE THIRD WORLD, ed. Swasti Mitter and Sheila Rowbotham, pp.278-302. New York: Routledge in association with United Nations University Press, 1995.

Rebeck, George. "Computer Danger Zone." UTNE READER (January/February 1991): 18-19.
Gathers information from articles in such publications as NATION, MACWORLD, DOLLARS & SENSE, and COLUMBIA JOURNALISM REVIEW on possible health effects of working with video display terminals.

Sabol, Laurie, et al. "Health Hazards of Video Display Terminals: A Representative, Annotated Bibliography." SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY LIBRARIES v.12 (Winter 1991): 85-129.

Schnorr, Teresa M., et al. "Video Display Terminals and the Risk of Spontaneous Abortion." NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE v.324 (March 14, 1991): 727-733. A related discussion appears in v.325 (September 12, 1991): 811-813.

Statham, Anne and Ellen Bravo. "The Introduction of New Technology: Health Implications for Workers." WOMEN & HEALTH v.16, no.2 (1990):105-129.
Examines "the relationship between the introduction of technology into the workplace and resulting symptoms of stress" (p.105) among secretarial staffs in three settings, concluding that involvement in decision-making is a factor in stress-related illnesses.

Tsubota, Kazuo and Katsu Nakamori. "Dry Eyes and Video Display Terminals." THE NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE v.328, (February 25, 1993): 584.

VDT SYNDROME: THE PHYSICAL AND MENTAL TRAUMA OF COMPUTER WORK. Cleveland, OH: 9 to 5, National Association of Working Women; Service Employees International Union, 1987? 58p. bibl.

"VDT Update: New Data on Miscarriages." WOMEN'S OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH RESOURCE CENTER (August/September 1988): 3.
Part of a special section on potential hazards in VDT work, concluding that the Kaiser Permanente 1988 study "does not provide clear evidence that VDTs alone are hazardous to reproductive health," and calling for further research.

"VDTs on Trial: Do Video Display Terminals Pose a Health Hazard?" SCIENCE NEWS v.134 (September 10, 1988): 174-175.

Windham-Poitras, Gayle Claire. INVESTIGATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND OCCUPATIONAL RISK FACTORS IN A CASE-CONTROL STUDY OF SPONTANEOUS ABORTION. Berkeley, CA: Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, 1989. 186p.
One of the three parts of the study focuses on use of video display terminals during pregnancy.

Online/Electronic Resources

ONLINE USAGE

This section gathers information about women using the online environment, primarily the Internet. It doesn't include electronic resources themselves (see "Electronic Resources" instead), but focuses on how women view and use online resources such as email, discussion groups, etc. Because this is an area of rapid change, some of the articles listed cover stages of online development superceded by newer technologies, but are included as they provide a fuller history of the field and offer conceptual frameworks valid for analyzing future online developments.

Atkinson, Steven D. and Judith Hudson, eds. WOMEN ONLINE: RESEARCH IN WOMEN'S STUDIES USING ONLINE DATABASES. New York: Haworth Press, 1990. 420p.
This collection of sixteen articles touches on the range of information (and lack of it) available on women in the online databases available to researchers. Among the topics: coverage in humanities, social/behavioral sciences, biomedical, legal, and business-related databases; locating information on lesbians, women of color, women in developing countries, women in sports, women in government; finding women's studies materials and feminist perspectives, using reference and online bibliographic databases.

Balas, Janet L. "Women's Information Resource Exchange (WIRE)." COMPUTERS IN LIBRARIES v.14, no.4 (April 1994): 25-26.
A brief description of what was at the time an online information service based in San Francisco (now part of CompuServe).

Balka, Ellen. "Womantalk Goes On-Line: The Use of Computer Networks in the Context of Feminist Social Change." Vancouver, BC, Canada: Ph.D. dissertation, Simon Fraser University, 1993. 422p.
Analysis of four computer networks used for social change, concluding that women's organizations will benefit little from the existing design of such networks because of the social biases inherent in them.

Bezanson, Deborah. "Women and Government Online: Two Case Studies." WOMEN ONLINE: RESEARCH IN WOMEN'S STUDIES USING ONLINE DATABASES, ed. Steven D. Atkinson and Judith Hudson, pp.385-396. New York: Haworth Press, 1990.

Brail, Stephanie. "Take Back the Net! Don't Let On-Line's Dirty Little Secret Prevent You From Exploring Cyberspace." ON THE ISSUES v.3, no.1 (Winter 1994): 39-42.
Notes the online harassment experienced by some women in an environment where they are largely a minority, but also mentions such services as ECHO (East Coast) and Women's Wire (West Coast) that offer woman-friendly Internet access.

Broadhurst, Judith. THE WOMAN'S GUIDE TO ONLINE SERVICES. New York: McGraw, 1995. c.418p. bibl. index. ill.
A guide (useful to men as well) to newcomers to the online environment, with discussion of online stalking, locating sites for children and for career advice, and specific information about online services.

Broadhurst, Judith. "On-line Gold Mines." WORKING WOMAN v.18 (September 1993): 80-81.
Looks at online resources such as bulletin boards and networks.

Bromley, Hank. "Gender Dynamics Online: What's New About the New Communication Technologies?" FEMINIST COLLECTIONS v.16, no.2 (Winter 1995): 16-19.
Bromley examines women's access to and participation in online resources such as discussion lists and discovers that "women are faring little better on this medium than on its predecessors" (p.16).

Cardman, Elizabeth. "The Gender Gap in Computer Use: Implications for Bibliographic Instruction." RESEARCH STRATEGIES v.8, no.3 (1990): 116-128.

Collins-Jarvis, Lori A. "Gender Representation in an Electronic City Hall: Female Adoption of Santa Monica's PEN System." JOURNAL OF BROADCASTING & ELECTRONIC MEDIA v.37, no.1 (Winter 1993): 49-65.
Examines possible factors, including public access terminals and restructuring of the network toward a more welcoming environment, that led women to use Santa Monica's Public Electronic Networking system at a much higher rate than other such networks.

Darcy, Robert, et al. "Women & Politics Data Bases." WOMEN & POLITICS v.1, no.4 (Winter 1980-81): 77-81; v.2, nos.1-2 (Spring-Summer 1982): 115-120; v.2, no.3 (Fall 1982): 69-76; v.2, no.4 (Winter 1982): 125-128.
This series of columns offers abstracts of machine-readable data bases in a variety of fields of interest to researchers studying women and politics.

