Publications from the Women's Studies Librarian and Her Staff

THE HISTORY OF WOMEN AND SCIENCE, HEALTH, AND TECHNOLOGY: A BIBLIOGRAPHIC GUIDE TO THE PROFESSIONS AND THE DISCIPLINES

Second Edition

General Editor: Phyllis Holman Weisbard
Associate Editor: Rima D. Apple
Editor of the First Edition: Susan E. Searing

University of Wisconsin System Women's Studies Librarian
430 Memorial Library, 728 State Street, Madison, Wisconsin 53706
1993


This bibliography expands and updates the 1988 version edited by Susan E. Searing with the assistance of Rima D. Apple. That edition sprang from the vision and hard work of a nationwide group of scholars. Members of the Women's Caucus of the History of Science Society decided to collaborate on a basic bibliography on the history of women in science, health, and technology, and several members of the Caucus contributed core lists of readings in their areas of specialization. Their primary goal was to aid colleagues in both designing new gender-centered courses and integrating the new feminist scholarship into existing survey courses. Secondly, they wanted to make the history of women in the professions more accessible to practitioners in the various branches of science, medicine, and technology.

In 1986, Rima D. Apple, then co-chair of the Caucus, approached Susan E. Searing, Women's Studies Librarian for the University of Wisconsin System, to propose a collaborative effort in completing the project. Susan and her staff melded the stylistically disparate lists into a consistent whole, verified and completed partial references, added reprint information where it turned up in the course of verification, and performed additional research in fields that were left uncovered. In some sections important contemporary works, especially those of a theoretical bent, were included in addition to purely historical writings. While the aim throughout the process was to be suggestive rather than comprehensive, the resultant partially-annotated bibliography filled 54 double- columned pages.

Both the 1988 edition and the current one (with citations through 1992 and an occasional 1993) cover topics that have inspired feminist scholars, including women's experiences in the workplace, women's education for the professions, and the interplay of scientific theory and social norms. In 1988, the compilers found a preponderance of material on the history of women in the health professions and on the biological and medical views of women, and less from the non-biological sciences, with two notable exceptions: critical perspectives on technology's effects on women's lives in the home and workplace and studies tracing individual careers in science and documenting discrimation.

In the past five years, scholars, organizations, and government have intensified their efforts to decrease the gender gap in science. One of the results has been an increase in the number of biographical studies of scientific careers and historical and contemporary analyses of the attitudes and methods of science itself, examining the complex relationship of women and science. Feminist research has been taking a fresh look at the history of female-dominant fields such as nursing and home economics to compare women's experiences in and effect on those professions with their experiences in other scientific pursuits. The biographical studies are listed throughout the bibliography, and the critical analyses of science may be found in particular in the section on "Feminist Critiques of Science."

We have again provided annotations in cases where titles were not fully expressive of content, or to call attention to specific sections of the works.

The bibliography is organized in six parts. "Overviews" begins with practical articles and books aimed at the teacher, reference bibliographies and biographical sources, and general works on the education and employment of women in the sciences. Next comes a section on the scientific views of women, especially in the fields of medicine and biology, including works on the history of the psychology of women, the association of women and madness, and contributions from the fields of sexology and sexual science. The final section of Part I lists selections from feminist literature critiquing science.

Part II, "Women in the Scientific Professions," is divided by the branches of the sciences: astronomy; chemistry; geology and earth sciences; mathematics, statistics, and computer science; natural, biological and life sciences (including veterinary science); and physics.

Part III, "Health and Biology," begins with bibliographies and general works on women and health, followed by works on women practitioners in the health professions (physicians and dentists, nurses, midwives, medical researchers, pharmacists, allied health professionals, and others). Health care and health issues are next assessed, including the history of gynecology and the traditional practice of obstetrics, reproductive health and birth control, alternative health systems, and other health issues, such as the effect on personal health of adverse occupational settings.

Part IV, "Home Economics/Domestic Science," examines the history of home economics as a discipline and as it has been applied in the household, and lists biographies of women associated with the field.

Part V, "Technology," lists citations assessing the impact of technology on women, and on the industrial workplace. The work of women inventors, the careers of engineers and technologists, and the history of reproductive technologies are other topics covered.

Part VI, "Children and Young Adult Literature," adds a representative sample of the many biographies of women scientists written at reading levels appropriate to middle school and high school.

Within many sections, reference works and biographies are highlighted in separate sub-groupings. Most citations appear only once on the bibliography, but approximately twenty-five percent are listed in two or more places when their topics warrant such placement.

Once again, several scholars contributed lists of citations for inclusion. They include Fred M. Amram, Rima D. Apple, Monica H. Green, Caroline L. Herzenberg, Thomas J. Higgins, Evelyn Fox Keller, Ann Hibner Koblitz, Mura Mackowski, Carolyn Merchant, Ed Morman, Roberta Mura, Londa Schiebinger, and Vassiliki Betty Smocovitis. We also conducted a search of the women's studies indexing tools (Women Studies Abstracts, Women's Studies Index, Studies on Women Abstracts) and our own Feminist Periodicals: A Current Listing of Contents for relevant citations, along with the indispensable ISIS Current Bibliography of the History of Science and Its Current Influences, edited by John Neu. In addition, the past five year period has seen a tremendous growth in computer-assisted research, which made it possible for us to conduct database searches of the literature of all the fields represented. Much of the searching was handled by student assistant Robin Paynter, who put to use both her natural proclivities for ferreting out information and the searching techniques she acquired and perfected in library and information science courses and on the job. Student assistant Nancy Nelson turned her trained eye on all citations input, editing for accuracy and consistency of format, and Lisa Kaiser ably took on inputting and verification tasks when Robin graduated, using her journalistic know-how to integrate the parts into a coherent whole document. Our Office Senior Editor Linda Shult created a database structure to accommodate our citations, and is largely responsible for the final appearance and format. Associate Editor Rima D. Apple again spearheaded the revision, successfully obtained support for the project from the foundations and others listed below, and contributed her constructive expertise in selecting appropriate citations and in shaping the organization of the material assembled. Susan E. Searing offered encouragement and advice from her new vantage point as Acting Deputy Director of the UW-Madison General Library System. Phyllis Holman Weisbard served as general editor for the project.

The production and distribution of this bibliography have been made possible through the generosity of:

American Institute of the History of Pharmacy Fund on Women in Pharmacy, Gregory J. Higby, Director
Ruth Dickie, Professor Emerita, University of Wisconsin-Madison
History of Science Society, Sally Gregory Kohlstedt, President
The Merck Company Foundation, Shuang Ruy Huang, Vice President and Jeffrey L. Sturchio, Associate Director, Information Resources and Publishing, Public Affairs
School of Family Resources and Consumer Sciences, University of Wisconsin- Madison, Hamilton I. McCubbin, Dean
School of Nursing, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Vivian M. Littlefield, Dean
The Welcome Trust, D.E. Allen, Co-ordinator, History of Medicine Programme

We gratefully acknowledge their support.

Overview

Tools for Teaching (1-21)

This section presents citations to syllabi, reports on successful courses, and other readings on feminist pedagogy in the sciences. A few of the citations offer assistance in K-12 teaching.

1 Alic, Margaret. "Discovering the History of Women in Science: A Course Outline." SCIENCE FOR THE PEOPLE 11, no.6 (November/December 1979): 27-28.

2 Alic, Margaret. "The History of Women in Science: A Women's Studies Course." WOMEN'S STUDIES INTERNATIONAL FORUM 5, no.1 (1982): 75-81. Description of a course that is primarily historical.

3 Beauchamp, Rachelle Sender, ed. WOMEN'S EDUCATION DES FEMMES 9, no.2 (Fall 1991); Special Issue: "Women in Science: Options and Intolerance." Among the articles are an editorial "Transforming the Science Curriculum," by Rachelle Sender Beauchamp and Lisa Avedon and "Transforming Mathematics Pedagogy," by Pat Rogers. Chiefly contemporary.

4 BLACK ACHIEVERS IN SCIENCE, TEACHERS GUIDE. Chicago: Museum of Science and Industry, 1988. Three of the sixteen scientists profiled are women: Patricia S. Cowings, Fern Y. Hunt, and Christine M. Darden.

5 Bose, Christine. "Teaching Women and Technology at the University of Washington." WOMEN'S STUDIES INTERNATIONAL QUARTERLY 4, no.3 (1981): 374-377. Describes an interdisciplinary graduate-level course with some historical content. Bibliography.

6 Fausto-Sterling, Anne, and English, Lydia L. "Women and Minorities in Science: An Interdisciplinary Course." RADICAL TEACHER no.30 (January 1987): 16-20. Revised ed. Wellesley, MA: A. Fausto-Sterling, 1980. Descriptions of a college seminar on the historical and contemporary experiences of women and Blacks in science, and on non-European perspectives on science.

7 Friedman, Batya. "Bringing Knowledge of Women Mathematicians into the Mathematics Classroom." MATHEMATICS AND COMPUTER EDUCATION 24, no.3 (Fall 1990): 250-253. Chiefly contemporary.

8 Giese, Patsy A. "Women in Science: 5000 Years of Obstacles and Achievements." APPRAISAL: SCIENCE BOOKS FOR YOUNG PEOPLE 25, no.2 (Spring 1992): 1-20. Includes a bibliography about women in the history of science and mathematics divided by adult and child/young adult reading levels.

9 Hinton, Kate. "Women in Science." BULLETIN OF SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND SOCIETY 3 (1983): 313-401, 435-487. Course outline.

10 Kien, Jenny, and Cassidy, David. "The History of Women in Science, a Seminar at the University of Regensburg, F.R.G." WOMEN'S STUDIES INTERNATIONAL FORUM 7, no.4 (1984): 313-317. A model for teaching about women and science that combines biographical and epochal approaches.

11 Koritz, Helen, ed. JOURNAL OF COLLEGE SCIENCE TEACHING 21, no.5 (March/April 1992); Special Issue: "Women and Science." Contents: Sheila Tobias, "Women in Science -- Women and Science;" George Banzinger, "Women-in- the-Science Program at Marietta College -- Focusing on Math to Keep Women in Science;" Elaine Seymour, "Undergraduate Problems with Teaching and Advising in SME Majors -- Explaining Gender Differences in Attrition Rates;" Merle Waxman, "Strategies for Improving the Representation of Women in the Medical Sciences;" Rita A. Hoots, "An Outsider's Insights on Neglected Issues in Science Education -- An Interview with Sheila Tobias;" Debra Chomicka, Leona Truchan, and George Gurria, "The `Women-in-Science' Day at Alverno College -- Collaboration That Leads to Success."

12 Maggs, Christopher J. EXPLORING HISTORY: AN INTRODUCTION TO NURSING'S PAST. London: Continuing Nurse Education Programme, 1989.

13 Perl, Teri. MATH EQUALS: BIOGRAPHIES OF WOMEN MATHEMATICIANS AND RELATED ACTIVITIES. Menlo Park, CA: Addison-Wesley, 1978. Nine biographies with related activities for high schoolers.

14 Perl, Teri, and Manning, Joan M. WOMEN, NUMBERS AND DREAMS: BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES AND MATH ACTIVITIES. Santa Rosa, CA: National Women's History Project, 1982. Teacher's manual available also.

15 Reynolds, Terry S., comp. THE MACHINE IN THE UNIVERSITY: SAMPLE COURSE SYLLABI FOR THE HISTORY OF TECHNOLOGY AND TECHNOLOGY STUDIES. Bethlehem, PA: Lehigh University, Society for the History of Technology, 1987. 2nd ed. Includes syllabus on women in technology.

16 Rosser, Sue V. FEMALE-FRIENDLY SCIENCE: APPLYING WOMEN'S STUDIES METHODS & THEORIES TO ATTRACT STUDENTS. New York: Pergamon, 1990.

