ID: GLSHW-2.6 Feminist Critiques of Science (420-502) This section includes contemporary works critical of science and the attitude of science towards women now and in the past. For additional references, see the previous section, SCIENTIFIC VIEWS OF WOMEN. 420 Arditti, Rita, Brennan, Pat, and Cavrak, Steve, eds. SCIENCE AND LIBERATION. Boston: South End Press, 1980. See especially "Sociobiology, a Pseudo-Scientific Synthesis" by Barbara Chasin, "Sterilization Abuse" by Helen Rodriguez-Trias, "`Ladies' in the Lab" by Angela Corigliano Murphy, "Women in Chemistry" by Ana Berta Chepelinsky et al., "Declaration: Equality for Women in Science" by the Women's Group of Science for the People, and "Feminism and Science" by Rita Arditti. Includes annotated bibliography. 421 Behuniak-Long, Susan. "Radical Conceptions: Reproductive Technologies and Feminist Theories." WOMEN & POLITICS 10, no.3 (1990): 39-64. 422 Benjamin, Marina, ed. SCIENCE AND SENSIBILITY: GENDER AND SCIENTIFIC ENQUIRY, 1780-1945. Cambridge, MA: Basil Blackwell, 1991. 423 Birke, Lynda. "`Life' as We Have Known It: Feminism and the Biology of Gender." In SCIENCE AND SENSIBILITY: GENDER AND SCIENTIFIC ENQUIRY, 1780-1945, ed. by Marina Benjamin, pp.243-263. Cambridge, MA: Basil Blackwell, 1991. 424 Birke, Lynda. WOMEN, FEMINISM AND BIOLOGY: THE FEMINIST CHALLENGE. New York: Methuen, 1986. Discusses biological determinist arguments, especially in the areas of human development and the relationship of humankind to nature, and explores the possibility of a "feminist science." 425 Bleier, Ruth. "A Decade of Feminist Critiques in the Natural Sciences: An Address." SIGNS 14 (1988): 182-195. 426 Bleier, Ruth. "Science and Belief: A Polemic on Sex Differences Research." THE IMPACT OF FEMINIST RESEARCH IN THE ACADEMY, ed. Christie Farnham, pp.111-130. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987. 427 Bleier, Ruth. SCIENCE AND GENDER: A CRITICISM OF BIOLOGY AND ITS THEORIES ON WOMEN. Elmsford, NY: Pergamon, 1984. A critical look at theories of biological determinism, especially Wilsonian sociobiology. 428 Bleier, Ruth, ed. FEMINIST APPROACHES TO SCIENCE. New York: Pergamon, 1986. Contents: "Science Seen Through a Feminist Prism" by Marion Namenwirth; "Critiques of Modern Science: The Relationship of Feminism to Other Radical Epistemologies" by Elizabeth Fee; "Beyond Masculinist Realities: A Feminist Epistemology for the Sciences" by Hilary Rose; "Primatology is Politics by Other Means" by Donna Haraway; "Empathy, Polyandry, and the Myth of the Coy Female" by Sarah Blaffer Hrdy; "Sex Differences Research: Science or Belief?" by Ruth Bleier; "The Relationship Between Women's Studies and Women in Science" by Sue V. Rosser; "Taking Feminist Science to the Classroom" by Mariamne Whatley; bibliography. 429 Brighton Women and Science Group. ALICE THROUGH THE MICROSCOPE: THE POWER OF SCIENCE OVER WOMEN'S LIVES. London: Virago, 1980. Three articles on "Science and Women in Society," four on "Science and Women's Bodies," and three on "Technological Control." 430 Chesler, Phyllis. WOMEN AND MADNESS. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1972. 431 Easlea, Brian. FATHERING THE UNTHINKABLE: MASCULINITY, SCIENTISTS AND THE NUCLEAR ARMS RACE. London: Pluto Press, 1983. A socio-historical reading of scientific practice that looks closely at male/female imagery in the language of prominent scientists. Focuses on nuclear weapons technology. 