Davidson, Keay. "Liberte, Egalite, Internete." NEW SCIENTIST v.146 (May 27, 1995): 38-42.
Examines the idea of democratization as a result of electronic communication.

Dentinger, Susan. "Using the Internet to Reach Libraries: Part I." FEMINIST COLLECTIONS v.12, no.3 (Spring 1991): 8-11.
Briefly explains the Internet, what it can be used for, and how to access library catalogs using this electronic network.

Dentinger, Susan. "Using the Internet to Reach Libraries and Databases: Part II." FEMINIST COLLECTIONS v.12, no.4 (Summer 1991): 11-15.
Looks at how to discover what's available on the Internet, suggests some Internet guides, gives an example of FTP, and introduces WMST-L women's studies list.

Detlefsen, Ellen Gay. "Issues of Access to Information About Women." WOMEN'S COLLECTIONS: LIBRARIES, ARCHIVES, AND CONSCIOUSNESS, ed. Suzanne Hildenbrand, pp.163-171. New York: Haworth Press, 1986.
Notes the lack of information resources on feminism/women's studies in general, with specific attention to sparse online services and indexes, but also describes some promising online resources developing during the 1980's. Also published in SPECIAL COLLECTIONS v.3, nos.3/4 [1986].

Dibbell, Julian. "A Rape in Cyberspace." THE VILLAGE VOICE (December 21, 1993): 36-42. Also available via anonymous ftp from parcftp.xerox.com as file/pub/MOO/papers/VillageVoice.txt, and will be part of the next edition of COMPUTERIZATION AND CONTROVERSY: VALUE CONFLICTS AND SOCIAL CHOICES, ed. Charles Dunlop and Rob Kling (1st ed., Academic Press, 1991). See also FLAME WARS: THE DISCOURSE OF CYBERCULTURE, ed. Mark Dery (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1994), pp.237-261.

Discussion of an attack on the female character of a woman using a MUD (Multi-User Dungeon, a role-playing game) through manipulation of the character by a male MUD user.

Dickstein, Ruth and Karen Williams. "Social and Behavioral Sciences Databases." WOMEN ONLINE: RESEARCH IN WOMEN'S STUDIES USING ONLINE DATABASES, ed. Steven D. Atkinson and Judith Hudson, pp.73-94. New York: Haworth Press, 1990.

Dolan, Donna R. "Exploring the Coverage of Women in Biomedical Databases." WOMEN ONLINE: RESEARCH IN WOMEN'S STUDIES USING ONLINE DATABASES, ed. Steven D. Atkinson and Judith Hudson, pp.95-121. New York: Haworth Press, 1990.

Durniak, Barbara Ammerman. "Researching Information About Women in Reference Databases: Advances and Limitations." WOMEN ONLINE: RESEARCH IN WOMEN'S STUDIES USING ONLINE DATABASES, ed. Steven D. Atkinson and Judith Hudson, pp.175-203. New York: Haworth Press, 1990.

Ebben, Maureen Majella. WOMEN ON THE NET: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY OF GENDER DYNAMICS ON THE SOC.WOMEN COMPUTER NETWORK. Urbana, IL: Ph.D. dissertation, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, 1994. 311p.

Elmer-Dewitt, Philip. "On a Screen Near You: Cyberporn." TIME v.146 (July 3, 1995): 38-45.
The famous cover story featuring a Carnegie Mellon report on online pornography.

Erlich, Reese. "Sexual Harassment an Issue on the High-tech Frontier." MACWEEK (December 14, 1992): 20-21.

Falk, Joyce Duncan. "Humanities [databases]." WOMEN ONLINE: RESEARCH IN WOMEN'S STUDIES USING ONLINE DATABASES, ed. Steven D. Atkinson and Judith Hudson, pp.7-72. New York: Haworth Press, 1990.
Compares/contrasts sixteen databases in the humanities as to subject content and indexing vocabulary related to women.

Falk, Joyce Duncan. "The New Technology for Research in European Women's History: `Online' Bibliographies." SIGNS v.9, no.1 (Autumn 1983): 120-133.
An introduction to primary and secondary sources for database searching, query format, and possible databases to search.

FEMINIST COLLECTIONS: A QUARTERLY OF WOMEN'S STUDIES RESOURCES v.17, no.2 (Winter 1996); special issue: "Information Technology and Women's Studies: Reports from the Field," ed. Phyllis Holman Weisbard and Linda Shult.

Fey, Marion Harris. "Freeing Voices: Literacy Through Computer Conferencing and Feminist Collaboration." Rochester, NY: Ph.D. dissertation, University of Rochester, 1992. 399p.

Freeman, Elisabeth and Susanne Hupfer. "TAP: Tapping Internet Resources for Women in Computing." COMMUNICATIONS OF THE ACM v.38, no.1 (January 1995): 44.

Gibbons, Ann. "Creative Solutions: Electronic Mentoring." SCIENCE v.255 (March 13, 1992): 1369.
A brief look at an online network called Systers, developed to connect young women computer scientists with mentors for career advice, research help, and the like. (Part of a special section on women scientists.)

Glass, Betty J. "Scenes from Academic Libraryland: Internetting Women: A Guide for Non-Surfers." WLW JOURNAL v.16, no.3 (Fall 1993): 11-13.
Recommends introductory print materials about the Internet and lists some email discussion groups and other resources such as the InforM women's studies database.

Glazier, Mary. "Internet Resources for Women's Studies." C&RL NEWS (March 1994): 139-141, 143.
Introduces electronic mail discussion groups, Usenet news groups, online library catalogs, electronic texts, gopher sites, and other Internet resources.

Gossen, Eleanor A. "Women in Nonbibliographic Databases." WOMEN ONLINE: RESEARCH IN WOMEN'S STUDIES USING ONLINE DATABASES, ed. Steven D. Atkinson and Judith Hudson, pp.259-280. New York: Haworth Press, 1990.

Gregory, Sophfronia Scott. "Heartbreak in Cyberspace." TIME v.142 (July 19, 1993): 58.
Describes the repercussions surrounding the online romances carried on by a male bulletin board subscriber. When the three women discovered each other, they announced the man's identity to the network, setting off a lively debate on electronic etiquette.

Hafner, Katie. "Adventures On-Line." WORKING WOMAN v.20 (January 1995): 48-52+.

