ID: GLSHW-2.4.1 General and Multidisciplinary Works, A - K (83-142) This section covers general works on gender issues in the history of women in science. It further addresses career issues for women scientists -- educational barriers and opportunities, entry into scientific and technical professions, status issues, and statistics. Some contemporary studies are included that bear out historical trends. Additional works on these themes appear in the sections on particular branches of the sciences. 83 Abir-Am, Penina G., and Outram, Dorinda, eds. UNEASY CAREERS AND INTIMATE LIVES: WOMEN IN SCIENCE, 1787-1979. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1987. Articles by an international group of historians on a wide range of European and American women scientists. Individual contributions appear in this bibliography by subject. 84 Alexander, Wendy. FIRST LADIES OF MEDICINE: THE ORIGINS, EDUCATION AND DESTINATION OF EARLY WOMEN MEDICAL GRADUATES OF GLASGOW UNIVERSITY. Glasgow, UK: University of Glasgow, Wellcome Unit for the History of Medicine, 1987. 85 Alic, Margaret. HYPATIA'S HERITAGE: A HISTORY OF WOMEN IN SCIENCE FROM ANTIQUITY TO THE LATE NINTEENTH CENTURY. Boston: Beacon Press, 1986. Chronological treatment. Bibliography, pp.210-224, covers both primary and secondary sources. 86 Alsop, Gulielma Fell. HISTORY OF THE WOMAN'S MEDICAL COLLEGE, PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA, 1850-1950. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1950. For most of the century, this was the only medical school in which women could be full professors of physiology and chairs of the department. 87 Bachtold, Louise M., and Warner, Emmy G. "Personality Characteristics of Women Scientists." PSYCHOLOGICAL REPORTS 31, no.2 (October 1972): 391-396. 88 Barlow, William, and Powell, David O. "Homeopathy and Sexual Equality: The Controversy over Coeducation at Cincinnati's Pulte Medical College, 1873-1879." OHIO HISTORY 90 (Spring 1981): 101-113. 89 Behringer, Marjorie Perrin. "Women's Role and Status in the Sciences: An Historical Perspective." In WOMEN IN SCIENCE: A REPORT FROM THE FIELD, ed. by Jane Butler Kahle, pp.4-26. Philadelphia, PA: Falmer, 1985. Review of the literature, with statistical tables and bibliography. 90 Benditt, John, ed. SCIENCE 255 (March 13, 1992); Special Issue: "Women in Science." Contains articles on mentoring and career issues for women scientists. 91 Benjamin, Marina. "Elbow Room: Women Writers on Science, 1790-1840." In SCIENCE AND SENSIBILITY: GENDER AND SCIENTIFIC ENQUIRY, 1780-1945, ed. by Marina Benjamin, pp.27-59. Cambridge, MA: Basil Blackwell, 1991. 92 Benjamin, Marina, ed. SCIENCE AND SENSIBILITY: GENDER AND SCIENTIFIC ENQUIRY, 1780-1945. Cambridge, MA: Basil Blackwell, 1991. 93 Blake, Catriona. THE CHARGE OF THE PARASOLS: WOMEN'S ENTRY TO THE MEDICAL PROFESSION. London: Women's Press, 1991. Set within the context of nineteenth century feminism in Britain, the book describes how, under the leadership of Elizabeth Garrett (London) and Sophia Jex-Blake (Edinburgh), women won a space in which to train and practice medicine. 94 Bonner, Thomas Neville. TO THE ENDS OF THE EARTH: WOMEN'S SEARCH FOR EDUCATION IN MEDICINE. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1992. 95 Briscoe, Anne, and Pfafflin, Sheila, eds. EXPANDING THE ROLE OF WOMEN IN THE SCIENCES. New York: New York Academy of Sciences, 1979. New York Academy of Sciences ANNALS, 323. 96 Brumberg, Joan Jacobs, and Tomes, Nancy. "Women in the Professions: A Research Agenda for American Historians." REVIEWS IN AMERICAN HISTORY 10 (1982): 275-296. Includes discussion of women physicians and identifies key books and articles published in the 1970's. 97 Brush, Stephen G. THE HISTORY OF MODERN SCIENCE: A GUIDE TO THE SECOND SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION, 1800-1950. Ames, IA: University of Iowa Press, 1988. See section 6.7, "Women in Science." 98 Brush, Stephen G. "Women in Science and Engineering." AMERICAN SCIENTIST 79, no.5 (1991): 404-419. 