432 Easlea, Brian. SCIENCE AND SEXUAL OPPRESSION: PATRIARCHY'S CONFRONTATION WITH WOMAN AND NATURE. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1981. A wide-ranging critique of the male culture of modern Western science, from the sixteenth century to the present. 433 Ehrenreich, Barbara, and English, Deirdre. COMPLAINTS AND DISORDERS: THE SEXUAL POLITICS OF SICKNESS. Old Westbury, NY: Feminist Press, 1973. 434 Fausto-Sterling, Anne. MYTHS OF GENDER: BIOLOGICAL THEORIES ABOUT WOMEN AND MEN. New York: Basic Books, 1986. Chapters are devoted to intelligence, genetics, hormones, and evolution. Copious footnotes. 435 "Feminism as an Analytic Tool for the Study of Science." ACADEME (September-October 1983): 15-21. 436 Findlen, Paula. "Gender and the Scientific `Civilizing Process'." JOURNAL OF THE HISTORY OF BIOLOGY 24 (1991): 331-338. Review essay. 437 Gilligan, Carol. IN A DIFFERENT VOICE: PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORY AND WOMEN'S DEVELOPMENT. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1982. 438 Gordon, Linda. "Who is Frightened of Reproductive Freedom for Women and Why? Some Historical Answers." FRONTIERS: A JOURNAL OF WOMEN'S STUDIES 9, no.1 (1986): 23-26. 439 Haraway, Donna. PRIMATE VISIONS: GENDER, RACE, AND NATURE IN THE WORLD OF MODERN SCIENCE. New York: Routledge, 1989. 440 Haraway, Donna. SIMIANS, CYBORGS, AND WOMEN: THE REINVENTION OF NATURE. New York: Routledge, 1991. Essays on the link between these "creatures" in the construction of scientific reality. 441 Harding, Jan, ed. PERSPECTIVES ON GENDER AND SCIENCE. London: Falmer Press, 1986. Papers from a 1985 British conference. Five grouped under "Gender Matters" are theoretical. 442 Harding, Sandra, and Hintikka, Merrill B., eds. DISCOVERING REALITY: FEMINIST PERSPECTIVES ON EPISTEMOLOGY, METAPHYSICS, METHODOLOGY, AND PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE. Dordrecht: D. Reidel, 1983. Sixteen papers, among them Lynda Lange's "Woman Is Not a Rational Animal: On Aristotle's Biology of Reproduction"; Ruth Hubbard's "Have Only Men Evolved?"; Kathryn Pyne Addelson's "The Man of Professional Wisdom"; Evelyn Fox Keller's "Gender and Science"; and Keller and Christine R. Grontkowski's "The Mind's Eye." 443 Harding, Sandra. "Feminism and Theories of Scientific Knowledge." WOMEN: A CULTURAL REVIEW 1, no.1 (April 1990): 87-98. 444 Harding, Sandra. THE SCIENCE QUESTION IN FEMINISM. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1986. Investigates feminist critiques of science and feminist theories of knowledge. See especially chapter 1, "From the Woman Question in Science to the Science Question in Feminism"; chapter 8, "`The Birth of Modern Science' as a Text: Internalist and Externalist Stories"; and chapter 9, "Problems with Post-Kuhnian Stories." 445 Harding, Sandra, and O'Barr, Jean, eds. SEX AND SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987. A selection of fifteen articles from SIGNS, grouped in categories: "The Social Structure of Science," "Misuses and Abuses of Science and Technology," "Bias in the Sciences," "Sexual Meanings of Science," and "Epistemology and Metatheory." 446 Harding, Sandra. WHOSE SCIENCE? WHOSE KNOWLEDGE? Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1991. 447 Harding, Sandra. "Women as Creators of Knowledge: New Environments." AMERICAN BEHAVIORAL SCIENTIST 32, no.6 (July/August 1989): 700-707. Discusses the history of women in science and contemporary issues. 