17 Rosser, Sue V. TEACHING SCIENCE AND HEALTH FROM A FEMINIST PERSPECTIVE: A PRACTICAL GUIDE. New York: Pergamon, 1986. Descriptive course outlines, thirty-one syllabi, and bibliographies. See especially chapter 5, "Women in Science: History, Careers, and Forces for Change."

18 Rothschild, Joan. TEACHING TECHNOLOGY FROM A FEMINIST PERSPECTIVE: A PRACTICAL GUIDE. New York: Pergamon, 1987.

19 Siegel, Mary-Ellen. HER WAY: A GUIDE TO BIOGRAPHIES OF WOMEN FOR YOUNG PEOPLE. Chicago: American Library Association, 1984. Rev. and expanded. Biographees include 43 scientists, 39 physicians, 19 nurses, and 10 mathematicians. Each brief biography is followed by annotated listings of books about the person suitable for child or young adult reading levels.

20 Tuana, Nancy. "Re-Presenting the World: Feminism and the Natural Sciences." FRONTIERS 8, no.3 (1986): 73-78. Discussion of basic texts suited to the classroom, with lengthy bibliography.

21 Woodhull, Ann M., and Lowry, Nancy, and Henifin, Mary Sue. "Teaching for Change: Feminism and the Sciences." JOURNAL OF THOUGHT 20, no.3 (1985): 162-173. While history courses aren't the focus, this article does offer a helpful discussion of pedagogical strategies and teaching styles.

Both multi-disciplinary and specialized resources are listed here. Additional ones pertaining to particular disciplines are also found in the sections devoted to those disciplines.

22 (deleted)

23 Aldrich, Michele L. "Women in Science." SIGNS 4, no.1 (Autumn 1978): 126-135. Review essay.

24 Alison, Kelly. "Women in Science: A Bibliographical Review." DURHAM RESEARCH REVIEW 7 (1976): 1092-1108.

25 BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE. Bethesda, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, National Library of Medicine, 1965- . This annual reference tool lists current work in the history of medicine and health care under subject categories such as "Women in Medicine," "Gynecology," "Hygiene," etc.

26 Bindocci, Cynthia Gay. WOMEN AND TECHNOLOGY: AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY. New York: Garland, 1993. Contains both historical and contemporary citations on the relationship of women to agriculture and food technology, architecture, clerical work, communications, energy/ecology, engineering/inventing, health, household work, industrial work, labor organization, military/war, reproduction, transportation, development, and general work issues.

27 Chinn, Phyllis Zweig. WOMEN IN SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS: BIBLIOGRAPHY. Arcata, CA: Humboldt State University Foundation, 1988. Rev. ed. Distributed by the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Cites books, journal articles, proceedings, reports. Not annotated.

28a Clewell, Beatriz C., and Anderson, Bernice. WOMEN OF COLOR IN MATHEMATICS, SCIENCE & ENGINEERING: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE. Washington, DC: Center for Women Policy Studies, 1991.

28b CURRENT WORK IN THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE. London: Wellcome Institute for the History of Medicine. 1954-. See women-related topics in the subject index of this bibliographic journal.

29 Davis, Audrey B. BIBLIOGRAPHY ON WOMEN: WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON THEIR ROLES IN SCIENCE AND SOCIETY. New York: Science History Publications, 1974. One of the earliest published women's studies bibliographies. Broad in scope. Arranged alphabetically, without any indexes.

30 Eldredge, Mary, et al. "Gender, Science, and Technology: A Selected Annotated Bibliography." BEHAVIORAL & SOCIAL SCIENCES LIBRARIAN 9, no.1 (1990): 77-134. Includes sections on "Biography and History" and "Women Scientists."

31 Frey, Linda, Frey, Marsha, and Schneider, Joanne. WOMEN IN WESTERN EUROPEAN HISTORY: A SELECT CHRONOLOGICAL, GEOGRAPHICAL, AND TOPICAL BIBLIOGRAPHY. 2 vols. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1982-1984. FIRST SUPPLEMENT. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1986. Vol. 1, "From Antiquity to the French Revolution." Vol. 2, "The Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries." With supplement, a total of nearly 24,000 references arranged in complex topical outlines. "Health/Medicine" is a sub-category of Social History under each historical period and country; "Science" is under Cultural History. See also "scientists," "medicine," and related terms in the subject indexes.

32 Giese, Patsy A. "Women in Science: 5000 Years of Obstacles and Achievements." APPRAISAL: SCIENCE BOOKS FOR YOUNG PEOPLE 25, no.2 (Spring 1992): 1-20. Includes a bibliography about women in the history of science and mathematics divided by adult and child/young adult reading levels.

33 Grinstein, Louise S. "Women in Physics and Astronomy: A Selected Bibliography." SOCIAL SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS 80, no.5 (May/June 1980): 384-398.

34 Henifin, Mary Sue, Amatniek, Joan Cindy. "Bibliography: Women, Science, and Health." BIOLOGICAL WOMAN - THE CONVENIENT MYTH, ed. by Ruth Hubbard, Mary Sue Henifin, and Barbara Fried, pp.289-376. Cambridge, MA: Schenkman, 1982. An unannotated bibliography of books and articles arranged by subject.

35 Hinding, Andrea, ed. WOMEN'S HISTORY SOURCES: A GUIDE TO ARCHIVES AND MANUSCRIPT COLLECTIONS IN THE UNITED STATES. New York: Bowker, 1979. 2 vols. See entries under "scientists," "scientific societies," and branches of the sciences in vol. 2, "Index."

36 ISIS CUMULATIVE BIBLIOGRAPHY..., 1913-65. 6 vols, ed. Magda Whitrow. London: Mansell, 1971. For citations to biographies and studies of individuals, consult vols. 1 and 2, "Personalities." See also headings beginning with the word "women" in the indexes to vol. 3, "Subjects" and vols. 4 and 5 which are arranged chronologically. Citations dealing with women bear the sub-division code "rw."

37 ISIS CUMULATIVE BIBLIOGRAPHY, 1966-1975, ed. John Neu. London: Mansell, 1980. 2 vols. See #36 above for arrangement.

38 ISIS CUMULATIVE BIBLIOGRAPHY ... 1976-1985, ed. John Neu. Boston, MA: G.K. Hall, in conjunction with the History of Science Society, 1989. 2 v. Supplemented by ISIS CURRENT BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE HISTORY OF SCIENCE AND ITS CURRENT INFLUENCES, 1989-. See #36 above.

39 JOURNAL OF WOMEN'S HISTORY GUIDE TO PERIODICAL LITERATURE, comp. Gayle V. Fischer. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1992. Relevant bibliographies include birth control topics ("Abortion," "Fertility," "Infanticide," "Material Culture," "Reproductive Rights and Options"); "Childbirth;" "Health;" "Science and Technology;" "Professional Career Choices;" "Sexuality;" "Crafts, Trades and Home-based Work;" and "Factory Work."

40 Kelly, Alison. "Women in Science: A Bibliographic Review." DURHAM RESEARCH REVIEW 36 (1976): 1092-1108.

41 Kennedy, Rebecca, and Cadoree, Michelle. WOMEN IN THE SCIENCES. Washington, D.C.: Science Reference Section, Science and Technology Division, Library of Congress, 1990. LC Science Tracer Bullet, 0090-5232 ; TB 90-6.

42 Miller, Connie. FEMINIST RESEARCH METHODS: AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY. New York: Greenwood, 1991. See chapter 11 "Science," pp.230-256, for annotated citations of feminist critiques of science (chiefly contemporary; some with historical approach).

43 Miller, Gordon L. THE HISTORY OF SCIENCE: AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY. Pasadena, CA: Salem Press, 1992. Includes section on "Women and Minorities in Science," pp.173-179.

44 Schiebinger, Londa. "The History and Philosophy of Women in Science." SIGNS 12, no.2 (Winter 1987): 305-332. Review essay. For response to the article, see comment by Hilary Rose in SIGNS 13, no.2 (1988): 377-380, and Schiebinger's reply, pp.380-384. Repr. in SEX AND SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY, pp. 7-34. Ed. by Sandra Handing and Jean F. O'Barr. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987.

45 Searing, Susan. "Women and Science: Issues and Resources." Madison, WI: Women's Studies Librarian's Office, 1991. Wisconsin Bibliographies in Women's Studies Series. Updates frequently. 1992 and 1993 updates by Phyllis Holman Weisbard.

46 Shult, Linda, Searing, Susan, and Lester-Massman, Elli, eds. WOMEN, RACE, AND ETHNICITY: A BIBLIOGRAPHY. Madison: University of Wisconsin System Women's Studies Librarian, 1991. Relevant sections of the annotated bibliography include: "Health/Medicine," "History," "Science/Mathematics," and "Sexuality."

47 Siegel, Mary-Ellen. HER WAY: A GUIDE TO BIOGRAPHIES OF WOMEN FOR YOUNG PEOPLE. Chicago: American Library Association, 1984. Rev. and expanded. Biographees include 43 scientists, 39 physicians, 19 nurses, and 10 mathematicians. Each brief biography is followed by annotated listings of books about the person suitable for child or young adult reading levels.

48 STUDIES ON WOMEN ABSTRACTS. v.1- , 1983- . Six/year with annual index. Abstracts of books and articles in all disciplines.

49 "Women's Studies and S[cience], T[echnology], and S[ociety]." THE BULLETIN OF SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, AND SOCIETY. Bibliographic citations on this topic are part of the "Current Periodical Literature" column in many issues since 1988.

50 WOMEN'S STUDIES INDEX. Boston, MA: G.K. Hall, v.1- 1991- Annual index beginning with citations for 1989. Covers a wide range of popular and scholarly periodicals that focus on issues of concern to women. Relevant subject headings include "Medicine-History," "Science-Feminist Perspectives," professions such as "Chemists," "Mathematicians," and "Physicians," and the names of individual scientists.

51 WOMEN STUDIES ABSTRACTS. v.1- , 1972- . Quarterly with annual index. Citations to books and articles in all disciplines, with occasional abstracts.

52 Wylie, A., et al. "Philosophical Feminism: A Bibliographic Guide to Critiques of Science." RESOURCES FOR FEMINIST RESEARCH/ DOCUMENTATION SUR LA RECHERCHE FEMINISTE 19, no.2 (1990): 2-38. This section features bibliographies of biographical works, collective biographies, and biographical dictionaries. Additional citations will be found in the appropriate sections by major field of endeavor.

Additional resources: Kali Herman's WOMEN IN PARTICULAR: AN INDEX TO AMERICAN WOMEN (Phoenix: Oryx, 1984) serves as an index to biographical information on women found in 54 biographical dictionaries, encyclopedias, and other reference sources. Relevant field and career indexes are "Domestic Science and Home Economics," "Medicine and Life Sciences," and "Physics, Mathematics, and Earth Sciences." BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX, ISIS CURRENT BIBLIOGRAPHY and its cumulations, and the BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE are some of the other resources pointing to further biographical writings. Obituaries for women scientists and health professionals can be found in specialized journals and newsletters, general periodicals such as SCIENCE and NATURE, and local and national newspapers (many retrievable on-line in full-text). Alumnae magazines, especially from women's colleges, often feature biographical articles on past and present faculty and students in the sciences.

BIBLIOGRAPHIES OF BIOGRAPHIES

53 Barr, E. Scott. AN INDEX TO BIOGRAPHICAL FRAGMENTS IN UNSPECIFIED SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS. University, AL: University of Alabama Press, 1973. Alphabetic index to biographical material in 19th and early 20th century issues of AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE, PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY (London), NATURE, POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY, PHILOSOPHICAL MAGAZINE, and SCIENCE. Some women are among the listings.