Herring, Susan C. "Politeness in Computer Culture: Why Women Thank and Men Flame." COMMUNICATING IN, THROUGH AND ACROSS CULTURES: PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD BERKELEY WOMEN AND LANGUAGE CONFERENCE, ed. Mary Bucholtz et al. Berkeley: Berkeley Women and Language Group, forthcoming 1996.

Herring, Susan C. "Posting in a Different Voice: Gender and Ethics in Computer-Mediated Communication." PHILOSOPHICAL PERSPECTIVES ON COMPUTER-MEDIATED COMMUNICATION, ed. Charles Ess. Albany, NY: SUNY, forthcoming 1996.

Herring, Susan. "Gender and Participation in Computer-Mediated Linguistic Discourse." 1992. 13p. Available from ERIC: ED 345552.
Paper from the Annual Meeting of the Linguistic Society of America, Philadelphia, PA, January 1992.

Herz, J.C. "Pigs in (Cyber)Space." GENTLEMEN'S QUARTERLY v.64 (October 1994): 156+.
The author's experiences in the online environment.

Hildenbrand, Suzanne. "Computerized Literature Searching and the New Women's History." WOMEN'S STUDIES QUARTERLY v.16, nos.1-2 (Spring/Summer 1988): 124-127.
While acknowledging the limitations of online searching for women's history topics, the author encourages use of online databases and offers tips on how and what to expect.

Hildenbrand, Suzanne. "Electronic Graffiti or Scholar's Tool? A Critical Evaluation of Selected Women's Lists on Internet." WOMEN, INFORMATION, AND THE FUTURE: COLLECTING AND SHARING RESOURCES WORLDWIDE, ed. Eva Steiner Moseley, pp.215-223. Fort Atkinson, WI: Highsmith Press, 1995.

Hudson, Judith and Kathleen A. Turek. ELECTRONIC ACCESS TO RESEARCH ON WOMEN: A SHORT GUIDE. 2nd ed. (version 2.5) Albany, NY: Institute for Research on Women, 1994. 50p. $8.00 payable to Research Foundation Research on Women, Publications, Social Science 341, 1400 Washington Ave., Albany, NY 12222.
A "female-friendly" introduction to electronic resources for/about women, including electronic mail, discussion groups, anonymous ftp, gophers, and more, plus a good listing of discussion groups, examples of ftp, and a bibliography of other resources. (See online version in "Electronic Resources" section.)

Hudson, Judith and Victoria A. Mills. "Women in the National Online Bibliographic Database." WOMEN ONLINE: RESEARCH IN WOMEN'S STUDIES USING ONLINE DATABASES, ed. Steven D. Atkinson and Judith Hudson, pp.237-257. New York: Haworth Press, 1990.

"Information Services at Women's Institutions in Japan." NWEC NEWSLETTER v.9, no.2 (November 1992): 1-4.
Discusses the National Women's Education Centre (NWEC) project of keeping an online database of women's resources available at the 700 women's institutions surveyed. ,br>
Ingall, Marjorie. "Hi Girlz, See You in Cyberspace!" SASSY v.6 (May 1993): 72-73.
One young woman's experience with the MindVox electronic bulletin board service.

Irving, Richard and Mary Jane Brustman. "Women's Issues and Online Legal Research." WOMEN ONLINE: RESEARCH IN WOMEN'S STUDIES USING ONLINE DATABASES, ed. Steven D. Atkinson and Judith Hudson, pp.123-153. New York: Haworth Press, 1990.

Koch, Loretta P. and Barbara G. Preece. "Table of Contents Services: Retrieving Women's Studies Periodical Literature." RQ v.35, no.1 (Fall 1995): 76-86.
Compares three online tables of contents databases (Current Contents, UnCover,and OCLC's ContentsFirst) as to completeness of coverage of women's studies periodicals, using the print FEMINIST PERIODICALS: A CURRENT LISTING OF CONTENTS (Office of the UW System Women's Studies Librarian) as the standard.

Kome, Penney. "Virtual Sisterhood: Women on the Net." HERIZONS v.9, no.3 (Fall 1995): 15-17.
Part of a special section that also includes: "My Favorite Mailing Lists" by Kome and "An Introduction to Going On Line" (Patricia Robertson).

Kramarae, Cheris and H. Jeanie Taylor. "Women and Men on Electronic Networks: A Conversation or a Monologue?" WOMEN, INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, AND SCHOLARSHIP, ed. H. Jeanie Taylor et al., pp.52-61. Urbana, IL: Women, Information Technology, and Scholarship Colloquium, Center for Advanced Study, 1993.

Kramarae, Cheris and Jana Kramer. "Net Gains, Net Losses." THE WOMEN'S REVIEW OF BOOKS v.12, no.5 (February 1995): 33-35.
A look at the legal implications of the rapidly developing Internet for such issues as sexual harrassment, pornography, hate speech, and limited information.

Lewin, Tamar. "Dispute over Computer Messages: Free Speech or Sex Harassment?" NEW YORK TIMES (Late New York Edition), (Sept. 22, 1994): A1+.
Three students at Santa Rosa Junior College in California received settlements related to the two women being the subject of insulting messages on a men-only bulletin board; the third student, a man, reported the remarks to the women and experienced retaliation for his actions. See also "If Flames Singe, Who Is to Blame?" in NEW YORK TIMES (Late New York Edition), Sept. 25, 1994, Sec. 4, p.3.

Light, Jennifer S. "The Digital Landscape: New Space for Women?" GENDER, PLACE AND CULTURE v.2, no.2 (September 1995): 133-146.
While acknowledging that the impact of technology "is conditioned by existing relationships," Light argues that "if women are willing to become proactive users expressing a point of view about how they want to interact with new technologies, then they can use technology for empowerment" (pp.135-135).

Miller, Connie. "Lesbians Online." WOMEN ONLINE: RESEARCH IN WOMEN'S STUDIES USING ONLINE DATABASES, ed. Steven D. Atkinson and Judith Hudson, pp.281-299. New York: Haworth Press, 1990.

Miller, Laura. "Women and Children First: Gender and the Settling of the Electronic Frontier." RESISTING THE VIRTUAL LIFE: THE CULTURE AND POLITICS OF INFORMATION, ed. James Brook and Iain A. Boal, pp.49-57. San Francisco: City Lights, 1995.
Questions the use of the frontier metaphor for the online world and challenges the idea of "gender gap" on the Internet (and of gender roles themselves in the real world).

