ID: GLSHW-2.4.2 General and Multidisciplinary Works, L - Z (143-212) This section covers general works on gender issues in the history of women in science. It further addresses career issues for women scientists -- educational barriers and opportunities, entry into scientific and technical professions, status issues, and statistics. Some contemporary studies are included that bear out historical trends. Additional works on these themes appear in the sections on particular branches of the sciences. 143 LaFollette, Marcel C. "Eyes on the Stars: Images of Women Scientists in Popular Magazines." SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, AND HUMAN VALUES 13 (1988): 262-275. Describes U.S. magazines from 1910-1955. 144 LaFollette, Marcel C. MAKING SCIENCE OUR OWN: PUBLIC IMAGES OF SCIENCE, 1910-1955. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990. Includes section "Women in the Laboratories," pp.78-97. 145 Levin, Miriam R., and Mack, Pamela E. "The Transformation of Science Education at Mount Holyoke in the Gilded Age." Paper presented at the Joint Meetings of the American Historical Association and the History of Science Society (December 28, 1988), available from ERIC (#ED309930). Discusses changes made in the science curriculum in the late nineteenth century to keep pace with opening positions in teaching, medicine, and research to women. Includes biographical information on faculty member Cornelia Clapp. 146 Long, J. Scott. "The Origins of Sex Differences in Science." SOCIAL FORCES 68 (June 1990): 1297-1316. Examines differences in productivity as measured by number of publications by male biochemists who received PhD.s between 1956-58 and 1961-63 and female biochemists who did so between 1950-1967. 147 Lonsdale, Kathleen. "Women in Science: Reminiscences and Reflections." IMPACT OF SCIENCE ON SOCIETY 20, no.1 (January-March 1970): 45-59. Entire issue is devoted to "Women in the Age of Science and Technology. 148 MacLoed, Roy, and Moseley, Russell. "Fathers and Daughters: Reflections on Women, Science, and Victorian Cambridge." HISTORY OF EDUCATION 8, no.4 (1979): 321-333. 149 Malcolm, Shirley Mahaley, Hall, Paula Quick, and Brown, Janet Welsch. THE DOUBLE BIND: THE PRICE OF BEING A MINORITY WOMAN IN SCIENCE. Washington: American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1976. (AAAS Report, 76- R-3) 150 Mandula, Barbara. "Talks at AAAS Meeting: Women Scientists Still Behind." AWIS MAGAZINE 20, no.3, (May/June 1991): 10-11. Summary of presentations at an American Association for the Advancement of Science session on "Science Policy for Women in Science: Lessons from Historical and Contemporary Case Studies." 151 Manthorpe, Catherine. "Science or Domestic Science?: The Struggle to Define an Appropriate Science Education for Girls in Early Twentieth-Century England." HISTORY OF EDUCATION 15 (1986): 195-213. 152 Mason, Joan. "The Admission of the First Women to the Royal Society of London." NOTES AND RECORDS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF LONDON 46 (1992): 279-300. On Kathleen Lonsdale and Marjory Stephenson. 153 Mason, Joan. "Women in Science: Breaking out of the Circle." NOTES AND RECORDS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF LONDON 46 (1992): 177-182. 154 Mattfeld, Jacquelyn A., and Van Aken, Carol G., eds. WOMEN AND THE SCIENTIFIC PROFESSIONS: THE MIT SYMPOSIUM ON AMERICAN WOMEN IN SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 1965; Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1976. Papers by Bruno Bettelheim, Alice S. Rossi, James R. Killian Jr., Richard H. Bolt, Jessie Bernard, Lillian Gilbreth, Erik H. Erikson, plus panelists' remarks. 