54 Herzenberg, Caroline L. WOMEN SCIENTISTS FROM ANTIQUITY TO THE PRESENT: AN INDEX. West Cornwall, CT: Locust Hill Press, 1986. An alphabetical guide to biographical entries on some 2,500 women scientists in approximately 130 standard works. A very useful index identifies scientists by their fields.

55 Hoyrup, Else. WOMEN IN SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, AND MEDICINE: A BIBLIOGRAPHY. Roskilde, Denmark: Roskilde University Library, 1987. International scope. References to biographies are alphabetical by name.

56 Ogilvie, Marilyn Bailey. WOMEN IN SCIENCE: ANTIQUITY THROUGH THE NINETEENTH CENTURY: A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY WITH ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1986. Nearly 200 short biographical accounts, arranged alphabetically, plus a general bibliography and historical introduction, both arranged chronologically.

57 Siegel, Patricia Joan, and Finley, Kay Thomas. WOMEN IN THE SCIENTIFIC SEARCH: AN AMERICAN BIO-BIBLIOGRAPHY, 1724-1979. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow, 1985. Organized by scientific discipline. Provides biographical sketches and brief bibliographies for some 250 women.

COLLECTIVE BIOGRAPHIES AND BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARIES

58 Arnold, Lois Barber. FOUR LIVES IN SCIENCE: WOMEN'S EDUCATION IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. New York: Schocken Books, 1984. "Educational biographies" of naturalist Maria Martin Bachman (1796-1863), science educator Almira Hart Lincoln Phelps (1793-1884), home economist Louisa C. Allen Gregory (1848-1920), and geologist Florence Bascom (1862-1945).

59 Bertsch, Sharon M. Grayne. NOBEL PRIZE WOMEN IN SCIENCE: THEIR LIVES, STRUGGLES, AND MOMENTOUS DISCOVERIES. Secaucus, NJ: Carol, 1992. Also published New York: Birch Lane Press, 1993.

60 BLACK WOMEN IN AMERICA: AN HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA, ed. Darlene Clark Hine. Brooklyn, NY: Carlson, 1993. 2 v. To find relevant biographical essays, use the biographical index under: mathematicians (7 listed), nurses (19), physicians (39), psychiatrist (1), and scientists (3). See also the topical essays "midwives," "physicians, nineteenth century," "physicians, twentieth century," "science," and "mathematics."

61 Gacs, Ute, et al., eds. WOMEN ANTHROPOLOGISTS: A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. New York: Greenwood, 1988.

62 Golemba, Beverly E. LESSER-KNOWN WOMEN: A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1992. The "Index by Profession and Accomplishment," pp.327-340, lists 9 women astronomers, 1 dentist, 5 inventors, 8 mathematicians, 5 midwives, 21 nurses, 39 physicians, and 41 scientists from 1600 to the present.

63 Kass-Simon, G., and Farnes, Patricia, eds., and Nash, Deborah, assoc. ed. WOMEN OF SCIENCE: RIGHTING THE RECORD. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1990. Articles on such areas as: geography, astronomy, math, engineering, physics, biology, medical sciences, chemistry, and crystallography.

64 Kosheleva, Inna. WOMEN IN SCIENCE. Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1983. Biographies of Russian women scientists.

65 McGrayne, Sharon Bertsch. NOBEL PRIZE WOMEN IN SCIENCE: THEIR LIVES, STRUGGLES AND MOMENTOUS DISCOVERIES. New York: Carol Publishing Group, 1993.

66 Noble, Iris. CONTEMPORARY WOMEN SCIENTISTS OF AMERICA. New York: Messner, 1979.

67 NOTABLE AMERICAN WOMEN, 1607-1950: A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY, ed. Edward T. James, Janet Wilson James, and Paul S. Boyer. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1971. 3 vols. "Classified List of Selected Biographies" covers botanists and horticulturists, geographers and geologists, health reform advocates, home economists, inventors, mathematicians, naturalists, nurses, physicians.

68 NOTABLE AMERICAN WOMEN: THE MODERN PERIOD, ed. Barbara Sicherman, et al. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1980. Supplements the three-volume set of NOTABLE AMERICAN WOMEN [see James entry].

69 NOTABLE BLACK AMERICAN WOMEN, ed. Jessie Carney Smith. Detroit: Gale Research, 1992. Five hundred biographical entries of historical and contemporary women including: astronaut Mae C. Jemison; biologist Jewell Plummer Cobb; chemist Eslanda Goode Robeson; health administrator Effie O'Neal Ellis; midwife Biddy Mason; neurosurgeon Alexa Canady; pharmacists Amanda Gray Hilyer; Mollie Moon; and Ella P. Stewart; physicist Shirley Ann Jackson; surgeon Dorothy Brown; several nurses, nurse administrators, physicians and others.

70 NOTABLE HISPANIC AMERICAN WOMEN, ed. Diane Telgen, and Jim Kamp. Detroit: Gale Research, 1993. Biographical dictionary of historical and contemporary women including: astronaut Ellen Ochoa; healer Teresa Urrea; scientists Paulette Atencio; Clarissa Pinkola Est s; Romy Ledesma; and Adriana C. Ocampo; and several medical/health care workers and physicians.

71 O'Hern, Elizabeth M. PROFILES OF PIONEER WOMEN SCIENTISTS. Washington: Acropolis Books, 1985. Biographies of twenty women, mostly microbiologists.

72 Opfell, Olga S. THE LADY LAUREATES: WOMEN WHO HAVE WON THE NOBEL PRIZE. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow, 1986. 2nd ed. Includes biographical sketches of seven Nobelists in the sciences.

73 Read, Phyllis J., and Witlieb, Bernard L. THE BOOK OF WOMEN'S FIRSTS: BREAK-THROUGH ACHIEVEMENTS OF ALMOST 1000 AMERICAN WOMEN. New York: Random House, 1992. For breakthroughs of women in science, health, and technology, use the subject index under "Agriculture and home economics," "Medicine," and "Science and technology" (with many sub-headings).

74 Reed, Elizabeth W. AMERICAN WOMEN IN SCIENCE BEFORE THE CIVIL WAR. Minneapolis, MN: Published by author, 1992. 400 Church St. S.E., Minneapolis, MN 55455.

75 Rudolph, Emanuel D. "Women Who Studied Plants in the Pre-Twentieth Century United States and Canada." TAXON 39, no.2 (May 1990): 151-205.

76 Sammons, Vivian Ovelton. BLACKS IN SCIENCE AND MEDICINE. New York: Hemisphere, 1990. A biographical compendium of historical and living Black scientists and physicians. Although "women" are not indexed, the index does note those who were first in their fields, such as the first Black female Ph.D. in physics and the first elected to the American College of Surgeons.

77 Schacher, Susan. HYPATIA'S SISTERS: BIOGRAPHIES OF WOMEN SCIENTISTS. Seattle, WA: Feminists Northwest, 1976.

78 Uglow, Jennifer S., ed. THE CONTINUUM DICTIONARY OF WOMEN'S BIOGRAPHY. New York: Continuum, 1989. rev. ed. Frances Hinton served as Assistant Editor for Science, Mathematics and Medicine for the first edition, called THE INTERNATIONAL DICTIONARY OF WOMEN'S BIOGRAPHY. In "Subject Index," see A.3.2, "Health care: medicine, nursing, birth control, psychoanalysis," and B.1.2, "Mathematics, pure sciences, medicine."

79 WOMEN IN SCIENCE. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health, 1988. Prepared by the NIH Advisory Committee on Women's Health Issues.

80 Wupperman, Alice. "Women in `American Men of Science': a Tabular Study From the Sixth Edition." JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL EDUCATION 18 (March 1941): 120-121. Statistics on the fields and occupations of 800 women (2.9% of the total entries) in the 6th edition of AMS, 1938.

81 Yost, Edna. AMERICAN WOMEN OF SCIENCE. Philadelphia, PA: Frederick A. Stokes Co., 1943; Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, 1955. Rev. ed. Biographies of Ellen H. Richards (home economist), Annie Jump Cannon (astronomer), Alice Hamilton (industrial toxicologist), Florence Rena Sabin (medical researcher), Mary Engle Pennington (refrigeration expert), Lillian Moller Gilbreth (management engineer), Libbie Henrietta Hyman (zoologist), Wanda K. Farr (botanist), Hazel K. Stiebeling (nutritionist), Florence B. Seibert (chemist), Katharine Burr Blodgett (physicist), and Margaret Mead (anthropologist).

82 Yost, Edna. WOMEN OF MODERN SCIENCE. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1959: repr. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1984. Biographies of Gerty Theresa Cori (biochemist), Lise Meitner (physicist), Helen Sawyer Hogg (astronomer), Elizabeth Shull Russell (geneticist), Rachel Fuller Brown (biochemist), Chien Shiung Wu (nuclear physicist), Edith Hinkley Quimby (physicist), Jocelyn Crane (zoologist), Florence van Straten (meteorologist), Gladys Anderson Emerson (biochemist), and Dorothea Rudnick (embryologist).

This section covers general works on gender issues in the history of women in science. It further addresses career issues for women scientists -- educational barriers and opportunities, entry into scientific and technical professions, status issues, and statistics. Some contemporary studies are included that bear out historical trends. Additional works on these themes appear in the sections on particular branches of the sciences.

83 Abir-Am, Penina G., and Outram, Dorinda, eds. UNEASY CAREERS AND INTIMATE LIVES: WOMEN IN SCIENCE, 1787-1979. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1987. Articles by an international group of historians on a wide range of European and American women scientists. Individual contributions appear in this bibliography by subject.

84 Alexander, Wendy. FIRST LADIES OF MEDICINE: THE ORIGINS, EDUCATION AND DESTINATION OF EARLY WOMEN MEDICAL GRADUATES OF GLASGOW UNIVERSITY. Glasgow, UK: University of Glasgow, Wellcome Unit for the History of Medicine, 1987.

85 Alic, Margaret. HYPATIA'S HERITAGE: A HISTORY OF WOMEN IN SCIENCE FROM ANTIQUITY TO THE LATE NINTEENTH CENTURY. Boston: Beacon Press, 1986. Chronological treatment. Bibliography, pp.210-224, covers both primary and secondary sources.

86 Alsop, Gulielma Fell. HISTORY OF THE WOMAN'S MEDICAL COLLEGE, PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA, 1850-1950. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1950. For most of the century, this was the only medical school in which women could be full professors of physiology and chairs of the department.

87 Bachtold, Louise M., and Warner, Emmy G. "Personality Characteristics of Women Scientists." PSYCHOLOGICAL REPORTS 31, no.2 (October 1972): 391-396.

88 Barlow, William, and Powell, David O. "Homeopathy and Sexual Equality: The Controversy over Coeducation at Cincinnati's Pulte Medical College, 1873-1879." OHIO HISTORY 90 (Spring 1981): 101-113.

89 Behringer, Marjorie Perrin. "Women's Role and Status in the Sciences: An Historical Perspective." In WOMEN IN SCIENCE: A REPORT FROM THE FIELD, ed. by Jane Butler Kahle, pp.4-26. Philadelphia, PA: Falmer, 1985. Review of the literature, with statistical tables and bibliography.

90 Benditt, John, ed. SCIENCE 255 (March 13, 1992); Special Issue: "Women in Science." Contains articles on mentoring and career issues for women scientists.

91 Benjamin, Marina. "Elbow Room: Women Writers on Science, 1790-1840." In SCIENCE AND SENSIBILITY: GENDER AND SCIENTIFIC ENQUIRY, 1780-1945, ed. by Marina Benjamin, pp.27-59. Cambridge, MA: Basil Blackwell, 1991.

92 Benjamin, Marina, ed. SCIENCE AND SENSIBILITY: GENDER AND SCIENTIFIC ENQUIRY, 1780-1945. Cambridge, MA: Basil Blackwell, 1991.