Mooney, Susan C. "Global Organizing: Technology and the Goals of Women's Organizations." WOMEN, INFORMATION, AND THE FUTURE: COLLECTING AND SHARING RESOURCES WORLDWIDE, ed. Eva Steiner Moseley, pp.225-227. Fort Atkinson, WI: Highsmith Press, 1995.

"Networking the E-mail Way." THE TRIBUNE no.52 (November 1994): 37-40.
Summary of "experiences, strategies, ideas, problems, issues" from various online women looking toward the United Nations Fourth World Conference on Women and NGO Forum, Beijing/Huairao, China, 1995.

"Outline of On-Line Information Retrieval Service (Information Centre for Women's Education of NWEC)." NWEC NEWSLETTER v.8, no.1 (May 1994): 1-4.
Explains the online information retrieval system developed by Japan's Information Centre for Women's Education and the types of databases available.

Parry, Linda E. and Robert R. Wharton. "Networking in the Workplace: The Role of Gender in Electronic Communications." WOMEN AND TECHNOLOGY, ed. Urs E. Gattiker, pp.65-91. New York: Walter de Gruyter, 1994. (Technological innovation and human resources, v.4)

Plant, Sadie. ZEROES AND ONES: THE MATRIX OF WOMEN AND MACHINES. New York: Doubleday, forthcoming 1996.

Pritchard, Sarah M. "Developing Criteria for Database Evaluation: The Example of Women's Studies." REFERENCE LIBRARIAN no.11 (Fall/Winter 1984): 247-261.
Offers detailed guidelines for examining the coverage (scope, timeliness, etc.), content, vocabulary/indexing, structure, availability, and overall assessment of databases for use by women's studies researchers.

Pritchard, Sarah M. "Trends in Computer-based Resources for Women's Studies." FEMINIST TEACHER v.3, no.3 (Fall-Winter 1988): 8-13.

Pryor, Judith and Ann Margaret Scholz. "The Article You Want When You Want It: An Introduction to Document Delivery Services." FEMINIST COLLECTIONS v.14, no.4 (Summer 1993): 11-14.
Discusses the CARL UnCover system, OCLC's document delivery service, and UMI's ProQuest, plus various library projects that involve searching databases and delivering full-text documents.

Reeves, Cheryl. "Women in Sport Online." WOMEN ONLINE: RESEARCH IN WOMEN'S STUDIES USING ONLINE DATABASES, ed. Steven D. Atkinson and Judith Hudson, pp.369-383. New York: Haworth Press, 1990.

Resnick, Rosalind. "E-Mail Goes Female." LADIES HOME JOURNAL v.111, no.5 (May 1, 1994): 100+.

Resnick, Rosalind. "High-tech Challenge: Attracting Women Readers to Cyberspace." AMERICAN JOURNALISM REVIEW v.16 (October 1994): 14-15.
Discussion of electronic publishing.

Shea, Virginia. NETIQUETTE. San Francisco: Albion Books, 1994. 160p.
According to publicity, "establishes the do's and don'ts of communicating online, from the Golden Rule to the art of the flame, from the elements of electronic style to virtual romance."

Shult, Linda. "Computer Talk." FEMINIST COLLECTIONS v.13, no.1 (Fall 1991) - present.
An ongoing column in FEMINIST COLLECTIONS that lists new databases, email discussion groups, electronic texts, Web sites, key email address, and other computer resources of interest to women's studies teachers/researchers. Available online from v.17 no.1 (Fall 1995) at URL: http://www.library.wisc.edu/libraries/WomensStudies/fcmain.htm

Sims-Wood, Janet and Frances C. Ziegler. "Women of Color in Online Databases." WOMEN ONLINE: RESEARCH IN WOMEN'S STUDIES USING ONLINE DATABASES, ed. Steven D. Atkinson and Judith Hudson, pp.301-313. New York: Haworth Press, 1990.

Sinclair, Carla. NET CHICK: A SMART-GIRL GUIDE TO THE WIRED WORLD. New York: Holt, 1996. 243p. index.

Smith, Judy and Ellen Balka. "Chatting on a Feminist Computer Network." TECHNOLOGY AND WOMEN'S VOICES: KEEPING IN TOUCH, ed. Cheris Kramarae, pp.82-97. New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1988.
Discusses both negative aspects of computers' effects on women (displacement of jobs, deskilling, loss of control over work) and empowering aspects of use of computers as information managers (time-saving, lower cost compared to long-distance telephone, networking over wide distances) and proposes a feminist computer network.

Span, Paula. "The On-line Mystique." THE WASHINGTON POST (Sunday, Final Edition, WASHINGTON POST MAGAZINE), (February 27, 1994): W11+.

Spender, Dale. "Electronic Scholarship: Perform or Perish?" WOMEN, INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, AND SCHOLARSHIP, ed. H. Jeanie Taylor et al., pp.28-43. Urbana, IL: Women, Information Technology, and Scholarship Colloquium, Center for Advanced Study, 1993.
Worried that "women's knowledge, scholarship, and ways of thinking are threatened now more than at any other time" because that knowledge exists "almost exclusively" in the endangered medium of print, Spender discusses the implications of the electronic era for the preservation and extension of feminism.

Stafford, Beth and Yvette Scheven. "Women in Developing Countries Online." WOMEN ONLINE: RESEARCH IN WOMEN'S STUDIES USING ONLINE DATABASES, ed. Steven D. Atkinson and Judith Hudson, pp.315-349. New York: Haworth Press, 1990.
Evaluates online and print search results and suggests a lengthy list of possible search terms.

Sutherland, Kathryn. "Challenging Assumptions: Women Writers and New Technology." THE POLITICS OF THE ELECTRONIC TEXT, ed. Warren Chernaik et al., pp.53-65. Oxford, England: Office for Humanities Communication, Oxford University Computing Services, with the Center for English Studies, University of London, 1993.
The director of Project Electra, an electronic resource on women writers of 1785-1815, speculates on the values of computer technology in reproducing/mak ing available otherwise "invisible" texts.

Takayoshi, Pamela. "Building New Networks from the Old: Women's Experiences with Electronic Communications." COMPUTERS AND COMPOSITION v.11, no.1 (1994): 21-35.

Thomas, Susan Gregory. "Women Rate the On-line Networks." GLAMOUR v.92 (August 1994): 96.
This brief piece is noteworthy because of the coverage it gives to women's resources on the on-line computer services such as CompuServe, America Online, and Women's WIRE.