99 Burstyn, Joan N. "Women in American Science." ACTES DU XIe CONGRESS INTERNATIONAL D'HISTOIRE DES SCIENCES, 1965 2 (1967): 316-319. Speculates on reasons for low numbers of women in the sciences in the U.S. in the 1960s. 100 Byrne, Eileen M. WOMEN IN SCIENCE: THE SNARK SYNDROME. London: Falmer Press, 1991. 101 Chaff, Sandra L. "Images of Female Medical Students at the Turn of the Century." In SEX AND SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY, ed. Sandra Harding and Jean F. O'Barr. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987. 102 Chu, Clara, and Macdonald, Bertrum. "The Public Record: An Analysis of Women's Contributions to Canadian Science and Technology Before the First World War." In DESPITE THE ODDS: ESSAYS ON CANADIAN WOMEN AND SCIENCE, ed. by Marianne Gosztonyi Ainley, pp.63-73. Montreal: Vehicule Press, 1990. 103 Cole, Jonathan R. FAIR SCIENCE: WOMEN IN THE SCIENTIFIC COMMUNITY. New York: Free Press, 1979. An empirical study of women's status as scientists. Includes numerous statistical tables. For critical reviews, see Karen Oppenheim Mason, "Sex and Status in Science," SCIENCE 208, no.4441 (18 April 1980): 277-278; and Margaret Rossiter, "Fair Enough?" ISIS 72, no.261 (March 1981): 99-103. 104 Cole, Jonathan R., and Zuckerman, Harriet. "Marriage, Motherhood, and Research Performance in Science." SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 256, no.2 (February 1987): 119-125. Examines the publication rates of women scientists from 1930 to the 1980s. 105 Cole, Jonathan R. "Women in Science." AMERICAN SCIENTIST 69, no.4 (July-August 1981): 385-391. Touching on women's marginalization in science historically, Cole analyzes evidence of inequality in the present. See his book (above) for a longer treatment of these themes. 106 The Committee on the Education and Employment of Women in Science and Engineering, Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel, National Research Council. CLIMBING THE LADDER: AN UPDATE ON THE STATUS OF DOCTORAL WOMEN SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1983. Updates earlier report, CLIMBING THE ACADEMIC LADDER: DOCTORAL WOMEN SCIENTISTS IN ACADEME, National Academy of Sciences, 1979. Provides copious statistics on education and employment. 107 Dembski, Peter E. Paul. "Jenny Kidd Trout and the Founding of the Women's Medical Colleges at Kingston and Toronto." ONTARIO HISTORY 77 (September 1985): 183-206. 108 Dickie, Ruth S. TIME OF TRANSITION, WOMEN IN SCIENCE: HISTORY OF SIGMA DELTA EPSILON-GRADUATE WOMEN IN SCIENCE, INCORPORATED, 1979-1986 SUPPLEMENT. Ithaca, NY: Sigma Delta Epsilon-Graduate Women in Science, 1988. 109 Eshiwani, G. S. "Women's Access to Higher Education in Kenya: A Study of Opportunities and Attainment in Science and Mathematics Education." JOURNAL OF EASTERN AFRICAN RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT 15 (1985): 91-110. Time period 1964-1980. 110 Evans, Sara M. BORN FOR LIBERTY: A HISTORY OF WOMEN IN AMERICA. New York: Free Press; London: Collier Macmillan, 1989. This general history provides contextual information on many issues relevant to science, health, and technology. See "birth control," "family planning," "home economists," "housework, effect of new technology on," "medical education for women," "motherhood," "science," "sexuality," and other topics in the subject index. 111 Fausto-Sterling, Anne. "Women and Science." WOMEN'S STUDIES INTERNATIONAL QUARTERLY 4, no.1 (1981): 41-50. Explores two questions: why are there not more women scientists? What would scientific inquiry and subject matter consist of if there were equal numbers of women and men scientists? 112 Ferry, Georgina, and Moore, Jane. "True Confessions of Women in Science." NEW SCIENTIST 95, no.1312 (1 July 1982): 27-30. Summarizes some 500 responses to an article on the position of women in science and technology at that time (see NEW SCIENTIST 95, (1 April 1982).). 