93 Blake, Catriona. THE CHARGE OF THE PARASOLS: WOMEN'S ENTRY TO THE MEDICAL PROFESSION. London: Women's Press, 1991. Set within the context of nineteenth century feminism in Britain, the book describes how, under the leadership of Elizabeth Garrett (London) and Sophia Jex-Blake (Edinburgh), women won a space in which to train and practice medicine.

94 Bonner, Thomas Neville. TO THE ENDS OF THE EARTH: WOMEN'S SEARCH FOR EDUCATION IN MEDICINE. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1992.

95 Briscoe, Anne, and Pfafflin, Sheila, eds. EXPANDING THE ROLE OF WOMEN IN THE SCIENCES. New York: New York Academy of Sciences, 1979. New York Academy of Sciences ANNALS, 323.

96 Brumberg, Joan Jacobs, and Tomes, Nancy. "Women in the Professions: A Research Agenda for American Historians." REVIEWS IN AMERICAN HISTORY 10 (1982): 275-296. Includes discussion of women physicians and identifies key books and articles published in the 1970's.

97 Brush, Stephen G. THE HISTORY OF MODERN SCIENCE: A GUIDE TO THE SECOND SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION, 1800-1950. Ames, IA: University of Iowa Press, 1988. See section 6.7, "Women in Science."

98 Brush, Stephen G. "Women in Science and Engineering." AMERICAN SCIENTIST 79, no.5 (1991): 404-419.

99 Burstyn, Joan N. "Women in American Science." ACTES DU XIe CONGRESS INTERNATIONAL D'HISTOIRE DES SCIENCES, 1965 2 (1967): 316-319. Speculates on reasons for low numbers of women in the sciences in the U.S. in the 1960s.

100 Byrne, Eileen M. WOMEN IN SCIENCE: THE SNARK SYNDROME. London: Falmer Press, 1991.

101 Chaff, Sandra L. "Images of Female Medical Students at the Turn of the Century." In SEX AND SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY, ed. Sandra Harding and Jean F. O'Barr. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987.

102 Chu, Clara, and Macdonald, Bertrum. "The Public Record: An Analysis of Women's Contributions to Canadian Science and Technology Before the First World War." In DESPITE THE ODDS: ESSAYS ON CANADIAN WOMEN AND SCIENCE, ed. by Marianne Gosztonyi Ainley, pp.63-73. Montreal: Vehicule Press, 1990.

103 Cole, Jonathan R. FAIR SCIENCE: WOMEN IN THE SCIENTIFIC COMMUNITY. New York: Free Press, 1979. An empirical study of women's status as scientists. Includes numerous statistical tables. For critical reviews, see Karen Oppenheim Mason, "Sex and Status in Science," SCIENCE 208, no.4441 (18 April 1980): 277-278; and Margaret Rossiter, "Fair Enough?" ISIS 72, no.261 (March 1981): 99-103.

104 Cole, Jonathan R., and Zuckerman, Harriet. "Marriage, Motherhood, and Research Performance in Science." SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 256, no.2 (February 1987): 119-125. Examines the publication rates of women scientists from 1930 to the 1980s.

105 Cole, Jonathan R. "Women in Science." AMERICAN SCIENTIST 69, no.4 (July-August 1981): 385-391. Touching on women's marginalization in science historically, Cole analyzes evidence of inequality in the present. See his book (above) for a longer treatment of these themes.

106 The Committee on the Education and Employment of Women in Science and Engineering, Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel, National Research Council. CLIMBING THE LADDER: AN UPDATE ON THE STATUS OF DOCTORAL WOMEN SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1983. Updates earlier report, CLIMBING THE ACADEMIC LADDER: DOCTORAL WOMEN SCIENTISTS IN ACADEME, National Academy of Sciences, 1979. Provides copious statistics on education and employment.

107 Dembski, Peter E. Paul. "Jenny Kidd Trout and the Founding of the Women's Medical Colleges at Kingston and Toronto." ONTARIO HISTORY 77 (September 1985): 183-206.

108 Dickie, Ruth S. TIME OF TRANSITION, WOMEN IN SCIENCE: HISTORY OF SIGMA DELTA EPSILON-GRADUATE WOMEN IN SCIENCE, INCORPORATED, 1979-1986 SUPPLEMENT. Ithaca, NY: Sigma Delta Epsilon-Graduate Women in Science, 1988.

109 Eshiwani, G. S. "Women's Access to Higher Education in Kenya: A Study of Opportunities and Attainment in Science and Mathematics Education." JOURNAL OF EASTERN AFRICAN RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT 15 (1985): 91-110. Time period 1964-1980.

110 Evans, Sara M. BORN FOR LIBERTY: A HISTORY OF WOMEN IN AMERICA. New York: Free Press; London: Collier Macmillan, 1989. This general history provides contextual information on many issues relevant to science, health, and technology. See "birth control," "family planning," "home economists," "housework, effect of new technology on," "medical education for women," "motherhood," "science," "sexuality," and other topics in the subject index.

111 Fausto-Sterling, Anne. "Women and Science." WOMEN'S STUDIES INTERNATIONAL QUARTERLY 4, no.1 (1981): 41-50. Explores two questions: why are there not more women scientists? What would scientific inquiry and subject matter consist of if there were equal numbers of women and men scientists?

112 Ferry, Georgina, and Moore, Jane. "True Confessions of Women in Science." NEW SCIENTIST 95, no.1312 (1 July 1982): 27-30. Summarizes some 500 responses to an article on the position of women in science and technology at that time (see NEW SCIENTIST 95, (1 April 1982).).

113 Fox, Robert, and Guagnini, Anna. "Classical Values and Useful Knowledge: The Problem of Access to Technical Careers in Modern Europe." DAEDELUS 116, no.4 (Fall 1987): 153-171. A study of the problem of gender and scientific education in England and France from the late 19th-century up to World War I.

114 Gardiner, Linda. "Women in Science." In FRENCH WOMEN AND THE AGE OF ENLIGHTENMENT, ed. S.I. Spencer, pp.181-193. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1985.

115 Glazer, Penina Migdal, and Slater, Miriam. UNEQUAL COLLEAGUES: THE ENTRANCE OF WOMEN INTO THE PROFESSIONS, 1890-1940. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1987. See in particular chap. 3, "Motherhood and Medicine," about Dorothy Reed Mendenhall and Anne Walter Fern; and chap. 4, "The Promise of New Opportunities in Science," about Florence R. Sabin and Alice Hamilton.

116 Gornick, Vivian. WOMEN IN SCIENCE: 100 JOURNEYS INTO THE TERRITORY. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1990. Rev. ed. A journalistic account of contemporary women scientists.

117 Haas, Violet B., and Perrucci, Carolyn C., eds. WOMEN IN SCIENTIFIC AND ENGINEERING PROFESSIONS. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1981. Papers from a 1981 conference on Women in the Professions: Science, Social Science, Engineering.

118 Hafter, Daryl M. "International Conference on the Role of Women in the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in the 19th and 20th centuries -- Veszprem, Hungary, August 15-19, 1983. TECHNOLOGY AND CULTURE 26, no.2 (April 1985): 262-267. Summaries of 15 papers presented at the conference.

119 Hall, Diana Long. "Academics, Bluestockings, and Biologists: Women at the University of Chicago, 1892-1932." In EXPANDING THE ROLE OF WOMEN IN THE SCIENCES, ed. by Anne Briscoe and Sheila Pfafflin, pp.300-320. New York: New York Academy of Sciences, 1979. Chronicles the survival and success of women scientists in the face of discrimination during the University of Chicago's first four decades.

120 Hanaford, Phebe A. DAUGHTERS OF AMERICA, OR WOMEN OF THE CENTURY. Augusta, ME: True, 1882. See chap.9, "Women Scientists."

121 Handler, Bonnie S., and Shmurak, Carole B. "Rigor, Resolve, Religion: Mary Lyon and Science Education." TEACHING EDUCATION 3, no.2 (Winter/Spring 1991): 137-142. Lyon was the founder of Mount Holyoke College where she established a chemistry department responsible for training many women chemists.

122 Harding, Jan, ed. PERSPECTIVES ON GENDER AND SCIENCE. London: Falmer Press, 1986. Papers from a 1985 British conference. Six grouped under "How It Is With Women" address women's roles in science.

123 Harris, Barbara J. BEYOND HER SPHERE: WOMEN AND THE PROFESSIONS IN AMERICAN HISTORY. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1978. Traces women's education and employment in the professions from Colonial times to 1975. Extensive notes and bibliography.

124 Herzenberg, Caroline L. "The Participation of Women in Science During Antiquity and the Middle Ages." INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE REVIEWS 15, no.4 (1990): 294-297.

125 Herzenberg, Caroline L. "Women in Science During Antiquity and the Middle Ages." JOURNAL OF COLLEGE SCIENCE TEACHING 17 (1987): 124-127. Reprinted in WOMEN, Volume 3, ed. Eleanor Goldstein. Boca Raton, FL: Social Issues Resource Series, 1988.

126 Herzenberg, Caroline L., Meschel, Susan V., and Altena, James A. "Women in the Science and Technology of Antiquity." CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FIFTH INTERNATIONAL GASAT CONFERENCE v.1 (1989): 44-51.

127 Herzenberg, Caroline L., and Howes, Ruth Hege. "Women of the Manhattan Project." TECHNOLOGY REVIEW (in press).

128 Herzenberg, Caroline L., Meschel, Susan V., and Altena, James A. "Women Scientists and Physicians of Antiquity and the Middle Ages." JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL EDUCATION 68 (February 1991): 101-105.

129 Hine, Darlene Clark. "From Hospital to College: Black Nurse Leaders and the Rise of Collegiate Nursing Schools." JOURNAL OF NEGRO EDUCATION 51 (Summer 1982): 222-237.

130 Hoeflin, Ruth M. HISTORY OF A COLLEGE FROM WOMAN'S COURSE TO HOME ECONOMICS TO HUMAN ECOLOGY: 1873-1988 KANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY. Manhattan, KS: College of Human Ecology, Kansas State University, 1988.

131 Hornig, Lilli S. "Women in Science and Engineering: Why So Few?" TECHNOLOGY REVIEW 87, no.8 (November/December 1984): 31-41. Documents barriers to women, especially in higher education.

132 Howes, Ruth Hege, and Herzenberg, Caroline L. "Women in Weapons Development: The Manhattan Project." In WOMEN AND THE USE OF MILITARY FORCE, ed. Ruth Hege Howes and Michael R. Stevenson, pp.95-110. Boulder, CO: Lynne Riener, 1993.

133 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENCE EDUCATION 9, no.3 (1987): Special Issue on science education for women. Includes "The Most Difficult Career: Women's History of Science" by Dorinda Outram.

134 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF WOMEN'S STUDIES 4, no.4 (September/October 1981); Special Issue: "Women and Science." Contents: "Women and Science" by Connie Stark-Adamec; "Women and Science: A Critique of Biological Theories" by Meredith M. Kimball; "The Rearing of Women for Science, Engineering, and Technology" by Rose Sheinin; "Science Subject Choice and Achievement of Females in Canadian High Schools" by Joan Pinner Scott; "Cooperation and Competition in Science" by Marian Lowe; "Women and Science: Fitting Men to Think About Nature" by Hilde Hein; "Is Feminism a Threat to Scientific Objectivity" by Elizabeth Fee; "Is there a Feminist Biology" by Madeleine J. Goodman and Lenn Evan Goodman; "Women and Science: Two Cultures or One?" by Evelyn Fox Keller; "Diary of a Mad Feminist Chemist" by Anne M. Briscoe; "The Status of Women in Canadian Psychology: A Case Study of Women in Science" by Elinor W. Ames; and "Practical Tips for Coping with the Problems of Being a Seventeen-Career Person" by Connie Stark-Adamec.