448 Harlow, Sioban D. "Function and Dysfunction: A Historical Critique of the Literature on Menstruation and Work." In CULTURE, SOCIETY AND MENSTRUATION, ed. Virginia Oleson and Nancy Fugate Wood, pp.39-50. Washington: Hemisphere, 1986. 449 Herschberger, Ruth. ADAM'S RIB. New York: Pellegrini & Cudahy, 1948. An early feminist classic exposing the bias of "male" biology. Repr. New York: Harper & Row, 1970. 450 Horning, Beth. "The Controversial Career of Evelyn Fox Keller." TECHNOLOGY REVIEW 96 (January 1993): 58-68. 451 Hrdy, Sarah Blaffer. "Sex Bias in Nature and in History: A Late 1980s Reexaminiation of the `Biological Origins' Argument." AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY supp.11 (1990): 25-37. 452 Hrdy, Sarah Blaffer. THE WOMAN THAT NEVER EVOLVED. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1981. Reviews evidence from primatology on such topics as sex differences in body size; monogamy and polygyny; female dominance, competition, and bonding; and the origins of female sexuality. 453 Hubbard, Ruth, Henifin, Mary Sue, and Fried, Barbara, eds. BIOLOGICAL WOMAN -- THE CONVENIENT MYTH. Cambridge: Schenkman, 1982. Rev. ed. of WOMEN LOOK AT BIOLOGY LOOKING AT WOMEN, 1979. Twelve articles plus extensive bibliography. 454 Hubbard, Ruth. "The Emperor Doesn't Wear Any Clothes: The Impact of Feminism on Biology." In MEN'S STUDIES MODIFIED, ed. Dale Spender, pp.213-235. New York: Pergamon, 1981. Reviews feminist arguments against traditional theory and method in biology, adding lengthier critiques of Darwinism and sociobiology. 455 Hubbard, Ruth, and Wald, Elijah. EXPLODING THE GENE MYTH. Boston: Beacon, 1993. 456 Hubbard, Ruth. "Have Only Men Evolved?" New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1990. THE POLITICS OF WOMEN'S BIOLOGY, by Ruth Hubbard, pp.87-106. 457 Hubbard, Ruth. THE POLITICS OF WOMEN'S BIOLOGY. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1990. 458 Hudson, Gill. "Unfathering the Thinkable: Gender, Science and Pacifism in the 1930s." In SCIENCE AND SENSIBILITY: GENDER AND SCIENTIFIC ENQUIRY, 1780-1945, ed. by Marina Benjamin, pp.264-286. Cambridge, MA: Basil Blackwell, 1991. 459 Hunter, Dianne. "Hysteria, Psychoanlaysis, and Feminism: The Case of Anna O." FEMINIST STUDIES 9, no.3 (1983): 464-488. 460 Jacobus, Mary, Keller, Evelyn Fox, and Shuttleworth, Sally, eds. BODY/POLITICS: WOMEN AND THE DISCOURSES OF SCIENCE. New York: Routledge, 1990. 461 Jordanova, Ludmilla J. SEXUAL VISIONS: IMAGES OF GENDER IN SCIENCE AND MEDICINE BETWEEN THE EIGHTEENTH AND TWENTIETH CENTURIES. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 1989. 462 Keller, Evelyn Fox. "Feminism and Science." SIGNS 7, no.3 (Spring 1982): 589-602. Describes the range of feminist positions on science and their liberating potential, with particular attention to psychoanalytic theory. Repr. in FEMINIST THEORY: A CRITIQUE OF IDEOLOGY, pp.113-126. Ed. by Nannerl O. Keohane, Michelle Z. Rosaldo, and Barbara C. Gelpi. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982. Also reprinted in SEX AND SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY, pp.233-246. Ed. by Sandra Harding and Jean F. O'Barr. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987. 463 Keller, Evelyn Fox. "Feminist Critique of Science: A Forward or Backward Move?" FUNDAMENTA SCIENTIAE 1, no. 3/4 (1980): 341-349. Clarifies both the radical and the reactionary elements in the feminist critique of science. 464 Keller, Evelyn Fox. REFLECTIONS ON SCIENCE AND GENDER. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985. See also excerpt, "Women and Basic Research: Respecting the Unexpected," in TECHNOLOGY REVIEW 87, no.8 (November/December 1984): 44-47. 465 Keller, Evelyn Fox. "Science and Gender: 1990." GREAT IDEAS TODAY (1990): 68-93. 466 Keller, Evelyn Fox. "Science and Power for What?" In NINETEEN EIGHTY- FOUR: SCIENCE BETWEEN UTOPIA AND DYSTOPIA, ed. Everett Mendelsohn and Helga Nowotny, pp.261-272. Dordrecht: Reidel, 1984. Analysis of Charlotte Perkins Gilman's utopian novel HERLAND, originally published in 1915. 467 Keller, Evelyn Fox. SECRETS OF LIFE, SECRETS OF DEATH: ESSAYS ON SCIENCE AND CULTURE. New York: Routledge, 1992. 468 Kirkup, Gill, and Keller, Laurie Smith, eds. INVENTING WOMEN: SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, AND GENDER. Cambridge, England: Polity Press/Open University, 1992. Articles by Margaret Lowe Benston, Evelyn Fox Keller, Sandra Harding, and others assessing gender issues in science and technology. Chiefly contemporary. 469 Kramarae, Cheris, and Spender, Dale, eds. THE KNOWLEDGE EXPLOSION: GENERATIONS OF FEMINIST SCHOLARSHIP. New York: Teachers College Press, 1992. Chapters reviewing the history of the impact of feminism on the disciplines include: "Feminism and Medicine: Co-optation or Cooperation?" by Joan M. Altekruse and Sue V. Rosser; "Physics and Mathematics, Reality and Language: Dilemmas for Feminists," by Robyn Arianrhod; "Feminism and Engineering: The Inroads," by H. Patricia Hynes; "The Impact of Feminism on the Natural Sciences," by Marian Lowe; "Nursing and Feminism: Caring and Curing," by Joan E. Mulligan; "Home Economics: Feminism in a Hestian Voice," by Patricia J. Thompson; and "Do Mothers Invent? The Feminist Debate in the History of Technology," by Autumn Stanley. 470 Leavitt, Judith Walzer. "A Decade of Feminist Critiques in Natural Sciences: An Address by Ruth Bleier." SIGNS 14, no.1 (Autumn, 1988): 182-195 471 Lomperis, Linda, and Stanbury, Sarah, eds. FEMINIST APPROACHES TO THE BODY IN MEDIEVAL LITERATURE. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1993. 472 Lowe, Marian, and Hubbard, Ruth, eds. WOMAN'S NATURE: RATIONALIZATION OF INEQUALITY. New York: Pergamon, 1983. Articles by five scientists and four social scientists. Theoretical, not historical. 473 Lowie, Robert H., and Hollingworth, Leta Stetter. "Science and Feminism." SCIENTIFIC MONTHLY 2 (September 1916): 277-284. Reviews comparative biological and psychological data on women and men to debunk "scientific" arguments for limiting women's activities. 474 Magner, Lois. "Women and the Scientific Idiom: Textual Episodes from Wollstonecraft, Fuller, Gilman, and Firestone." SIGNS 4, no.1 (Autumn 1978): 61-80. Demonstrates how feminist theorists incorporated the scientific paradigms of their times into their writings. 475 Martin, Emily. "The Egg and the Sperm: How Science Has Constructed a Romance Based on Stereotypical Male-Female Roles." SIGNS 16 (1991): 485-501. 476 McGaw, Judith A. "No Passive Victims, No Separate Spheres: A Feminist Perspective on Technology's History." In IN CONTEXT, ed. by S.H. Cutcliffe and R.C. Post, pp.172-91. Cranbury, NJ: Lehigh University Press; Associated University Presses, 1989. 477 Merchant, Carolyn. "Ecological Revolutions: Nature, Gender, and Science in New England." Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1989. 478 Morantz-Sanchez, Regina. "Feminist Theory and Historical Practice: Rereading Elizabeth Blackwell." HISTORY AND THEORY 31, no.4 (1992): 51-69. 