113 Fox, Robert, and Guagnini, Anna. "Classical Values and Useful Knowledge: The Problem of Access to Technical Careers in Modern Europe." DAEDELUS 116, no.4 (Fall 1987): 153-171. A study of the problem of gender and scientific education in England and France from the late 19th-century up to World War I. 114 Gardiner, Linda. "Women in Science." In FRENCH WOMEN AND THE AGE OF ENLIGHTENMENT, ed. S.I. Spencer, pp.181-193. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1985. 115 Glazer, Penina Migdal, and Slater, Miriam. UNEQUAL COLLEAGUES: THE ENTRANCE OF WOMEN INTO THE PROFESSIONS, 1890-1940. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1987. See in particular chap. 3, "Motherhood and Medicine," about Dorothy Reed Mendenhall and Anne Walter Fern; and chap. 4, "The Promise of New Opportunities in Science," about Florence R. Sabin and Alice Hamilton. 116 Gornick, Vivian. WOMEN IN SCIENCE: 100 JOURNEYS INTO THE TERRITORY. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1990. Rev. ed. A journalistic account of contemporary women scientists. 117 Haas, Violet B., and Perrucci, Carolyn C., eds. WOMEN IN SCIENTIFIC AND ENGINEERING PROFESSIONS. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1981. Papers from a 1981 conference on Women in the Professions: Science, Social Science, Engineering. 118 Hafter, Daryl M. "International Conference on the Role of Women in the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in the 19th and 20th centuries -- Veszprem, Hungary, August 15-19, 1983. TECHNOLOGY AND CULTURE 26, no.2 (April 1985): 262-267. Summaries of 15 papers presented at the conference. 119 Hall, Diana Long. "Academics, Bluestockings, and Biologists: Women at the University of Chicago, 1892-1932." In EXPANDING THE ROLE OF WOMEN IN THE SCIENCES, ed. by Anne Briscoe and Sheila Pfafflin, pp.300-320. New York: New York Academy of Sciences, 1979. Chronicles the survival and success of women scientists in the face of discrimination during the University of Chicago's first four decades. 120 Hanaford, Phebe A. DAUGHTERS OF AMERICA, OR WOMEN OF THE CENTURY. Augusta, ME: True, 1882. See chap.9, "Women Scientists." 121 Handler, Bonnie S., and Shmurak, Carole B. "Rigor, Resolve, Religion: Mary Lyon and Science Education." TEACHING EDUCATION 3, no.2 (Winter/Spring 1991): 137-142. Lyon was the founder of Mount Holyoke College where she established a chemistry department responsible for training many women chemists. 122 Harding, Jan, ed. PERSPECTIVES ON GENDER AND SCIENCE. London: Falmer Press, 1986. Papers from a 1985 British conference. Six grouped under "How It Is With Women" address women's roles in science. 123 Harris, Barbara J. BEYOND HER SPHERE: WOMEN AND THE PROFESSIONS IN AMERICAN HISTORY. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1978. Traces women's education and employment in the professions from Colonial times to 1975. Extensive notes and bibliography. 124 Herzenberg, Caroline L. "The Participation of Women in Science During Antiquity and the Middle Ages." INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE REVIEWS 15, no.4 (1990): 294-297. 125 Herzenberg, Caroline L. "Women in Science During Antiquity and the Middle Ages." JOURNAL OF COLLEGE SCIENCE TEACHING 17 (1987): 124-127. Reprinted in WOMEN, Volume 3, ed. Eleanor Goldstein. Boca Raton, FL: Social Issues Resource Series, 1988. 126 Herzenberg, Caroline L., Meschel, Susan V., and Altena, James A. "Women in the Science and Technology of Antiquity." CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FIFTH INTERNATIONAL GASAT CONFERENCE v.1 (1989): 44-51. 127 Herzenberg, Caroline L., and Howes, Ruth Hege. "Women of the Manhattan Project." TECHNOLOGY REVIEW (in press). 128 Herzenberg, Caroline L., Meschel, Susan V., and Altena, James A. "Women Scientists and Physicians of Antiquity and the Middle Ages." JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL EDUCATION 68 (February 1991): 101-105. 129 Hine, Darlene Clark. "From Hospital to College: Black Nurse Leaders and the Rise of Collegiate Nursing Schools." JOURNAL OF NEGRO EDUCATION 51 (Summer 1982): 222-237. 