135 Johnson, Thomas Cary, Jr. SCIENTIFIC INTERESTS IN THE OLD SOUTH. New York: Appleton-Century, 1936; repr. Wilmington: Scholarly Resources, 1973. Chap. 4, "Sweet Southern Girls," discusses the presence of science in antebellum girls' schools and in magazines oriented toward women.

136 JOURNAL OF WOMEN'S HISTORY GUIDE TO PERIODICAL LITERATURE, comp. Gayle V. Fischer. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1992. See section on "Professional Career Choices," pp.345-356.

137 Kien, Jenny, and Cassidy, David. "The History of Women in Science: A Seminar at the University of Regensburg, FRG." WOMEN'S STUDIES INTERNATIONAL FORUM 7, no.4 (1984): 313-317.

138 Koblitz, Ann Hibner. "Science, Women, and Revolution in Russia." SCIENCE FOR THE PEOPLE 14, no.4 (July/August 1982): 14-18, 34-37. Historical analysis of Russian women scientists in the late 1880s.

139 Koblitz, Ann Hibner. "Science, Women, and the Russian Intelligentsia: The Generation of the 1860s." ISIS 79 (June 1988): 208-226.

140 Kohlstedt, Sally Gregory. "In from the Periphery: American Women in Science, 1830-1880." SIGNS 4, no.1 (Autumn 1978): 81-96. Traces three generations of American women in science: the "independents" of the early 19th century, the educators and popularizers of the mid-19th century, and those who had to choose between science as a profession or an avocation after the Civil War.

141 Krishnaraj, Maithreyi. "The Status of Women in Science in India." JOURNAL OF HIGHER EDUCATION 5 (Spring 1980): 381-393.

142 Kundsin, Ruth B., ed. "Successful Women in the Sciences: An Analysis of Determinants." ANNALS OF THE NEW YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 208 (15 March 1973). In part I, twelve scientists from varied fields share their life experiences. The remaining parts present conference papers on family, education, economic factors, and other determinants of successful scientific careers. Repr. with title WOMEN AND SUCCESS: THE ANATOMY OF ACHIEVEMENT. New York: Morrow, 1974.

This section covers general works on gender issues in the history of women in science. It further addresses career issues for women scientists -- educational barriers and opportunities, entry into scientific and technical professions, status issues, and statistics. Some contemporary studies are included that bear out historical trends. Additional works on these themes appear in the sections on particular branches of the sciences.

143 LaFollette, Marcel C. "Eyes on the Stars: Images of Women Scientists in Popular Magazines." SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, AND HUMAN VALUES 13 (1988): 262-275. Describes U.S. magazines from 1910-1955.

144 LaFollette, Marcel C. MAKING SCIENCE OUR OWN: PUBLIC IMAGES OF SCIENCE, 1910-1955. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990. Includes section "Women in the Laboratories," pp.78-97.

145 Levin, Miriam R., and Mack, Pamela E. "The Transformation of Science Education at Mount Holyoke in the Gilded Age." Paper presented at the Joint Meetings of the American Historical Association and the History of Science Society (December 28, 1988), available from ERIC (#ED309930). Discusses changes made in the science curriculum in the late nineteenth century to keep pace with opening positions in teaching, medicine, and research to women. Includes biographical information on faculty member Cornelia Clapp.

146 Long, J. Scott. "The Origins of Sex Differences in Science." SOCIAL FORCES 68 (June 1990): 1297-1316. Examines differences in productivity as measured by number of publications by male biochemists who received PhD.s between 1956-58 and 1961-63 and female biochemists who did so between 1950-1967.

147 Lonsdale, Kathleen. "Women in Science: Reminiscences and Reflections." IMPACT OF SCIENCE ON SOCIETY 20, no.1 (January-March 1970): 45-59. Entire issue is devoted to "Women in the Age of Science and Technology.

148 MacLoed, Roy, and Moseley, Russell. "Fathers and Daughters: Reflections on Women, Science, and Victorian Cambridge." HISTORY OF EDUCATION 8, no.4 (1979): 321-333.

149 Malcolm, Shirley Mahaley, Hall, Paula Quick, and Brown, Janet Welsch. THE DOUBLE BIND: THE PRICE OF BEING A MINORITY WOMAN IN SCIENCE. Washington: American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1976. (AAAS Report, 76- R-3)

150 Mandula, Barbara. "Talks at AAAS Meeting: Women Scientists Still Behind." AWIS MAGAZINE 20, no.3, (May/June 1991): 10-11. Summary of presentations at an American Association for the Advancement of Science session on "Science Policy for Women in Science: Lessons from Historical and Contemporary Case Studies."

151 Manthorpe, Catherine. "Science or Domestic Science?: The Struggle to Define an Appropriate Science Education for Girls in Early Twentieth-Century England." HISTORY OF EDUCATION 15 (1986): 195-213.

152 Mason, Joan. "The Admission of the First Women to the Royal Society of London." NOTES AND RECORDS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF LONDON 46 (1992): 279-300. On Kathleen Lonsdale and Marjory Stephenson.

153 Mason, Joan. "Women in Science: Breaking out of the Circle." NOTES AND RECORDS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF LONDON 46 (1992): 177-182.

154 Mattfeld, Jacquelyn A., and Van Aken, Carol G., eds. WOMEN AND THE SCIENTIFIC PROFESSIONS: THE MIT SYMPOSIUM ON AMERICAN WOMEN IN SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 1965; Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1976. Papers by Bruno Bettelheim, Alice S. Rossi, James R. Killian Jr., Richard H. Bolt, Jessie Bernard, Lillian Gilbreth, Erik H. Erikson, plus panelists' remarks.

155 Menninger, Sally Ann, and Rose, Clare. "Women Scientists and Engineers in American Academia." INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF WOMEN'S STUDIES 3, no.3 (May/June 1980): 292-299. Reports on a national study of employment patterns of women scientists and engineers in American colleges and universities.

156 Meyer, Gerald Dennis. THE SCIENTIFIC LADY IN ENGLAND, 1650-1760: AN ACCOUNT OF HER RISE, WITH EMPHASIS ON THE MAJOR ROLES OF THE TELESCOPE AND MICROSCOPE. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980. A study of books, periodicals, and treatises on science written for female readers in 17th- and 18th-century England.

157 Morantz-Sanchez, Regina Markell. "The Many Faces of Intimacy: Professional Options and Personal Choices among Nineteenth- and Twentieth- Century Women Physicians." In UNEASY CAREERS AND INTIMATE LIVES: WOMEN IN SCIENCE, 1789-1979, ed. Pnina G. Abir-Am and Dorinda Outram, pp.45-59. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1987.

158 Morrison-Low, A.D. "Women in the Nineteenth-Century Scientific Instrument Trade." In SCIENCE AND SENSIBILITY: GENDER AND SCIENTIFIC ENQUIRY, 1780-1945, ed. by Marina Benjamin, pp.89-117. Cambridge, MA: Basil Blackwell, 1991.

159 Mozans, H.J. (pseudonym of John Augustine Zahm) WOMAN IN SCIENCE. New York: D. Appleton and Co., 1913; Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1974; Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1991. Covers women in mathematics, astronomy,physics, chemistry, the natural sciences, medicine and surgery, and archaeology, as well as women as inventors and as collaborators and inspirers of male scientists. Opens with a 100-page overview of "Woman's Long Struggle for Things of the Mind" and closes with a chapter on "The Future of Women in Science." Includes bibliography.

160 Myers, Greg. "Science for Women and Children: The Dialogue of Popular Science in the 19th Century." In NATURE TRANSFIGURED: SCIENCE AND LITERATURE, 1700-1900, ed. John Christie & Sally Shuttleworth, pp.171-200. Manchester, England: Manchester University Press, 1989.

161 Neverdon-Morton, Cynthia. AFRO-AMERICAN WOMEN OF THE SOUTH AND THE ADVANCEMENT OF THE RACE, 1895-1925. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1989. Mainly concerned with social service programs in Virginia, Alabama, Georgia, and Maryland, and the development of a National Organization of Afro- American Women; includes information on health programs and higher education opportunities for Afro-American women, including nursing and domestic science.

162 Noble, David F. "A World Without Women." TECHNOLOGY REVIEW 95 (May/June 1992): 52-57. An article adapted from Noble's A WORLD WITHOUT WOMEN: THE CLERICAL CULTURE OF WESTERN SCIENCE.

163 Noble, David F. A WORLD WITHOUT WOMEN: THE CLERICAL CULTURE OF WESTERN SCIENCE. New York: Knopf, 1992. Ascetic religious culture's role in the exclusion of women from the development of modern science.

164 Ogilvie, Marilyn Bailey. "Marital Collaboration: An Approach to Science." In UNEASY CAREERS AND INTIMATE LIVES: WOMEN IN SCIENCE, 1789-1979, ed. Pnina G. Abir-Am and Dorinda Outram, pp.104-125. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1987.

165 Outram, Dorinda. "Fat, Gorillas, and Misogyny: Women's History in Science." THE BRITISH JOURNAL FOR THE HISTORY OF SCIENCE 24, no.82 (September 1991): 361-368.

166 Phillips, Patricia. "Science and the Ladies of Fashion." NEW SCIENTIST 95, no.1318 (12 August 1982): 416-418. Maragaret Cavendish, Aphra Behn, Elizabeth Carter.

167 Phillips, Patricia. THE SCIENTIFIC LADY: A SOCIAL HISTORY OF WOMEN'S SCIENTIFIC INTERESTS, 1520-1918. New York: St. Martin's, 1990. Traditional views of science as inferior to the classics and of women as naturally scientific allowed women to pursue scientific interests for centuries in England and the Continent. This book looks at who these women were and what and how they studied.

168 Ramaley, Judith A., ed. COVERT DISCRIMINATION AND WOMEN IN THE SCIENCES. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1978. (AAAS Selected Symposium, 14) Five papers document sex discrimination and discuss solutions. Not historical.

169 Richter, Derek, ed. WOMEN SCIENTISTS: THE ROAD TO LIBERATION. London: Macmillan, 1982. First person accounts by twelve women about their careers in ten different countries. Some reports include historical background.

170 Robbins, Mary Louise, ed. A HISTORY OF SIGMA DELTA EPSILON, 1921-1971: GRADUATE WOMEN IN SCIENCE. Graduate Women in Science, 1971. See also 1972-78 Supplement by Robbins (1978) and 1979-1986 Supplement by Ruth Strathearn Dickie, both published by SDE-Graduate Women in Science.

171 Ross, Mary Martin. "Women's Struggles to Enter Medicine: Two Nineteenth-Century Women Physicians in America." PHAROS OF ALPHA OMEGA ALPHA- HONOR MEDICAL SOCIETY 55, no.1 (Winter 1992): 33+.

172 Rossi, Alice S. "Women in Science: Why So Few?" SCIENCE 148, no.3674 (28 May 1965): 1196-1202. Discusses how "social and psychological influences restrict women's choice and pursuit of careers in science" in the 1960s.

173 Rossiter, Margaret W. "Sexual Segregation in the Sciences: Some Data and a Model." SIGNS 4, no.1 (Autumn 1978): 146-151. Statistics for 1920-1938. Repr. in SEX AND SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY, pp.35-40. Ed. by Sandra Harding and Jean F. O'Barr. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987.

174 Rossiter, Margaret W. "Women and the History of Scientific Communication." JOURNAL OF LIBRARY HISTORY 21 (1986): 39-59.

175 Rossiter, Margaret W. "`Women's Work' in Science, 1880-1910." ISIS 71, no.258 (September 1980): 381-398. Covers women in astronomy, scientific employment in the federal government, higher education, and home economics.