479 Olson, Richard. "Historical Reflections on Feminist Critiques of Science: The Scientific Background to Modern Feminism." HISTORY OF SCIENCE 28, pt.2, no.80 (June 1990): 125-148. 480 Poovey, Mary. UNEVEN DEVELOPMENTS: THE IDEOLOGICAL WORK OF GENDER IN MID-VICTORIAN ENGLAND. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988. Feminist criticism of the Victorian view of difference as sexual differences. 481 Rose, Hilary. "Gendered Reflexions on the Laboratory in Medicine." In THE LABORATORY REVOLUTION IN MEDICINE, ed. Andrew Cunningham and Perry Williams, pp.304-323. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992. 482 Rosenberg, Rosalind. "In Search of Woman's Nature, 1850-1920." FEMINIST STUDIES 3, no.1/2 (Fall 1975): 141-153. How feminists such as Antoinette Brown, Charlotte Perkins Gilman, and Helen Thompson used Darwinism to justify their expanded spheres of activity. 483 Rosser, Sue V. FEMINISM WITHIN THE SCIENCE AND HEALTH CARE PROFESSIONS: OVERCOMING RESISTANCE. Elmsford, NY: Pergamon, 1988. 484 Rothman, Barbara Katz. IN LABOR: WOMEN AND POWER IN THE BIRTHPLACE. New York: Norton, 1982. 1984 Penguin ed. published as GIVING BIRTH: ALTERNATIVES IN CHILDBIRTH 485 Sapiro, Virginia, ed. WOMEN, BIOLOGY, AND PUBLIC POLICY. Newbury Park, CA: Sage, 1985. Articles on sociobiology, women's health, and government policy. 486 Sayers, Janet. BIOLOGICAL POLITICS: FEMINIST AND ANTI-FEMINIST PERSPECTIVES. New York: Methuen, 1982. Examines the historical and social roots of biological explanations for sexual inequality, and posits a feminist middle ground between biological essentialism and social constructionism. 487 Schiebinger, Londa L. "Feminine Icons: the Face of Early Modern Science." CRITICAL INQUIRY 14 (Summer 1988): 661-691. 488 Schiebinger, Londa L. THE MIND HAS NO SEX?: WOMEN IN THE ORIGINS OF MODERN SCIENCE. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1989. Covers both the history of women's contributions to the development of early modern science and the interrelationship between their subsequent exclusion from science and the growth of new "scientific" doctrines of gender differences. 489 Schiebinger, Londa L. NATURE'S BODY: GENDER IN THE MAKING OF MODERN SCIENCE. Boston, MA: Beacon, 1993. 490 Searing, Susan. "Women and Science: Issues and Resources." Madison, WI: Women's Studies Librarian's Office, 1991. Wisconsin Bibliographies in Women's Studies Series. Updates frequently. 1992 and 1993 updates by Phyllis Holman Weisbard. 491 Shepherd, Linda J. LIFTING THE VEIL: THE FEMININE FACE OF SCIENCE. Boston: Shambhala, 1993. 492 SIGNS 4, no.1 (Autumn 1978); Special Issue: "Women, Science, and Society." Partial contents: "Women and Evolution, Part II: Subsistence and Social Organization Among Early Hominids," by Adrienne L. Zihlman; "Animal Sociology and a Natural Economy of the Body Politic," Parts I and II, by Donna Haraway; "Women in the Scientific Idiom: Textual Episodes from Wollstonecraft, Fuller, Gilman, and Firestone," by Lois N. Magner; "In from the Periphery: American Women in Science, 1830-1880," by Sally Gregory Kohlstedt; "Biology and Equality: A Perspective on Sex Differences," by Helen H. Lambert; "Biology and Sex Differences," by Marian Lowe; "Sexual Segregation in the Sciences: Some Data and a Model," by Margaret W. Rossiter; "Phenomenon of the Seventies: The Women's Caucuses," by Anne M. Briscoe; "Bias in Biological and Human Sciences: Some Comments," by Ruth Bleier; plus review essays on science by Michele L. Aldrich and on medicine by Dorothy Rosenthal Mandelbaum. 