Tufani, Luciana. "The Lilith Information Network: Italian Feminism in an International Context." WOMEN, INFORMATION, AND THE FUTURE: COLLECTING AND SHARING RESOURCES WORLDWIDE, ed. Eva Steiner Moseley, pp.211-214. Fort Atkinson, WI: Highsmith Press, 1995.
"The first Italian database that collects and provides information specifically on what women write in Italy and abroad,..." the Lilith network connects with other women's documentation centers in Europe, and coordinators have developed an extensive "female thesaurus" for the work of cataloging the materials included.

Valauskas, Edward. "Gender and Boolean Searching." ONLINE (May 1992): 88-89.
Looks at differences in the ways men and women use new technologies and suggests that standards or agreed-upon rules to enhance communication are "essentially feminine" and move us toward "technologic diplomacy."

Van Gelder, Lindsy. "The Strange Case of the Electronic Lover." MS. v.14 (October 1985): 94-95+. Also found in COMPUTERIZATION AND CONTROVERSY: VALUE CONFLICTS AND SOCIAL CHOICES, ed. Rob Kling (Academic Press, 1991).
Relates the experiment of a male psychiatrist who impersonated a young, disabled woman in an online network, developing intimate friendships with several women who were appalled when they learned his identity.

Via, Barbara J. "Feminist Perspectives Through Cited Reference Searching." WOMEN ONLINE: RESEARCH IN WOMEN'S STUDIES USING ONLINE DATABASES, ed. Steven D. Atkinson and Judith Hudson, pp.221-236. New York: Haworth Press, 1990.

Walker, Geraldene, et al. "Bibliometric Techniques Applied to Women's Issues in Business Databases." WOMEN ONLINE: RESEARCH IN WOMEN'S STUDIES USING ONLINE DATABASES, ed. Steven D. Atkinson and Judith Hudson, pp.155-173. New York: Haworth Press, 1990.

Weinschenk, Andrea. "Women in News and Popular Databases." WOMEN ONLINE: RESEARCH IN WOMEN'S STUDIES USING ONLINE DATABASES, ed. Steven D. Atkinson and Judith Hudson, pp.205-219. New York: Haworth Press, 1990.

Weisbard, Phyllis Holman. "Gophering Around in Women's Studies." FEMINIST COLLECTIONS v.15, no.2 (Winter 1994): 18-22.
Offers a general introduction to the gopher system of retrieving information on the Internet; describes electronic resources available from the University of Wisconsin Women's Studies Librarian's office and the University of Maryland's women's studies gopher. (See also: "More Gophering Around in Women's Studies...".)

Weisbard, Phyllis Holman. "More Gophering Around in Women's Studies...." FEMINIST COLLECTIONS v.15, no.3 (Spring 1994): 17-22.
Lists a sampling of gophers of interest to women's studies researchers, describes CARL UnCover resources, and the Veronica system of searching the Internet for relevant resources. (See also "Gophering Around in Women's Studies.")

Weisbard, Phyllis Holman. "Web-ster Definitions: A Quick Introduction to the World Wide Web and Women." FEMINIST COLLECTIONS v.16, no.2 (Winter 1995): 26-28.

Wojahn, Patricia A. "Computer-mediated Communication: The Great Equalizer Between Men and Women?" TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION v.41, no.4 (November 1, 1994): 747-752.

WOMEN & PERFORMANCE, forthcoming special issue: "Sexuality and Cyberspace," ed. Stacy Horn and Theresa Senft.
The issue is to include a "Feminist Yellow Pages of Cyberspace," listing resources across the feminist community.

Zoe, Lucinda Rhea. "Women's Studies: Curriculum Materials Online." WOMEN ONLINE: RESEARCH IN WOMEN'S STUDIES USING ONLINE DATABASES, ed. Steven D. Atkinson and Judith Hudson, pp.351-368. New York: Haworth Press, 1990.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCES

Here are some actual online resources on the topic of "Women and Information Technology," only a sampling of what is available. Wherever possible, multiple points of access have been noted, including print versions, gopher and Web sites, ftp addresses, and the like. Because this listing is necessarily outdated before it appears in print, be advised that there will be additions/deletions/changes in this listing on a regular basis. Although a number of "article-type" online resources appeared during the early 1990's, there has been much less available lately, perhaps indicating that most discussions are occurring on a more informal level within various email lists or via personal email. Note that World Wide Web browsers are case sensitive; enter the addresses exactly as indicated.

Agre, Phil. "The Gender Politics of `Exploring' the Net." THE NETWORK OBSERVER online serial] v.1, no.10 (October 1994). 10p. URL: http://weber.ucsd.edu/~pagre/tno/october-1994.html#net

Almstrum, Vicki and panelists. "Improving Mentoring for Women in Computer Science Fields: Joint Panel for 1993 CSC & SIGCSE Technical Symposium, Feb. 18, 1993." 1993. URL: http://www.inform.umd.edu:8080/EdRes/Topic/WomensStudies/Computing/Articles+ResearchPapers
Vicki Almstrum moderates a panel of three (Paul Myers, Cindy Brown, and Barbara Simons) talking about mentoring programs. Part of the 1993 CSCand SIGSCE Technical Symposium February 18, 1993; version posted is March 30, 1993.

THE ARACHNET ELECTRONIC JOURNAL ON VIRTUAL CULTURE online serial] v.2, no.3 (July 26, 1994); special issue: "Gender Issues in Computer Networking," ed. Leslie Regan Shade. Available via ftp://byrd.mu.wvnet.edu/pub/ejve/EUVCV2N3.PACKAGE or at URL: gopher://gopher.cic.net and select "Electronic Serials"/"CIC E-journals Collection" then look under alphabetic list for Electronic Journal on Virtual Culture, v .2, no.3. Includes: "The Accessibility of Computers to Organizations Serving Women in the Province of Newfoundland" (Ellen Balka and Laurel Doucette); "Guidelines for an Introduction to Networking: A Review of the Literature" (Sally Jo Cunningham); "Weavers of Webs: A Portrait of Young Women on the Net" (Nancy Kaplan and Eva Farrell); and "Cross-Gender Communication in Cyberspace" (Gladys We). (See separate entries for each, with URLs.)