176 Rossiter, Margaret W. "Women Scientists in America Before 1920." AMERICAN SCIENTIST 62, no.3 (May-June 1974): 312-323. Covers women's scientific education, career patterns, and achievements. Includes tables and illustrations. Repr. in DYNAMOS AND VIRGINS REVISITED: WOMEN AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE IN HISTORY, pp.120-148. Ed. by Martha Moore Trescott. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow, 1979.

177 Rossiter, Margaret W. WOMEN SCIENTISTS IN AMERICA: STRUGGLES AND STRATEGIES TO 1940. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1982. A richly detailed history of American women's education and employment in the sciences prior to World War II. Extensive references to primary sources.

178 Sabin, Florence. "Women in Science." SCIENCE 38 (1936): 24-36.

179 SAGE: A SCHOLARLY JOURNAL ON BLACK WOMEN 6, no.2 (Fall 1989); Special Issue: "Science and Technology." Contents: Kenneth Manning, "Roger Arliner Young;" Rosalyn Patterson, "Black Women in the Biological Sciences;" Shirley Malcolm, "Increasing the Participation of Black Women in Science and Technology;" Sylvia T. Bozeman, "Black Women Mathematicians: In Short Supply;" Valerie L. Thomas, "Black Women Engineers and Technologists;" Patricia Carter Sluby, "Black Women and Inventions;" Etta Z. Falconer, "A Story of Success: The Sciences at Spelman College;" Jewel Plummer Cobb, "A Life in Science: Research and Service;" Evelyn Boyd Granville, "My Life as a Mathematician;" Reatha Clark King, "Becoming a Scientist: An Important Career Decision;" Jennie R. Patrick, "Trials, Tribulations, Triumphs;" Ronald Mickens, "Black Women in Science and Technology: A Selected Bibliography;" book reviews.

180 Schiebinger, Londa L. THE MIND HAS NO SEX?: WOMEN IN THE ORIGINS OF MODERN SCIENCE. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1989. Covers both the history of women's contributions to the development of early modern science and the interrelationship between their subsequent exclusion from science and the growth of new "scientific" doctrines of gender differences.

181 Shmurak, Carole B., and Handler, Bonnie S. "Castle of Science: Mount Holyoke College and the Preparation of Women in Chemistry, 1837-1941." HISTORY OF EDUCATION QUARTERLY 32, no.3 (Fall 1992): 315-342.

182 Shmurak, Carole B., and Handler, Bonnie S. "Lydia Shattuck: `A Streak of the Modern.'" TEACHING EDUCATION 3, no.2 (Winter-Spring 1991): 127-131. Shattuck taught chemistry and botany at Mount Holyoke in the mid-nineteenth century.

183 Shteir, Ann B. "`A Connecting Link': Women, Popularisation, and the History of Science." RFR/DRF 15, no.3 (1986): 38-39.

184 Singer, Charles. "The Scientific Views and Visions of Saint Hildegard (1098-1180)." In STUDIES IN THE HISTORY AND METHOD OF SCIENCE, ed. by Charles Singer, pp.1-55. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1917.

185 Sloan, Jan Butin. "The Founding of the Naples Table Association for Promoting Scientific Research by Women." SIGNS 4, no.1 (Autumn 1978): 208-216.

186 Solomon, Barbara Miller. "Historical Determinants in Individual Life Experiences of Successful Professional Women." In SUCCESSFUL WOMEN IN THE SCIENCES: AN ANALYSIS OF DETERMINANTS, ed. by Ruth B. Kundsin, pp.170-178. (ANNALS OF THE NEW YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 208, 1973.) Repr. with title, WOMEN AND SUCCESS: THE ANATOMY OF ACHIEVEMENT. New York: Morrow, 1974.

187 Standish, Leanna. "Women, Work, and the Scientific Enterprise." SCIENCE FOR THE PEOPLE 14, no.5 (September/October 1982): 12-18.

188 Stepan, Nancy Leys. "Women and Natural Knowledge: The Role of Gender in the Making of Modern Science." GENDER & HISTORY 2, no.3 (1990): 337-342. Review essay on recent books by Schiebinger, Russet, and Jordanova.

189 Stolte-Heiskanen, Veronica. WOMEN IN SCIENCE: TOKEN WOMEN OR GENDER EQUALITY? New York ; Oxford: Berg, 1991. International perspectives on women's careers in science.

190 Tanio, Nadine. "Gendering the History of Science." NUNCIUS 6, no.2 (1991): 295-305. Essay review on books on science and gender.

191 Tavill, A.A. "Early Medical Co-Education and Women's Medical College, Kingston, Ontario 1880-1894." HISTORIC KINGSTON 30 (January 1982): 68-89.

192 Trecker, Janice Law. "Sex, Science, and Education." AMERICAN QUARTERLY 26, no.4 (October 1974): 352-366. Examines 19th-century scientific and medical opposition to higher education for women.

193 Trescott, Martha Moore. "Women and Engineering Education: Historical Sketches." In WOMEN AND ENGINEERING EDUCATION: REPORT ON A CONFERENCE OF THE CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, 20 AND 21 MARCH 1987, LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA, pp.II1-II16. Northridge, CA: Women in Science and Engineering Programs, School of Engineering and Computer Science, California State University, 1988.

194 United States. National Science Foundation. WOMEN AND MINORITIES IN SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Washington, D.C.: National Science Foundation, 1982- present. Biennial source of statistics.

195 United States. National Science Foundation. WOMEN IN SCIENTIFIC CAREERS. Washington, D.C.: National Science Foundation, 1961.

196 United States. Women's Bureau. THE OUTLOOK FOR WOMEN IN SCIENCE. Washington, D.C.: U.S. G.P.O., 1948-1949. (Women's Bureau Bulletin, 223) In eight parts: 1) science, 2) chemistry, 3) biological sciences, 4) mathematics and statistics, 5) architecture and engineering, 6) physics and astronomy, 7) geology, geography, and meteorology, 8) occupations related to science.

197 Verbrugge, Martha H. "The Social Meaning of Personal Health: The Ladies' Physiological Institute of Boston and Vicinity in the 1850's." In HEALTH CARE IN AMERICA: ESSAYS IN SOCIAL HISTORY, ed. by Susan Reverby and David Rosner, pp.45-66. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1979. Covers 19th-century popular self-education in physiology and hygiene.

198 Vetter, Betty M. "The Last Two Decades (Statistics of Discrimination Against Women Scientists and Engineers)." SCIENCE 86, 7 (July/August 1986): 62-63.

199 Vetter, Betty M. "Changing Patterns of Recruitment and Employment." In WOMEN IN SCIENTIFIC AND ENGINEERING PROFESSIONS, ed. by Violet B. Haas and Carolyn C. Perrucci, 59-74. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1981. Traces women's scientific education and employment from the 1920s to the 1970s, and forecasts demands for scientists in specified fields in the future. Includes graphs.

200 Vetter, Betty M. "Women Scientists and Engineers: Trends in Participation." SCIENCE 214, no.4527 (18 December 1981): 1313-1321. Measures women's progress in the 1970s. Includes tables.

201 Visher, Stephen S. SCIENTISTS STARRED 1903-1943 IN "AMERICAN MEN OF SCIENCE." Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1947. See list of fifty- two "Women Starred," pp.148-149.

202 Walton, Anne. "Attitudes to Women Scientists." CHEMISTRY IN BRITAIN 21, no.5 (May 1985): 461-465. Quotes extensively from men and women, 17th century onwards.

203 Warner, Deborah J. "Science Education for Women in Antebellum America." ISIS 69, no.246 (March 1978): 58-67. Covers women's education for, and contributions to, science (both formal and informal) before the Civil War.

204 Warner, Deborah J. "Women in Science in Nineteenth-Century America." JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN WOMEN'S MEDICAL ASSOCIATION 34, no.2 (February 1979): 59-66. Overview. Includes photographs.

205 Weis, Lois. "Academic Women in Science, 1977-1984." ACADEME 73, no.1 (January/February 1987): 43-47. Data shows only slight progress in employment.

206 White, Martha S. "Psychological and Social Barriers to Women in Science." SCIENCE 170, no.3956 (23 October 1970): 413-416. How women's limited opportunities to interact with colleagues negatively affected their careers in science at that time.

207 Wilson, Jane S., and Serber, Charlotte, eds. STANDING BY AND MAKING DO: WOMEN OF WARTIME LOS ALAMOS. Los Alamos, NM: Los Alamos Historical Society, 1988.

208 Wilson, Joan Hoff. "Dancing Dogs of the Colonial Period: Women Scientists." EARLY AMERICAN LITERATURE 7, no.3 (Winter 1973): 225-235. Treats Colonial women in botany, agronomy, horticulture, and medicine, and argues the need for a new conceptual approach to studying them.

209 "Women in Science: An Analysis of a Social Problem." HARVARD MAGAZINE (October 1974): 14-19.

210 Wupperman, Alice. "Women in `American Men of Science': a Tabular Study From the Sixth Edition." JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL EDUCATION 18 (March 1941): 120-121. Statistics on the fields and occupations of 800 women (2.9% of the total entries) in the 6th edition of AMS, 1938.

211 Zuckerman, Harriet, and Cole, Jonathan R., and Bruer, John T., eds. THE OUTER CIRCLE: WOMEN IN THE SCIENTIFIC COMMUNITY. New York: Norton, 1991. Essays on gender issues in the careers of women scientists. Includes interviews with geneticist Salome Waelsch, astrophysicist Andrea Dupree, and biotechnologist Sandra Panen.

212 Zuckerman, Harriet, and Cole, Jonathan. "Women in American Science." MINERVA 13, no.1 (Spring 1975): 82-102. Outlines a "triple penalty" for women: the cultural definition of science as an inappropriate career for women; belief that women are less competent than men; and actual discrimination.

Most of the entries in this section chart the portrayals of women historically by the disciplines of biology and medicine. Many focus on the debates over the nature of Woman, her sexuality and psyche. Some deal with perceived "female maladies" including hysteria, depression and other nervous disorders, and the magical powers and mystique assigned to female organs and physiology. Other entries examine the attitude toward women expressed in advertisements in medical journals and in advice manuals directed towards women, and the portrayal of women scientists in popular magazines. For feminist critiques of these views, see the following section, FEMINIST CRITIQUES OF SCIENCE.

213 Allen, Prudence. THE CONCEPT OF WOMAN: THE ARISTOTELIAN REVOLUTION, 750 B.C.-A.D. 1250. Montreal: Eden Press, 1985.

214 Andreski, Stanislav. "The Syphilitic Shock: A New Explanation of the `Great Witch Craze' of the 16th and 17th Centuries in the Light of Medicine and Psychiatry." ENCOUNTER 58, no.5 (1982): 7-26.

215 Aubert, Jean-Jacques. "Threatened Wombs: Aspects of Ancient Uterine Magic." GREEK, ROMAN AND BYZANTINE STUDIES 30 (Autumn 1989): 421-449.

216 Barker-Benfield, Ben. "The Spermatic Economy: A Nineteenth Century View of Sexuality." FEMINIST STUDIES 1, no.1 (Summer 1972): 45-74.

217 Barker-Benfield, G. J. THE HORRORS OF THE HALF-KNOWN LIFE: MALE ATTITUDES TOWARD WOMEN AND SEXUALITY IN NINETEENTH-CENTURY AMERICA. New York: Harper & Row, 1976.

218 Barker-Benfield, G. J. "Mary Wollstonecraft's Depression and Diagnosis: The Relation Between Sensibility and Women's Susceptibility to Nervous Disorders." PSYCHOHISTORY REVIEW 13, no.4 (1985): 15-31.

219 Barker-Benfield, G.J. "`Mother Emancipator': The Meaning of Jane Addams' Sickness and Cure." JOURNAL OF FAMILY HISTORY 4 (Winter 1979): 395-420.