155 Menninger, Sally Ann, and Rose, Clare. "Women Scientists and Engineers in American Academia." INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF WOMEN'S STUDIES 3, no.3 (May/June 1980): 292-299. Reports on a national study of employment patterns of women scientists and engineers in American colleges and universities. 156 Meyer, Gerald Dennis. THE SCIENTIFIC LADY IN ENGLAND, 1650-1760: AN ACCOUNT OF HER RISE, WITH EMPHASIS ON THE MAJOR ROLES OF THE TELESCOPE AND MICROSCOPE. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980. A study of books, periodicals, and treatises on science written for female readers in 17th- and 18th-century England. 157 Morantz-Sanchez, Regina Markell. "The Many Faces of Intimacy: Professional Options and Personal Choices among Nineteenth- and Twentieth- Century Women Physicians." In UNEASY CAREERS AND INTIMATE LIVES: WOMEN IN SCIENCE, 1789-1979, ed. Pnina G. Abir-Am and Dorinda Outram, pp.45-59. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1987. 158 Morrison-Low, A.D. "Women in the Nineteenth-Century Scientific Instrument Trade." In SCIENCE AND SENSIBILITY: GENDER AND SCIENTIFIC ENQUIRY, 1780-1945, ed. by Marina Benjamin, pp.89-117. Cambridge, MA: Basil Blackwell, 1991. 159 Mozans, H.J. (pseudonym of John Augustine Zahm) WOMAN IN SCIENCE. New York: D. Appleton and Co., 1913; Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1974; Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1991. Covers women in mathematics, astronomy,physics, chemistry, the natural sciences, medicine and surgery, and archaeology, as well as women as inventors and as collaborators and inspirers of male scientists. Opens with a 100-page overview of "Woman's Long Struggle for Things of the Mind" and closes with a chapter on "The Future of Women in Science." Includes bibliography. 160 Myers, Greg. "Science for Women and Children: The Dialogue of Popular Science in the 19th Century." In NATURE TRANSFIGURED: SCIENCE AND LITERATURE, 1700-1900, ed. John Christie & Sally Shuttleworth, pp.171-200. Manchester, England: Manchester University Press, 1989. 161 Neverdon-Morton, Cynthia. AFRO-AMERICAN WOMEN OF THE SOUTH AND THE ADVANCEMENT OF THE RACE, 1895-1925. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1989. Mainly concerned with social service programs in Virginia, Alabama, Georgia, and Maryland, and the development of a National Organization of Afro- American Women; includes information on health programs and higher education opportunities for Afro-American women, including nursing and domestic science. 162 Noble, David F. "A World Without Women." TECHNOLOGY REVIEW 95 (May/June 1992): 52-57. An article adapted from Noble's A WORLD WITHOUT WOMEN: THE CLERICAL CULTURE OF WESTERN SCIENCE. 163 Noble, David F. A WORLD WITHOUT WOMEN: THE CLERICAL CULTURE OF WESTERN SCIENCE. New York: Knopf, 1992. Ascetic religious culture's role in the exclusion of women from the development of modern science. 164 Ogilvie, Marilyn Bailey. "Marital Collaboration: An Approach to Science." In UNEASY CAREERS AND INTIMATE LIVES: WOMEN IN SCIENCE, 1789-1979, ed. Pnina G. Abir-Am and Dorinda Outram, pp.104-125. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1987. 165 Outram, Dorinda. "Fat, Gorillas, and Misogyny: Women's History in Science." THE BRITISH JOURNAL FOR THE HISTORY OF SCIENCE 24, no.82 (September 1991): 361-368. 166 Phillips, Patricia. "Science and the Ladies of Fashion." NEW SCIENTIST 95, no.1318 (12 August 1982): 416-418. Maragaret Cavendish, Aphra Behn, Elizabeth Carter. 167 Phillips, Patricia. THE SCIENTIFIC LADY: A SOCIAL HISTORY OF WOMEN'S SCIENTIFIC INTERESTS, 1520-1918. New York: St. Martin's, 1990. Traditional views of science as inferior to the classics and of women as naturally scientific allowed women to pursue scientific interests for centuries in England and the Continent. This book looks at who these women were and what and how they studied. 