Balka, Ellen and Laurel Doucette. "The Accessibility of Computers to Organizations Serving Women in the Province of Newfoundland: Preliminary Study Results." THE ARACHNET ELECTRONIC JOURNAL ON VIRTUAL CULTURE online serial] v.2, no.3, July 26, 1994. URL: gopher://gopher.cic.net and select Electronic Serials/CIC E-journals Collection and look under alphabetic list for Electronic Journal on Virtual Culture v.2, no.3

Balka, Ellen. "Women's Access to On-line Discussions About Feminism." (CPSR Internet Library) ELECTRONIC JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATIONS/La Revue Electronique de Communication online serial] v.3, no.1 (February 1993). URL: http://www.cpsr.org/cpsr/gender/access.discuss.fem
A history of feminist networks, bulletin boards, and discussion lists.

Broadhurst, Judith. "Bridging the Gender Gap." NETGUIDE online serial] no.301 (January 1, 1996): 84. 4p. URL: http://techweb.cmp.com/net/issues/016issue/016gender.htm
Broadhurst explores why women, according to a recent survey, make up only one-third of Internet users.

Bruckman, Amy S. "Gender Swapping on the Internet." 1993. URL: http://www.inform.umd.edu:8080/EdRes/Topic/WomensStudies/Computing/Articles+ResearchPapers/gender-swapping
Discussion of MUDs ("text-based multi-user virtual reality environment" or "multi-user dungeon") and the gendered characters that participants take on.

Carlstead, Sara M. "The Grace Hopper Celebration of Women in Computing: One Student's Experience." ACM CROSSROADS: THE INTERNATIONAL ACM STUDENT JOURNAL no.1.1 (September 1994). 2p. URL: http://info.acm.org/crossroads/xrds1-1/hopper.html

Carmichael, James V., Jr. "It Only Hurts When I Flame: Civility Rights vs. Civil Rights on the Information Highway." 1994. From Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) WSS/EBSS Meeting at American Library Association meeting, Miami, Florida, June 27, 1994. URL: http://www.inform.umd.edu:8080/EdRes/Topic/WomensStudies/Computing/Articles+ResearchPapers/civility-rights-civil-rights
Looks at the possibilities of "androgynous communication" within cyberspace, and current gender inequity in communication.

Chaika, Melissa. "Ethical Considerations in Gender-Oriented Entertainment Technology." ACM CROSSROADS: THE INTERNATIONAL ACM STUDENT JOURNAL no.2.2 (November 1995). 3p. URL: http://info.acm.org/crossroads/xrds2-2/gender.html

CMU'S SCS WOMEN'S PAGE. URL: http://www/.cs.cmu.edu/afs/cs.cmu.edu/org/women/www/home.html
This page from women at the Computer Science School at Carnegie Mellon University includes pointers to many sources on women in computer science found at other locations.

Cottrell, Janet. "I'm a Stranger Here Myself: A Consideration of Women in Computing." Association for Computing Machinery, 1992. URL: http://www.cpsr.org/cpsr/gender/cottrell.stranger
Explores the dropout rate of women computer science students, looks at the assumptions about gender differences, gender bias in software, and suggests ways to encourage women.

CPSR: WOMEN AND COMPUTING. URL: http://cpsr.org/dox/program/gender/gender.html
A listing of links to a number of "women and computing resources," including those at specific schools, plus selected papers on the topic.

Cranor, Lorrie Faith. "An Alternative Review of Doom 2." ACM CROSSROADS: THE INTERNATIONAL ACM STUDENT JOURNAL no.1.3 (February 1995). 2p. URL: http://info.acm.org/crossroads/xrds1-3/games.html

Cunningham, Sally Jo. "Guidelines for an Introduction to Networking: A Review of the Literature." THE ARACHNET ELECTRONIC JOURNAL ON VIRTUAL CULTURE online serial] v.2, no.3 (July 26, 1994). URL: gopher://gopher.cic.net and select Electronic serials/CIC E-journals Collections, then look under the alphabetic list for Electronic Journal on Virtual Culture, v.2, no.3.

DeBare, Ilana. "Logged On or Left Out?" THE SACRAMENTO BEE (January 1996). URL: http://www.nando.net/sacbee/women/
This substantial series includes articles on "Women in the Computer Industry," "Profiles" (a look at four women in the computer business), "Secretaries and Computers," "Women On-line," "Girls and Computing," "Girls and Video Games," and "Raising Computer-savvy Kids."

THE ELECTRONIC SALON: FEMINISM MEETS INFOTECH. April 1992. Collection of papers delivered at the electronic conference in connection with the 11th Annual Gender Studies Symposium, Lewis and Clark College, April 1992. Most papers are available at URL: http://snyside.sunnyside.com/cpsr/gender/clark. Includes: "Computers and Their Bodies: Sex, War and Cyberspace" (Deborah Heath); "Electronic Networks: Safe for Women?" (Cheris Kramarae and Jeanie Taylor); and "Making Minds: Sexual and Reproductive Metaphors in the Discourses of the Artificial Intelligence Movement" (Sue Currry Jansen).

FEMINA: WOMEN & COMPUTERS. URL: http://www.femina.com/femina/computers
Offers links to a number of computer science and networking resources.

GEEKGIRL. 1995- . P.O. Box 759, Newtown NSW, 2042, Australia URL: http://www.next.com.au/spyfood/geekgirl
A "Webzine" from Australia, available both online and in print by subscription.

Heath, Deborah. "Computers and Their Bodies: Sex, War, and Cyberspace." 1992. 20p. URL: http://snyside.sunnyside.com/cpsr/gender/clark/Health.Deborah
Paper presented at The Electronic Salon: Feminism Meets Infotech in connection with the 11th Annual Gender Studies Symposium held at Lewis and Clark College, 1992.

Herring, Susan. "Gender Differences in Computer-Mediated Communication: Bringing Familiar Baggage to the New Frontier." 1994. URL: http://www.cpsr.org/cpsr/gender/herring.txt
Speech given at the American Library Association's convention in Miami, Florida, June 27, 1994.