220 Battersby, Christine. "Genius and `The Female Sex' in the 18th Century." STUDIES ON VOLTAIRE AND THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 264 (1989): 909-912.

221 Bauer, Carol, and Ritt, Lawrence. "`The Little Health of Ladies,' An Anatomy of Female Invalidism in the Nineteenth Century." JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL WOMEN'S ASSOCIATION 36 (1981): 300-306.

222 Birken, Lawrence. CONSUMING DESIRE: SEXUAL SCIENCE AND THE EMERGENCE OF A CULTURE OF ABUNDANCE, 1871-1914. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1988. Investigates why sexology emerged at the turn of the century and links it to consumerist ideology.

223 Birken, Lawrence. "Darwin and Gender." SOCIAL CONCEPT 4, no.1 (1987): 75-88.

224 Blackwell, Elizabeth. THE LAWS OF LIFE, WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE PHYSICAL EDUCATION OF GIRLS. 1852: New York: Garland, 1986

225 Bleier, Ruth. "Science and Medicine in the Social Construction of Woman: From Aristotle to the Corpus Callosum." TRANSACTIONS AND STUDIES OF THE COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS OF PHILADELPHIA 9 (1987): 267-288.

226 Bodemer, Charles W. "Historical Interpretations of the Human Uterus and Cervix Uteri." In THE BIOLOGY OF THE CERVIX, ed. Richard J. Blandau and Karman Moghissi, pp.1-11. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1973.

227 Bridgforth, L.R. "The Sociology of Science: Women and Medicine in Nineteenth Century Mississippi." JOURNAL OF THE MISSISSIPPI STATE MEDICAL ASSOCIATION 26, no.1 (January 1985): 9-13.

228 Brown, Julie Vail. "Female Sexuality and Madness in Russian Culture: Traditional Values and Psychiatric Theory." SOCIAL RESEARCH 53, no.2 (1986): 369-385.

229 Brumberg, Joan Jacobs. "Chlorotic Girls, 1870-1920: A Historical Perspective on Female Adolescence." CHILD DEVELOPMENT 53 (1982): 1468-1477. Repr. in WOMEN AND HEALTH IN AMERICA: HISTORICAL READINGS, pp.186-195. Ed. by Judith Walzer Leavitt. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 1984.

230 Bullough, Vern L. "Katharine Bement Davis, Sex Research, and the Rockefeller Foundation." BULLETIN OF THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE 62, no.1 (1988): 74-89.

231 Bullough, Vern L. SEX, SOCIETY, AND HISTORY. New York: Science History Publications, 1976.

232 Bullough, Vern L., and Bullough, Bonnie. SIN, SICKNESS, AND SANITY: A HISTORY OF SEXUAL ATTITUDES. New York: Garland, 1977.

233 Burton, June K., and Johnson, Mary. "The Contents of Humanistic Manuals of Home Economics and Sex During the Napoleonic Era." CONSORTIUM ON REVOLUTIONARY EUROPE 1750-1850: Proceedings 1983: 681-696. Instructional manuals for French women on household management, childrearing, health, sex, and care of livestock provide insights into views of womanhood and the family during the Napoleonic era.

234 Burton, June K. "Human Rights Issues Affecting Women in Napoleonic Legal Medicine Textbooks." HISTORY OF EUROPEAN IDEAS 8, no.4/5 (1987): 427-434.

235 Cadden, Joan. "It Takes All Kinds: Sexuality and Gender Differences in Hildegard of Bingen's BOOK OF COMPOUND MEDICINE." TRADITIO 40 (1984): 149-174.

236 Cadden, Joan. THE MEANINGS OF SEX DIFFERENCE IN THE MIDDLE AGES: MEDICINE, NATURAL PHILOSOPHY, AND CULTURE. 1992.

237 Carlson, Eric T. "The History of Multiple Personality in the United States: Mary Reynolds and Her Subsequent Reputation." BULLETIN OF THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE 58 (Spring 1984): 72-82.

238 Castle, Terry. "The Female Thermometer." REPRESENTATIONS 17 (1987): 1-27. On measuring emotions in the 18th century.

239 Cayleff, Susan E. "`Prisoners of Their Own Feebleness': Women, Nerves and Western Medicine -- A Historical Overview." SOCIAL SCIENCE MEDICINE 26, no.12 (1988): 1199-1208.

240 Cayleff, Susan E. "She Was Rendered Incapacitated by Menstrual Difficulties: Historical Perspectives on Perceived Intellectual and Physiological Impairment Among Menstruating Women." In MENSTRUAL HEALTH IN WOMEN'S LIVES, ed. Alice J. Dan & Linda L. Lewis, pp.229-235. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1992.

241 Chauncey, George, Jr. "From Sexual Inversion to Homosexuality: Medicine and the Changing Conceptualization of Female Diseases." SALMAGUNDI 58/59 (Fall/Winter 1983): 114-146.

242 Chesler, Phyllis. WOMEN AND MADNESS. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1972.

243 Clarke, Adele E. "Women's Health: Life-Cycle Issues." In WOMEN, HEALTH, AND MEDICINE IN AMERICA: A HISTORICAL HANDBOOK, ed. by Rima D. Apple, pp.3-39. New York: Garland, 1990.

244 Cody, Lisa. "The Doctor's in Labor; or a New Whim Wham from Guildford." GENDER & HISTORY 4, no.2 (Summer 1992): 175-196. Analysis of reactions from a physician and the general public in 1726 to a report of a British woman giving birth to five rabbits.

245 Cohen, Alfred. "Prophecy and Madness: Women Visionaries During the Puritan Revolution." JOURNAL OF PSYCHOHISTORY 11 (Winter 1984): 411-430.

246 Cohen, Estelle. "Medical Debates on Woman's `Nature' in England Around 1700." SOCIETY FOR THE SOCIAL HISTORY OF MEDICINE BULLETIN 39 (1986): 7-11.

247 Connelly, Mark Thomas. "Prostitution, Venereal Disease, and American Medicine." In WOMEN AND HEALTH IN AMERICA: HISTORICAL READINGS, ed. Judith Walzer Leavitt, pp.196-221. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 1984.

248 Conway, Jill. "Stereotypes of Femininity in a Theory of Evolution." In SUFFER AND BE STILL: WOMEN IN THE VICTORIAN AGE, ed. Martha Vicinus, pp.140-154. Bloomington: University of Indiana Press, 1972. Traces the intellectual legacy of Scottish biologist Patrick Geddes, author of THE EVOLUTION OF SEX, 1889. Originally appeared in VICTORIAN STUDIES 14, no.1 (September 1970): 47-62.

249 Cott, Nancy F. "Passionlessness: An Interpretation of Victorian Sexual Ideology, 1790-1850." SIGNS 4, no.2 (Winter 1978): 219-236. Repr. in WOMEN AND HEALTH IN AMERICA: HISTORICAL READINGS, pp.57-69. Ed. by Judith Walzer Leavitt. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 1984.

250 Crawford, Patricia. "Attitudes to Menstruation in Seventeenth-Century England." PAST & PRESENT 91 (1981): 47-73.

251 D'Emilio, John, and Freedman, Estelle B. INTIMATE MATTERS: A HISTORY OF SEXUALITY IN AMERICA. New York: Harper & Row, 1988.

252 Davis, Dona L. "George Beard and Lydia Pinkham: Gender, Class, and Nerves in Late 19th Century America." HEALTH CARE FOR WOMEN INTERNATIONAL 10, 2/3 (1989): 93-114. Discusses the feminization of nervous disorders.

253 Dean-Jones, Lesley. "The Cultural Construct of the Female Body in Classical Greek Science." In WOMEN'S HISTORY AND ANCIENT HISTORY, ed. Sarah B. Pomeroy, pp.111-137. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1991.

254 Dean-Jones, Lesley. "Menstrual Bleeding According to the Hippocratics and Aristotle." TRANSACTIONS OF THE AMERICAN PHILOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION 119 (1989): 177-192.

255 Decker, Hannah S. "Freud and Dora: Constraints on Medical Progress." JOURNAL OF SOCIAL HISTORY 14 (Spring 1981): 445-464.

256 Degler, Carl N. "What Ought to Be and What Was: Women's Sexuality in the Nineteenth Century." AMERICAN HISTORICAL REVIEW 79, no.4 (December 1974): 1467-1490. Repr. in WOMEN AND HEALTH IN AMERICA: HISTORICAL READINGS, pp. 40-56. Ed. by Judith Walzer Leavitt. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 1984.

257 DeRocher, Gregory. "The Trouble with Women: Some Medical Musings from 16th-Century France." RENAISSANCE PAPERS (1987): 39-47.

258 Digby, Anne. "Women's Biological Straitjacket." In SEXUALITY AND SUBORDINATION: INTERDISCIPLINARY STUDIES OF GENDER IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY, ed. Susan Mendus & Jane Rendall, pp.192-220. London: Routledge, 1989. Examines Georgian and Victorian British gynaecological and psychiatric texts and their assumptions about middle-class women.

259 Duffin, Lorna. "The Conspicuous Consumptive: Woman as Invalid." In THE NINETEENTH-CENTURY WOMAN: HER CULTURE AND PHYSICAL WORLD, ed. Sara Delamont and Lorna Duffin, pp.26-56. New York: Barnes and Noble, 1978.

260 Dwyer, Ellen. "The Weaker Vessel: Legal Versus Social Reality in Mental Commitments in Nineteenth Century New York." In WOMEN AND THE LAW: THE SOCIAL HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE, vol.1, WOMEN AND THE CRIMINAL LAW, ed. by D. Kelly Weisberg. Cambridge, MA: Schenkman, 1982.

261 Easlea, Brian. WITCH HUNTING, MAGIC, AND THE NEW PHILOSOPHY : AN INTRODUCTION TO DEBATES OF THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION, 1450-1750. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities, 1980. Begins to develop the theme of "the `male female relation' and its relevance to an understanding of the general development and application of scientific knowledge" - from preface.

262 Ehrenreich, Barbara, and English, Deirdre. COMPLAINTS AND DISORDERS: THE SEXUAL POLITICS OF SICKNESS. Old Westbury, NY: Feminist Press, 1973.

263 Ehrenreich, Barbara, and English, Deirdre. FOR HER OWN GOOD: 150 YEARS OF THE EXPERTS' ADVICE TO WOMEN. New York: Doubleday, 1979. See especially chapter 2, "Witches, Healers, and Gentlemen Doctors," chapter 3, "Science and the Ascent of the Experts," and chapter 4, "The Sexual Politics of Sickness."

264 Endres, Kathleen L. "`Strictly Confidential': Birth-Control Advertising in a 19th-Century City." JOURNALISM QUARTERLY 63, no.4 (1986): 748-751.

265 Evans, Martha Noel. FITS AND STARTS: A GENEALOGY OF HYSTERIA IN MODERN FRANCE. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1991.

266 Fee, Elizabeth. "Nineteenth-Century Craniology: The Study of the Female Skull." BULLETIN OF THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE 53, no.3 (Fall 1979): 415-433.

267 Fee, Elizabeth. "Science and the Woman Problem: Historical Perspectives." In SEX DIFFERENCES: SOCIAL AND BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES, ed. Michael S. Teitelbaum, pp.175-223. New York: Doubleday, 1976. Women as viewed through the lens of biology, anthropology, physiology, and psychology in the Victorian era and early 20th century.

268 Fellman, Anita C., and Fellman, Michael. MAKING SENSE OF THE SELF: MEDICAL ADVICE LITERATURE IN LATE NINETEENTH-CENTURY AMERICA. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1981.

269 Figbie, Karl. "Chlorosis and Chronic Disease in Nineteenth-Century Britain: The Social Constitution of Somatic Illness in a Capitalist Society." SOCIAL HISTORY 3 (May 1978): 167-197.