168 Ramaley, Judith A., ed. COVERT DISCRIMINATION AND WOMEN IN THE SCIENCES. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1978. (AAAS Selected Symposium, 14) Five papers document sex discrimination and discuss solutions. Not historical. 169 Richter, Derek, ed. WOMEN SCIENTISTS: THE ROAD TO LIBERATION. London: Macmillan, 1982. First person accounts by twelve women about their careers in ten different countries. Some reports include historical background. 170 Robbins, Mary Louise, ed. A HISTORY OF SIGMA DELTA EPSILON, 1921-1971: GRADUATE WOMEN IN SCIENCE. Graduate Women in Science, 1971. See also 1972-78 Supplement by Robbins (1978) and 1979-1986 Supplement by Ruth Strathearn Dickie, both published by SDE-Graduate Women in Science. 171 Ross, Mary Martin. "Women's Struggles to Enter Medicine: Two Nineteenth-Century Women Physicians in America." PHAROS OF ALPHA OMEGA ALPHA- HONOR MEDICAL SOCIETY 55, no.1 (Winter 1992): 33+. 172 Rossi, Alice S. "Women in Science: Why So Few?" SCIENCE 148, no.3674 (28 May 1965): 1196-1202. Discusses how "social and psychological influences restrict women's choice and pursuit of careers in science" in the 1960s. 173 Rossiter, Margaret W. "Sexual Segregation in the Sciences: Some Data and a Model." SIGNS 4, no.1 (Autumn 1978): 146-151. Statistics for 1920-1938. Repr. in SEX AND SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY, pp.35-40. Ed. by Sandra Harding and Jean F. O'Barr. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987. 174 Rossiter, Margaret W. "Women and the History of Scientific Communication." JOURNAL OF LIBRARY HISTORY 21 (1986): 39-59. 175 Rossiter, Margaret W. "`Women's Work' in Science, 1880-1910." ISIS 71, no.258 (September 1980): 381-398. Covers women in astronomy, scientific employment in the federal government, higher education, and home economics. 176 Rossiter, Margaret W. "Women Scientists in America Before 1920." AMERICAN SCIENTIST 62, no.3 (May-June 1974): 312-323. Covers women's scientific education, career patterns, and achievements. Includes tables and illustrations. Repr. in DYNAMOS AND VIRGINS REVISITED: WOMEN AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE IN HISTORY, pp.120-148. Ed. by Martha Moore Trescott. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow, 1979. 177 Rossiter, Margaret W. WOMEN SCIENTISTS IN AMERICA: STRUGGLES AND STRATEGIES TO 1940. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1982. A richly detailed history of American women's education and employment in the sciences prior to World War II. Extensive references to primary sources. 178 Sabin, Florence. "Women in Science." SCIENCE 38 (1936): 24-36. 179 SAGE: A SCHOLARLY JOURNAL ON BLACK WOMEN 6, no.2 (Fall 1989); Special Issue: "Science and Technology." Contents: Kenneth Manning, "Roger Arliner Young;" Rosalyn Patterson, "Black Women in the Biological Sciences;" Shirley Malcolm, "Increasing the Participation of Black Women in Science and Technology;" Sylvia T. Bozeman, "Black Women Mathematicians: In Short Supply;" Valerie L. Thomas, "Black Women Engineers and Technologists;" Patricia Carter Sluby, "Black Women and Inventions;" Etta Z. Falconer, "A Story of Success: The Sciences at Spelman College;" Jewel Plummer Cobb, "A Life in Science: Research and Service;" Evelyn Boyd Granville, "My Life as a Mathematician;" Reatha Clark King, "Becoming a Scientist: An Important Career Decision;" Jennie R. Patrick, "Trials, Tribulations, Triumphs;" Ronald Mickens, "Black Women in Science and Technology: A Selected Bibliography;" book reviews. 180 Schiebinger, Londa L. THE MIND HAS NO SEX?: WOMEN IN THE ORIGINS OF MODERN SCIENCE. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1989. Covers both the history of women's contributions to the development of early modern science and the interrelationship between their subsequent exclusion from science and the growth of new "scientific" doctrines of gender differences. 181 Shmurak, Carole B., and Handler, Bonnie S. "Castle of Science: Mount Holyoke College and the Preparation of Women in Chemistry, 1837-1941." HISTORY OF EDUCATION QUARTERLY 32, no.3 (Fall 1992): 315-342. 182 Shmurak, Carole B., and Handler, Bonnie S. "Lydia Shattuck: `A Streak of the Modern.'" TEACHING EDUCATION 3, no.2 (Winter-Spring 1991): 127-131. Shattuck taught chemistry and botany at Mount Holyoke in the mid-nineteenth century. 183 Shteir, Ann B. "`A Connecting Link': Women, Popularisation, and the History of Science." RFR/DRF 15, no.3 (1986): 38-39. 184 Singer, Charles. "The Scientific Views and Visions of Saint Hildegard (1098-1180)." In STUDIES IN THE HISTORY AND METHOD OF SCIENCE, ed. by Charles Singer, pp.1-55. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1917. 185 Sloan, Jan Butin. "The Founding of the Naples Table Association for Promoting Scientific Research by Women." SIGNS 4, no.1 (Autumn 1978): 208-216. 186 Solomon, Barbara Miller. "Historical Determinants in Individual Life Experiences of Successful Professional Women." In SUCCESSFUL WOMEN IN THE SCIENCES: AN ANALYSIS OF DETERMINANTS, ed. by Ruth B. Kundsin, pp.170-178. (ANNALS OF THE NEW YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 208, 1973.) Repr. with title, WOMEN AND SUCCESS: THE ANATOMY OF ACHIEVEMENT. New York: Morrow, 1974. 187 Standish, Leanna. "Women, Work, and the Scientific Enterprise." SCIENCE FOR THE PEOPLE 14, no.5 (September/October 1982): 12-18. 188 Stepan, Nancy Leys. "Women and Natural Knowledge: The Role of Gender in the Making of Modern Science." GENDER & HISTORY 2, no.3 (1990): 337-342. Review essay on recent books by Schiebinger, Russet, and Jordanova. 189 Stolte-Heiskanen, Veronica. WOMEN IN SCIENCE: TOKEN WOMEN OR GENDER EQUALITY? New York ; Oxford: Berg, 1991. International perspectives on women's careers in science. 190 Tanio, Nadine. "Gendering the History of Science." NUNCIUS 6, no.2 (1991): 295-305. Essay review on books on science and gender. 191 Tavill, A.A. "Early Medical Co-Education and Women's Medical College, Kingston, Ontario 1880-1894." HISTORIC KINGSTON 30 (January 1982): 68-89. 192 Trecker, Janice Law. "Sex, Science, and Education." AMERICAN QUARTERLY 26, no.4 (October 1974): 352-366. Examines 19th-century scientific and medical opposition to higher education for women. 193 Trescott, Martha Moore. "Women and Engineering Education: Historical Sketches." In WOMEN AND ENGINEERING EDUCATION: REPORT ON A CONFERENCE OF THE CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, 20 AND 21 MARCH 1987, LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA, pp.II1-II16. Northridge, CA: Women in Science and Engineering Programs, School of Engineering and Computer Science, California State University, 1988. 194 United States. National Science Foundation. WOMEN AND MINORITIES IN SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Washington, D.C.: National Science Foundation, 1982- present. Biennial source of statistics. 195 United States. National Science Foundation. WOMEN IN SCIENTIFIC CAREERS. Washington, D.C.: National Science Foundation, 1961. 196 United States. Women's Bureau. THE OUTLOOK FOR WOMEN IN SCIENCE. Washington, D.C.: U.S. G.P.O., 1948-1949. (Women's Bureau Bulletin, 223) In eight parts: 1) science, 2) chemistry, 3) biological sciences, 4) mathematics and statistics, 5) architecture and engineering, 6) physics and astronomy, 7) geology, geography, and meteorology, 8) occupations related to science. 