Hinkel, Susan R. "Technology and Gender." NEW TECH NEWS (March 1992). URL: gopher://milkyway.wils.wisc.edu (the Wisconsin Interlibary Services gopher menu) and choose New Tech News/New Tech News/March1992/Technology and Gender

Hudson, Judith and Kathleen A. Turek. ELECTRONIC ACCESS TO RESEARCH ON WOMEN: A SHORT GUIDE. 2nd ed. (version 2.5). Albany, NY: Institute for Research on Women, University at Albany, 1994. (c/o Publications, Social Sciences 341, University at Albany, 1400 Washington Ave., Albany, NY 12222) 52p. URL:gopher://cscgoph2.ALBANY.EDU/ then select Academic Departments, Women's Studies, Women's Studies Network Resources, and * * Guide by Hudson and Turek. Print version available for $8, check payable to Research Foundation at SUNY, sent to address above. Also available in print (see above), this guide offers "how-to" for email, electronic discussion groups, ftp, gopher, World Wide Web, and other uses of the Internet for women.

Hunt, Laura. "Sources for Women's Studies/Feminist Information on the Internet." 4th ed. Spring 1995. URL: gopher://una.hh.lib.umich.edu:70/00/inetdirsstacks/women%3ahunt
Hunt's listing of Internet resources for women's studies includes the basics of how to access gopher servers, library catalogs, email, free networks, ftp, and the like, plus descriptions and access for the numerous listserv discussion groups available for women.

Jansen, Sue Curry. "Making Minds: Sexual and Reproductive Metaphors in the Discourses of the Artificial Intelligence Movement." URL: http://snyside.sunnyside.com/cpsr/gender/clark/Jansen.Sue
Paper presented for "The Electronic Salon: Feminism Meets Infotech," in connection with the 11th Annual Gender Studies Symposium at Lewis and Clark College, April 1992.

Kaplan, Nancy and Eva Farrell. "Weavers of Webs: A Portrait of Young Women on the Net." THE (ARACHNET) ELECTRONIC JOURNAL OF VIRTUAL CULTURE v.2, no.3 (July 26, 1994). URL: gopher://gopher.cic.net then select "Electronic serials/CIC E-journals Collection and look under the alphabetical list for Electronic Journal on Virtual Culture, v.2, no.3 or use: ftp://byrd.mu.wrnet.edu/pub/ejvc/KAPLAN.V2N3
Investigates a small group of young women, asking with whom and how they interact via electronic links, and how they view their communications and relationships on the Net.

Kramarae, Cheris and Jeanie Taylor. "Electronic Networks: Safe for Women?" March 1992. 8p. URL: http://snyside.sunnyside.com/cpsr/gender/clark/Kramarae-Taylor
A paper produced for The Electronic Salon: Feminism Meets Infotech in connection with the 11th Annual Gender Studies Symposium at Lewis and Clark College, 1992.

"LA Times Roundtable on Women in Computing." March - April 1994. URL: http://www.inform.umd.edu:8080/EdRes/Topic/WomensStudies/Computing/Articles+ResearchPapers/la-times-roundtable
Participants in this online dialogue include: Reva Basch (The Well), Esther Dyson (computer analyst), Mary Flynn (from U.S. NEWS AND WORLD REPORT), Karen Frankel, George Gilder (fellow at Discovery Institute, Seattle), Wendy Kaminer (writer and public policy fellow at Radcliffe), Robin Raskin (editor of PC MAGAZINE), and Jo Sanders (of the Gender Equity Program at the City University of New York).

Lawley, Elizabeth Lane. "Computers and the Communication of Gender." [1995.] URL: http://www.itcs.com/elawley/gender.html
Includes the topics of "Technological Determinism," "Gender as a Social Construction," and "Where Does the Future of Gender in a Virtual World Lie?"

Leveson, Nancy G. "Educational Pipeline Issues for Women." COMPUTING RESEARCH NEWS (October 1990/January 1991). URL: http:/www.ai.mit.edu/people/ellens/Gender/pipeline.html
Discusses the low enrollment and high dropout rates among women in computer science.

McDonough, Jerome. "Web-sters' Net-Work: Women in Information Technology." URL: http://lucien.berkeley.edu/women_in_it
A listing of resources useful for women in library and information science, computer science, and information technology: bibliographies, directories, useful Web pages, organizations, and more.

Michel, Kathleen. "Gender Differences in Computer-mediated Conversations." 8p. URL: gopher://gopher.kidlink.org:70/00/arc/KIDPLAN.RESRCH00

Mulvaney, Becky Michele. "Gender Differences in Communication: An Intercultural Experience." 1994. URL: http://www.cpsr.org/gender/mulvaney.txt

O'Hare, Sharon L. and Arnold S. Kahn. "A Computer Bulletin Board in Women's Studies Courses." URL: http://www.inform.umd.edu/Educational_Resources/AcademicResourcesByTopic/WomensStudies/Computing/Articles+ResearchPapers/email+womensstudies.
Examines the postings on a computer bulletin board set up for an introductory women's studies evening class team-taught in 1992.

Pearl, Amy, et al. "Becoming A Computer Scientist: A Report by the ACM Committee on the Status of Women in Computing Science." COMMUNICATIONS OF THE ACM v.33, no.11 (November 1990): 47-58. URL: http://cpsr.org/cpsr/gender/becoming.comp.sci

PLEIADES NETWORKS: AN INTERNET RESOURCE FOR WOMEN. URL: http://www.softaid.net/~pleiades/
The network offers to "assist women in learning how to use the Internet," help women's organizations/companies get onto the World Wide Web, and "serve as a clearinghouse for information of interest to women."

Resnick, Rosalind, ed. "Women Online: Executive Summary." Interactive Publishing Alert, 1995. URL: http://www.netcreations.com/ipa/women.htm
Sponsored by Apple Computer, this survey of some 300 women on various online services concluded that women are more interested in communication uses (email and bulletin boards) than software downloading and shopping. Full text edition also available ($495 online; $695 paper).

SEA CHANGE online serial]. URL: http://www.igc.apc.org/vsister/sea/one/index.html
Produced by the Virtual Sisterhood online list, the August 1995 issue includes links to online groups worldwide, news from the Beijing World Conference on Women about electronic organizing, and news of the VS Web development team. May be retrieved in English, French, or German. Coordinator of the Virtual Sisterhood list is Barbara Ann O'Leary.

"Sex, Lies and Computer Networks: Playing Down Power and Violence in Virtual Worlds." January 20, 1994. URL: http://www.inform.umd.edu:8080/EdRes/Topic/WomensStudies/Computing/Articles+ResearchPapers/pornography+computing
A summary by Janice Swan of a panel discussion including: Dr. Caecilia Innreiter-Moser (member of Network Services at Johannes Kepler University, Linz, Austria); Christoph Lechner (JKU Computer Center); Bigga Rodeck (Hamburg University, Germany); Dr. Maria Bauer (Justice Department, Vienna); Andreas Neubacher (student at JKU); and Dr. Marie-Luise Angerer (University of Salzberg, Austria). The discussion concerns the University's decision in October 1993 to block use of four online news groups that broadcast pornographic material.