130 Hoeflin, Ruth M. HISTORY OF A COLLEGE FROM WOMAN'S COURSE TO HOME ECONOMICS TO HUMAN ECOLOGY: 1873-1988 KANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY. Manhattan, KS: College of Human Ecology, Kansas State University, 1988. 131 Hornig, Lilli S. "Women in Science and Engineering: Why So Few?" TECHNOLOGY REVIEW 87, no.8 (November/December 1984): 31-41. Documents barriers to women, especially in higher education. 132 Howes, Ruth Hege, and Herzenberg, Caroline L. "Women in Weapons Development: The Manhattan Project." In WOMEN AND THE USE OF MILITARY FORCE, ed. Ruth Hege Howes and Michael R. Stevenson, pp.95-110. Boulder, CO: Lynne Riener, 1993. 133 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENCE EDUCATION 9, no.3 (1987): Special Issue on science education for women. Includes "The Most Difficult Career: Women's History of Science" by Dorinda Outram. 134 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF WOMEN'S STUDIES 4, no.4 (September/October 1981); Special Issue: "Women and Science." Contents: "Women and Science" by Connie Stark-Adamec; "Women and Science: A Critique of Biological Theories" by Meredith M. Kimball; "The Rearing of Women for Science, Engineering, and Technology" by Rose Sheinin; "Science Subject Choice and Achievement of Females in Canadian High Schools" by Joan Pinner Scott; "Cooperation and Competition in Science" by Marian Lowe; "Women and Science: Fitting Men to Think About Nature" by Hilde Hein; "Is Feminism a Threat to Scientific Objectivity" by Elizabeth Fee; "Is there a Feminist Biology" by Madeleine J. Goodman and Lenn Evan Goodman; "Women and Science: Two Cultures or One?" by Evelyn Fox Keller; "Diary of a Mad Feminist Chemist" by Anne M. Briscoe; "The Status of Women in Canadian Psychology: A Case Study of Women in Science" by Elinor W. Ames; and "Practical Tips for Coping with the Problems of Being a Seventeen-Career Person" by Connie Stark-Adamec. 135 Johnson, Thomas Cary, Jr. SCIENTIFIC INTERESTS IN THE OLD SOUTH. New York: Appleton-Century, 1936; repr. Wilmington: Scholarly Resources, 1973. Chap. 4, "Sweet Southern Girls," discusses the presence of science in antebellum girls' schools and in magazines oriented toward women. 136 JOURNAL OF WOMEN'S HISTORY GUIDE TO PERIODICAL LITERATURE, comp. Gayle V. Fischer. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1992. See section on "Professional Career Choices," pp.345-356. 137 Kien, Jenny, and Cassidy, David. "The History of Women in Science: A Seminar at the University of Regensburg, FRG." WOMEN'S STUDIES INTERNATIONAL FORUM 7, no.4 (1984): 313-317. 138 Koblitz, Ann Hibner. "Science, Women, and Revolution in Russia." SCIENCE FOR THE PEOPLE 14, no.4 (July/August 1982): 14-18, 34-37. Historical analysis of Russian women scientists in the late 1880s. 139 Koblitz, Ann Hibner. "Science, Women, and the Russian Intelligentsia: The Generation of the 1860s." ISIS 79 (June 1988): 208-226. 140 Kohlstedt, Sally Gregory. "In from the Periphery: American Women in Science, 1830-1880." SIGNS 4, no.1 (Autumn 1978): 81-96. Traces three generations of American women in science: the "independents" of the early 19th century, the educators and popularizers of the mid-19th century, and those who had to choose between science as a profession or an avocation after the Civil War. 141 Krishnaraj, Maithreyi. "The Status of Women in Science in India." JOURNAL OF HIGHER EDUCATION 5 (Spring 1980): 381-393. 142 Kundsin, Ruth B., ed. "Successful Women in the Sciences: An Analysis of Determinants." ANNALS OF THE NEW YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 208 (15 March 1973). In part I, twelve scientists from varied fields share their life experiences. The remaining parts present conference papers on family, education, economic factors, and other determinants of successful scientific careers. Repr. with title WOMEN AND SUCCESS: THE ANATOMY OF ACHIEVEMENT. New York: Morrow, 1974.
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