197 Verbrugge, Martha H. "The Social Meaning of Personal Health: The Ladies' Physiological Institute of Boston and Vicinity in the 1850's." In HEALTH CARE IN AMERICA: ESSAYS IN SOCIAL HISTORY, ed. by Susan Reverby and David Rosner, pp.45-66. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1979. Covers 19th-century popular self-education in physiology and hygiene. 198 Vetter, Betty M. "The Last Two Decades (Statistics of Discrimination Against Women Scientists and Engineers)." SCIENCE 86, 7 (July/August 1986): 62-63. 199 Vetter, Betty M. "Changing Patterns of Recruitment and Employment." In WOMEN IN SCIENTIFIC AND ENGINEERING PROFESSIONS, ed. by Violet B. Haas and Carolyn C. Perrucci, 59-74. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1981. Traces women's scientific education and employment from the 1920s to the 1970s, and forecasts demands for scientists in specified fields in the future. Includes graphs. 200 Vetter, Betty M. "Women Scientists and Engineers: Trends in Participation." SCIENCE 214, no.4527 (18 December 1981): 1313-1321. Measures women's progress in the 1970s. Includes tables. 201 Visher, Stephen S. SCIENTISTS STARRED 1903-1943 IN "AMERICAN MEN OF SCIENCE." Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1947. See list of fifty- two "Women Starred," pp.148-149. 202 Walton, Anne. "Attitudes to Women Scientists." CHEMISTRY IN BRITAIN 21, no.5 (May 1985): 461-465. Quotes extensively from men and women, 17th century onwards. 203 Warner, Deborah J. "Science Education for Women in Antebellum America." ISIS 69, no.246 (March 1978): 58-67. Covers women's education for, and contributions to, science (both formal and informal) before the Civil War. 204 Warner, Deborah J. "Women in Science in Nineteenth-Century America." JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN WOMEN'S MEDICAL ASSOCIATION 34, no.2 (February 1979): 59-66. Overview. Includes photographs. 205 Weis, Lois. "Academic Women in Science, 1977-1984." ACADEME 73, no.1 (January/February 1987): 43-47. Data shows only slight progress in employment. 206 White, Martha S. "Psychological and Social Barriers to Women in Science." SCIENCE 170, no.3956 (23 October 1970): 413-416. How women's limited opportunities to interact with colleagues negatively affected their careers in science at that time. 207 Wilson, Jane S., and Serber, Charlotte, eds. STANDING BY AND MAKING DO: WOMEN OF WARTIME LOS ALAMOS. Los Alamos, NM: Los Alamos Historical Society, 1988. 208 Wilson, Joan Hoff. "Dancing Dogs of the Colonial Period: Women Scientists." EARLY AMERICAN LITERATURE 7, no.3 (Winter 1973): 225-235. Treats Colonial women in botany, agronomy, horticulture, and medicine, and argues the need for a new conceptual approach to studying them. 209 "Women in Science: An Analysis of a Social Problem." HARVARD MAGAZINE (October 1974): 14-19. 210 Wupperman, Alice. "Women in `American Men of Science': a Tabular Study From the Sixth Edition." JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL EDUCATION 18 (March 1941): 120-121. Statistics on the fields and occupations of 800 women (2.9% of the total entries) in the 6th edition of AMS, 1938. 211 Zuckerman, Harriet, and Cole, Jonathan R., and Bruer, John T., eds. THE OUTER CIRCLE: WOMEN IN THE SCIENTIFIC COMMUNITY. New York: Norton, 1991. Essays on gender issues in the careers of women scientists. Includes interviews with geneticist Salome Waelsch, astrophysicist Andrea Dupree, and biotechnologist Sandra Panen. 212 Zuckerman, Harriet, and Cole, Jonathan. "Women in American Science." MINERVA 13, no.1 (Spring 1975): 82-102. Outlines a "triple penalty" for women: the cultural definition of science as an inappropriate career for women; belief that women are less competent than men; and actual discrimination.
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