493 Stark, Susanne. "Overcoming Butlerian Obstacles: May Sinclair and the Problem of Biolgical Determinism." WOMEN'S STUDIES 21, no.3 (1992): 265-83. 494 Steen, M. "Historical Perspectives on Women and Mental Illness and Prevention of Depression in Women, Using a Feminist Framework." ISSUES IN MENTAL HEALTH NURSING 12, no.4 (October-December 1991): 359-374. 495 Stehelin, Liliane. "Sciences, Women, and Ideology." In THE RADICALISATION OF SCIENCE: IDEOLOGY OF/IN THE NATURAL SCIENCES, ed. Hilary Rose and Steven Rose, pp.76-89. London: Macmillan, 1976. Argues that the "production code" of science is "fundamentally masculine." Draws on French psychoanalytic and Marxist theory. 496 Stepan, Nancy Leys. "Women and Natural Knowledge: The Role of Gender in the Making of Modern Science." GENDER & HISTORY 2, no.3 (1990): 337-342. Review essay on recent books by Schiebinger, Russet, and Jordanova. 497 Tuana, Nancy. "The Weaker Seed: The Sexist Bias of Reproductive Theory." HYPATIA 3, no.1 (Spring 1988): 35-59. Examines the history of reproductive theory from Aristotle to the seventeenth century. Argues that the adherence to a belief in the inferiority of the female creative principle biased scientific perception of the nature of woman's role in human generation. 498 Tuana, Nancy, ed. FEMINISM AND SCIENCE. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1989. Originally published as special issues of HYPATIA: A JOURNAL OF FEMINIST PHILOSOPHY 2, no.3 (Fall 1987) and 3, no.1 (Spring 1988). CONTENTS I: Sue V. Rosser, "Feminist Scholarship in the Sciences: Where Are We Now and When Can We Expect a Theoretical Breakthrough?" ; Sandra Harding, "The Method Question" ; Evelyn Fox Keller, "The Gender/Science System; or Is Sex to Gender as Nature is to Science?" ; Helen E. Longino, "Can There Be a Feminist Science?" ; Luce Irigaray, "Is the Subject of Science Sexed?" ; Ruth Ginzburg, "Uncovering Gynocentric Science" ; Linda Alcoff, "Justifying Feminist Social Science" ; Lisa Heldke, "John Dewey and Evelyn Fox Keller: A Shared Epistemological Tradition." CONTENTS II: Ruth Hubbard, "Science, Facts, and Feminism;" Elizabeth Potter, "Modeling the Gender Politics in Science;" Nancy Tuana, "The Weaker Seed: The Sexist Bias of Reproductive Theory;" Biology and Gender Study Group, "The Importance of Feminist Critique for Contemporary Cell Biology;" Jacquelyn N. Zita, "The Premenstrual Syndrome: Dis-Easing the Female Cycle;" Judith Genova, "Women and the Mismeasure of Thought;" Hilary Rose, "Dreaming the Future;" Barbara Imber and Nancy Tuana, "Feminist Perspectives on Science;" Jacquelyn N. Zita, "Review Essay/A Critical Analysis of Sandra Harding's THE SCIENCE QUESTION IN FEMINISM." 499 Wajcman, Judy. "Feminism Confronts Technology." University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1991. 500 Walsh, Mary Roth. "The Rediscovery of the Need for a Feminist Medical Education." HARVARD EDUCATION REVIEW 49 (1979): 447-466. 501 "Women Look at Science: Man the Hunter; Why Science is a Woman; Discovery Naked Truth." WOMEN: A CULTURAL REVIEW 1, no.1 (April 1990): 99-104. Excerpts from three books. 502 Wylie, A., et al. "Philosophical Feminism: A Bibliographic Guide to Critiques of Science." RESOURCES FOR FEMINIST RESEARCH/ DOCUMENTATION SUR LA RECHERCHE FEMINISTE 19, no.2 (1990): 2-38.
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