Shade, Leslie Regan. "Gender Issues Bibliography." March 1994. URL: http://www/cpsr.org/cpsr/gender/gender.biblio

Shade, Leslie Regan. "Gender Issues in Computer Networking." 1993. URL: http://www.cpse.org/cpsr/gender/leslie_regan_shade.txt
From a talk given at Community Networking: The International Free-Net Conference, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada, August 17-19, 1993.
Shade examines the participation of women in computer science, in networking (most lists are predominantly male, and even feminist lists often include a large percentage of men), social interaction on the net, and the possibilities for enhancing women's experience with cyberspace. Another version is found in WOMEN, WORK, AND COMPUTERIZATION: BREAKING OLD BOUNDARIES, BUILDING NEW FORMS, ed. by Alison Adam (New York: Elsevier, 1994), pp.91-105.

Spertus, Ellen. "Gender Benders." URL: http://www.ai.mit.edu/people/ellens/Gender/humor.html
A brief collection of humorous incidents in the lives of women computer professionals dealing with a world dominated by men.

Spertus, Ellen. "Thoughts on Web Pages Listing Women." May 22, 1995. URL: http://www.ai.mit.edu/people/ellens/Gender/webwomen.html
Discussion of several (men's)online listings of the Web pages of women, in one case with photo ratings.

Spertus, Ellen. "Why Are There So Few Female Computer Scientists?" MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, 1991. (MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, technical report no.1315) 112p. Available in Hypertext or Postscript at URL: http://www.ai.mit.edu/people/ellens/Gender/why.html
Spertus discusses societal pressures against being successful, how male-dominated environments discourage women, the language inequalities, some interventions that have failed, and some recommendations for improving the situation.

Spertus, Ellen. "Women and Computer Science." URL: http://www.ai.mit.edu/people/ellens/gender.html
Ellen Spertus' home page on WWW, includes links to a number of online documents at other gopher/Web sites, plus Spertus' own writing.

"Statistical Trends in Computer Science." Computing Research Association. URL: http://cra.org/CSStats/Trends.html
Statistical information, taken from SCIENCE & ENGINEERING 1993 INDICATORS (National Science Board), on computer science degree production, women in computer science, and minorities in computer science 1975-1991.

Strok, Dale. "Women in AI." IEEE EXPERT v.7, no.4 (August 1992). URL: http://www.cpsr.org/cpsr/gender/ieee.txt
An examination of the field of artificial intelligence research and how women are faring.

"TAP References - Women in CS." URL: http://www.cs.yale.edu/HTML/YALE/CS/HyPlans/tap/cs-women-refs.html
An up-to-date bibliography on women in computer science, with some cites retrievable as text files.

"TAP References - Women in Cyberspace." URL: http://www.cs.yale.edu/HTML/YALE/CS/ HyPlans/tap/cyber-women-refs.html
A bibliography on women and network computing.

"TAP: The Ada Project: Tapping Internet Resources for Women in Computing." URL: http://www.cs.yale.edu/HTML/YALE/CS/HyPlans/tap/tap.html

Includes several bibliographies, calls for papers, employment resources, fellowships and grant information, announcements, a "photo gallery" of women in computing, and pointers to other Web sites, gophers, etc.

Truong, Hoia-An, et al. "Gender Issues in Online Communications." In conjunction with BAWit (Bay Area Women in Telecommunications), version 4.3, 1993. URL: http://www.cpsr.org/cpsr/gender/bawit.cfp93

VIRTUAL SISTERHOOD. URL: http://www.igc.apc.org/vsister/
This "global women's electronic support network" is committed to promoting feminist organizing through "electronic communications use within the global women's movement." The Web site includes a directory of international women's electronic resources, information on a Web development team to help those moving toward an online presence, and a newsletter (see separate entry for SEA CHANGE).

Wagstaff, Kiri, comp. "Women Undergrads in Computer Science." URL: http://wwwscience.html.unimelb.edu.au/cielle/women/wucs.html
Some current information on internships in industry, organizations, email lists, conferences, and other resources of interest to women in computer science.

We, Gladys. "Cross-Gender Communication in Cyberspace." THE ARACHNET ELECTRONIC JOURNAL ON VIRTUAL CULTURE online serial] v.2, no.3 (July 26, 1994). URL: http://www.cpsr.org/cpsr/gender/we_cross_gender or ftp://byrd.mu.wvnet.edu/publejvc/WE.V2N3

WEBGRRLS. URL: http://www.webgrrls.com/
This "networking group for women interested in new media" includes local chapters in addition to its electronic interface, hoping to help women with job leads, instruction in using new technologies, mentoring, and more.

"Women and Information Technology: An Annotated Bibliography." Urbana, IL: Women, Information Technology, and Scholarship Colloquium, Center for Advanced Study, University of Illinois-Champain/Urbana, 1996. URL: http://gertrude.art.uiuc.edu/wits/bibliography1.html
This broad-ranging bibliography, while frustrating to retrieve, includes insightful annotations on works covering a variety of issues, from "the impact of new technology on women's employment" to "feminist assessments of technology, case studies of women's on-line databases and networks," and "studies that document the gender gap in computer use" (introduction).

WOMEN IN TECHNOLOGY DIRECTORY. URL: http://www.sdsu.edu/wit
A new but growing listing of women working in various information technology fields. Directory is alphabetical, entries including email address, field, company/university, areas of expertise, projects, date of entry, and more.

"Women Undergraduate Enrollment in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at MIT." January 3, 1995. URL: http://www-swiss.ai.mit.edu/~hal/women-enrollment-comm/final-report.html
A substantial report (a summary is also available) examining the imbalance in male and female undergraduate enrollment in electrical engineering/computer science at MIT, looking at possible causes, and suggesting steps for addressing the imbalance.

"Women's Voices: Herstory Lesson: Fourteen Forums that Explore Social and Personal Issues Affecting Women." NETGUIDE online serial] no.203 (March 1, 1995): 136. URL: http://techweb.cmp.com/net/cybergui/default2.html and enter the search term "herstory."