Preface to Second Edition

This bibliography expands and updates the 1988 version edited by Susan E.
Searing with the assistance of Rima D. Apple. That edition sprang from the
vision and hard work of a nationwide group of scholars. Members of the Women's
Caucus of the History of Science Society decided to collaborate on a basic
bibliography on the history of women in science, health, and technology, and
several members of the Caucus contributed core lists of readings in their areas
of specialization. Their primary goal was to aid colleagues in both designing
new gender-centered courses and integrating the new feminist scholarship into
existing survey courses. Secondly, they wanted to make the history of women in
the professions more accessible to practitioners in the various branches of
science, medicine, and technology.
     In 1986, Rima D. Apple, then co-chair of the Caucus, approached Susan E.
Searing, Women's Studies Librarian for the University of Wisconsin System, to
propose a collaborative effort in completing the project. Susan and her staff
melded the stylistically disparate lists into a consistent whole, verified and
completed partial references, added reprint information where it turned up in
the course of verification, and performed additional research in fields that
were left uncovered. In some sections important contemporary works, especially
those of a theoretical bent, were included in addition to purely historical
writings. While the aim throughout the process was to be suggestive rather than
comprehensive, the resultant partially-annotated bibliography filled 54 double-
columned pages.
     Both the 1988 edition and the current one (with citations through 1992 and
an occasional 1993) cover topics that have inspired feminist scholars,
including women's experiences in the workplace, women's education for the
professions, and the interplay of scientific theory and social norms. In 1988,
the compilers found a preponderance of material on the history of women in the
health professions and on the biological and medical views of women, and less
from the non-biological sciences, with two notable exceptions: critical
perspectives on technology's effects on women's lives in the home and workplace
and studies tracing individual careers in science and documenting discrimation.
     In the past five years, scholars, organizations, and government have
intensified their efforts to decrease the gender gap in science. One of the
results has been an increase in the number of biographical studies of
scientific careers and historical and contemporary analyses of the attitudes
and methods of science itself, examining the complex relationship of women and
science. Feminist research has been taking a fresh look at the history of
female-dominant fields such as nursing and home economics to compare women's
experiences in and effect on those professions with their experiences in other
scientific pursuits. The biographical studies are listed throughout the
bibliography, and the critical analyses of science may be found in particular
in the section on "Feminist Critiques of Science."
     We have again provided annotations in cases where titles were not fully
expressive of content, or to call attention to specific sections of the works.
     The bibliography is organized in six parts. "Overviews" begins with
practical articles and books aimed at the teacher, reference bibliographies and
biographical sources, and general works on the education and employment of
women in the sciences. Next comes a section on the scientific views of women,
especially in the fields of medicine and biology, including works on the
history of the psychology of women, the association of women and madness, and
contributions from the fields of sexology and sexual science. The final section
of Part I lists selections from feminist literature critiquing science.
     Part II, "Women in the Scientific Professions," is divided by the branches
of the sciences: astronomy; chemistry; geology and earth sciences; mathematics,
statistics, and computer science; natural, biological and life sciences
(including veterinary science); and physics.
     Part III, "Health and Biology," begins with bibliographies and general
works on women and health, followed by works on women practitioners in the
health professions (physicians and dentists, nurses, midwives, medical
researchers, pharmacists, allied health professionals, and others).  Health
care and health issues are next assessed, including the history of gynecology
and the traditional practice of obstetrics, reproductive health and birth
control, alternative health systems, and other health issues, such as the
effect on personal health of adverse occupational settings.
     Part IV, "Home Economics/Domestic Science," examines the history of home
economics as a discipline and as it has been applied in the household, and
lists biographies of women associated with the field.
     Part V, "Technology," lists citations assessing the impact of technology
on women, and on the industrial workplace. The work of women inventors, the
careers of engineers and technologists, and the history of reproductive
technologies are other topics covered.
     Part VI, "Children and Young Adult Literature," adds a representative
sample of the many biographies of women scientists written at reading levels
appropriate to middle school and high school.
     Within many sections, reference works and biographies are highlighted in
separate sub-groupings. Most citations appear only once on the bibliography,
but approximately twenty-five percent are listed in two or more places when
their topics warrant such placement.
     Once again, several scholars contributed lists of citations for inclusion.
They include Fred M. Amram, Rima D. Apple, Monica H. Green, Caroline L.
Herzenberg, Thomas J. Higgins, Evelyn Fox Keller, Ann Hibner Koblitz, Mura
Mackowski, Carolyn Merchant, Ed Morman, Roberta Mura, Londa Schiebinger, and
Vassiliki Betty Smocovitis. We also conducted a search of the women's studies
indexing tools (Women Studies Abstracts, Women's Studies Index, Studies on
Women Abstracts) and our own Feminist Periodicals: A Current Listing of
Contents for relevant citations, along with the indispensable ISIS Current
Bibliography of the History of Science and Its Current Influences, edited by
John Neu. In addition, the past five year period has seen a tremendous growth
in computer-assisted research, which made it possible for us to conduct
database searches of the literature of all the fields represented. Much of the
searching was handled by student assistant Robin Paynter, who put to use both
her natural proclivities for ferreting out information and the searching
techniques she acquired and perfected in library and information science
courses and on the job. Student assistant Nancy Nelson turned her trained eye
on all citations input, editing for accuracy and consistency of format, and
Lisa Kaiser ably took on inputting and verification tasks when Robin graduated,
using her journalistic know-how to integrate the parts into a coherent whole
document. Our Office Senior Editor Linda Shult created a database structure to
accommodate our citations, and is largely responsible for the final appearance
and format. Associate Editor Rima D. Apple again spearheaded the revision,
successfully obtained support for the project from the foundations and others
listed below, and contributed her constructive expertise in selecting
appropriate citations and in shaping the organization of the material
assembled. Susan E. Searing offered encouragement and advice from her new
vantage point as Acting Deputy Director of the UW-Madison General Library
System. Phyllis Holman Weisbard served as general editor for the project.
The production and distribution of this bibliography have been made possible
through the generosity of:
     American Institute of the History of Pharmacy Fund on Women in Pharmacy,
     Gregory J. Higby, Director
     Ruth Dickie, Professor Emerita, University of Wisconsin-Madison
     History of Science Society, Sally Gregory Kohlstedt, President
     The Merck Company Foundation, Shuang Ruy Huang, Vice President and Jeffrey
     L. Sturchio, Associate Director, Information Resources and Publishing,
     Public Affairs
     School of Family Resources and Consumer Sciences, University of Wisconsin-
     Madison, Hamilton I. McCubbin, Dean
     School of Nursing, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Vivian M. Littlefield,
     The Welcome Trust, D.E. Allen, Co-ordinator, History of Medicine Programme
     We gratefully acknowledge their support.

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Content of Bibliography last updated in 1993.
Format converted September 10, 1999.