270 Furth, Charlotte. "Blood, Body and Gender: Medical Images of the Female Condition in China, 1600-1850." CHINESE SCIENCE 7 (1986): 43-66.

271 Gamble, Eliza Burt. THE SEXES IN SCIENCE AND HISTORY. New York: Putnam, 1916. An argument for "the superiority of the female organism" drawing on evolutionary theory, theories of prehistoric social organization, and historical fact. Repr. Westport, CT: Hyperion, 1976.

272 "The Gendered Brain: Some Historical Perspectives." In SO HUMAN A BRAIN: KNOWLEDGE AND VALUES IN THE NEUROSCIENCES, ed. Anne Harrington, pp.110-121. Boston: Birk user Press, 1992.

273 Gibson, Mary. "On the Insensitivity of Women - Science and the Woman Question in Liberal Italy, 1890-1910." JOURNAL OF WOMEN'S HISTORY 2 (Fall 1990): 11-41.

274 Gilbert, Sandra M., and Gubar, Susan. THE MADWOMAN IN THE ATTIC. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1979.

275 Gilman, Sander L. SEXUALITY: AN ILLUSTRATED HISTORY. New York: John Wiley, 1989.

276 Gilman, Sander L. DIFFERENCES AND PATHOLOGY: STEREOTYPES OF SEXUALITY, RACE, AND MADNESS. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1985.

277 Goldstein, Jan. "The Hysteria Diagnosis and the Politics of Anticlericalism in Late Nineteenth-Century France." JOURNAL OF MODERN HISTORY 54, no.2 (June 1982): 209-239. Part of special issue on "Sex, Science, and Society in Modern France."

278 Gosling, F.G., and Ray, Joyce M. "The Right to Be Sick: American Physicians and Nervous Patients, 1885-1910." JOURNAL OF SOCIAL HISTORY 20 (1986): 251-267.

279 Gould, Stephen Jay. "Women's Brains." NEW SCIENTIST 80, no.1127 (November 2, 1978): 364-366.

280 Green, Monica. "Female Sexuality in the Medieval West." TRENDS IN HISTORY 4, no.4 (1990): 127-158.

281 Griffin, Susan. WOMAN AND NATURE: THE ROARING INSIDE HER. New York: Harper & Row, 1978. Exploration of Western patriarchal attitudes toward the natural world and toward women, who are perceived as closer to nature than are men.

282 Hall, Diana Long. "Biology, Sex Hormones and Sexism in the 1920s." PHILOSOPHICAL FORUM 5, no.1/2 (1973): 81-96.

283 Haller, John S., and Haller, Robin. THE PHYSICIAN AND SEXUALITY IN VICTORIAN AMERICA. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1974.

284 Hanson, Ann Ellis. "Hippocrates: Diseases of Women I." SIGNS 1, no.2 (Winter 1975): 567-584. Translation with commentary.

285 Hawkins, Joellen W., and Aber, Cynthia S. "The Content of Advertisements in Medical Journals: Distorting the Image of Women." WOMEN AND HEALTH 14, no.2 (1988): 43-59.

286 Herndl, Diane Price. INVALID WOMEN: FIGURING FEMININE ILLNESS IN AMERICAN FICTION AND CULTURE, 1840-1940. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1993.

287 Herndl, Diane Price. "The Writing Cure: Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Anna O., and `Hysterical' Writing." NWSA JOURNAL 1 (Autumn 1988): 52-74.

288 Horowitz, Maryanne Cline. "Aristotle and Woman." JOURNAL OF THE HISTORY OF BIOLOGY 9, no.2 (Fall 1976): 183-213. Reveals Aristotle's biological and political sexism. For another viewpoint, see Johannes Morsink, "Was Aristotle's Biology Sexist?," JOURNAL OF THE HISTORY OF BIOLOGY 12, no.1 (Spring 1979): 83-112.

289 Hughes, Beryl. "Archives-`Their Best Aptitudes'--Girls' Education and the Tenth Australasian Medical Congress, 1914." WOMEN'S STUDIES JOURNAL [New Zealand] 7 (November 1991): 66-76.

290 Jacoby, Robin Miller. "Science and Sex Roles in the Victorian Era." In BIOLOGY AS A SOCIAL WEAPON, ed. Ann Arbor Science for the People Editorial Collective, pp.58-68. Minneapolis: Burgess, 1977. Examines the "mutually reinforcing relationship" between biological theory and ideology on sex roles in the nineteenth century.

291 Jacquart, Danielle, and Thomasset, Claude, and Adamson, Matthew, trans. SEXUALITY AND MEDICINE IN THE MIDDLE AGES. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1988.

292 Jecker, Nancy S., and Self, Donnie J. "Separating Care and Cure: An Analysis of Historical and Contemporary Images of Nursing and Medicine." JOURNAL OF MEDICINE AND PHILOSOPHY 16 (1991): 285-306.

293 Jones, Kathleen W. "Sentiment and Science: The Late Nineteenth Century Pediatrician as Mother's Advisor." JOURNAL OF SOCIAL HISTORY 17 (Fall 1983): 79-96.

294 Jordanova, Ludmilla J. "Natural Facts: A Historical Perspective on Science and Sexuality." NATURE, CULTURE, AND GENDER, ed. Carol P. MacCormack and Marilyn Strathern, pp.42-69. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1980.

295 Keller, Evelyn Fox. "Baconian Science: A Hermaphroditic Birth." PHILOSOPHICAL FORUM 11, no.3 (Spring 1980): 299-308. Examines the use of gender in Francis Bacon's metaphors for the scientific impulse.

296 Kern, Louis J. AN ORDERED LOVE: SEX ROLES AND SEXUALITY IN VICTORIAN UTOPIAS-THE SHAKERS, THE MORMONS, AND THE ONEIDA COMMUNITY. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1981.

297 King, Charles R. "Parallels Between Neurasthenia and Premenstrual Syndrome." WOMEN AND HEALTH 4 (1989): 1-23.

298 Klein, Viola. THE FEMININE CHARACTER: HISTORY OF AN IDEOLOGY. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1946. See chapter 3, "The Biological Approach: Havelock Ellis."

299 Kushner, Howard I. "Women and Suicide in Historical Perspective." SIGNS 10 (Spring 1985): 537-552.

300 LaFollette, Marcel C. "Eyes on the Stars: Images of Women Scientists in Popular Magazines." SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, AND HUMAN VALUES 13 (1988): 262-275. Describes U.S. magazines from 1910-1955.

301 Laqueur, Thomas. MAKING SEX: BODY AND GENDER FROM THE GREEKS TO FREUD. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1990.

302 Lastinger, Valerie Cretaux. "Word of Mouth, Word of Womb: Denis Diderot and Hysterical Discourse." WOMEN'S STUDIES QUARTERLY 21 (1992): 131-142.

303 Laurence, Anne. "Women's Psychological Disorders in 17th-century Britain." CURRENT ISSUES IN WOMEN'S HISTORY, ed. Arina Angerman et al. London: Routledge, 1989.

304 Lemay, Helen. "Women and the Literature of Obstetrics and Gynecology." MEDIEVAL WOMEN AND THE SOURCES OF MEDIEVAL HISTORY, ed. Joel T. Rosenthal, pp.189-209. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1990.

305 Lewin, Miriam, ed. IN THE SHADOW OF THE PAST: PSYCHOLOGY PORTRAYS THE SEXES. New York: Columbia University Press, 1984.

306 Lewontin, R. C., Rose, Steven, and Kamin, Leon J. NOT IN OUR GENES: BIOLOGY, IDEOLOGY, AND HUMAN NATURE. New York: Pantheon, 1984.

307 Lingo, Alison K. "Empirics and Charlatans in Early Modern France: the Genesis of the Classification of the `Other' in Medical Practice." JOURNAL OF SOCIAL HISTORY 19 (Summer 1986): 583-604.

308 Longino, Helen, and Doell, Ruth. "Body, Bias, and Behavior: A Comparative Analysis of Reasoning in Two Areas of Biological Science." SIGNS 9, no.2 (Winter 1983): 206-227. Looks at evolutionary studies and endocrinological research. Repr. in SEX AND SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY, pp.165-186. Ed. by Sandra Harding and Jean F. O'Barr. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987.

309 Lunbeck, Elizabeth. "`A New Generation of Women': Progressive Psychiatrists and the Hypersexual Female." FEMINIST STUDIES 13 (Fall 1987): 513-543.

Most of the entries in this section chart the portrayals of women historically by the disciplines of biology and medicine. Many focus on the debates over the nature of Woman, her sexuality and psyche. Some deal with perceived "female maladies" including hysteria, depression and other nervous disorders, and the magical powers and mystique assigned to female organs and physiology. Other entries examine the attitude toward women expressed in advertisements in medical journals and in advice manuals directed towards women, and the portrayal of women scientists in popular magazines. For feminist critiques of these views, see the following section, FEMINIST CRITIQUES OF SCIENCE.

310 MacDonald, Michael. "Women and Madness in Tudor and Stuart England." SOCIAL RESEARCH 53, no.2 (1986): 261-281.

311 Maclean, Ian. THE RENAISSANCE NOTION OF WOMAN: A STUDY IN THE FORTUNES OF SCHOLASTICISM AND MEDICAL SCIENCE IN EUROPEAN INTELLECTUAL LIFE. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1980.

312 Magner, Lois. "Women and the Scientific Idiom: Textual Episodes from Wollstonecraft, Fuller, Gilman, and Firestone." SIGNS 4, no.1 (Autumn 1978): 61-80. Demonstrates how feminist theorists incorporated the scientific paradigms of their times into their writings.

313 Maines, Rachel. "Socially Camouflaged Technologies: The Case of the Electromagnetic Vibrator." IEEE TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE MAGAZINE 8, no.2 (June 1989): 3-11.

314 Martin, Emily. "Medical Metaphors of Women's Bodies: Menstruation and Menopause." INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HEALTH SERVICES 18 (1988): 237-254.

315 Martin, Emily. THE WOMAN IN THE BODY: A CULTURAL ANALYSIS OF REPRODUCTION. Boston: Beacon, 1987. See section two, "Science as a Cultural System." Martin, an anthropologist, compares medical metaphors for menstruation, childbirth, and menopause to women's own description of these events.

316 Massey, Marilyn Chapin. "Feminine Soul: The Fate of an Ideal." Boston: Beacon, 1985.

317 Masson, Jeffrey Moussaieff. A DARK SCIENCE: WOMEN, SEXUALITY, AND PSYCHIATRY IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1986.

318 McGovern, Constance M. "Psychiatry, Psychoanalysis, and Women in America: An Historical Note." PSYCHOANALYTIC REVIEW 71 (1984): 541-552.

319 McLaren, Angus. SEXUALITY AND SOCIAL ORDER: THE DEBATE OVER THE FERTILITY OF WOMEN AND WORKERS IN FRANCE, 1770-1920. New York: Holmes & Meier, 1983.

320 McReynolds, Rosalee. "The Sexual Politics of Illness in Turn of the Century Libraries." LIBRARIES & CULTURE 25 (Spring 1990): 194-217.

321 Merchant, Carolyn. THE DEATH OF NATURE: WOMEN, ECOLOGY AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION. New York: Harper and Row, 1980. Historical exploration of the interconnection of women and nature in Western scientific thought between 1500 and 1700. Illustrated.

322 Merchant, Carolyn. "Isis' Consciousness Raised." ISIS 73, no.268 (September 1982): 398-409. On the Western scientific view; the role of language, image, and metaphor in scientific and historical writing; and the study of women.

323 Micale, Mark S. "Hysteria and Its Historiography: A Review of Past and Present Writings." Part I: HISTORY OF SCIENCE 27, no.3 (September 1989): 223-261. Part II: HISTORY OF SCIENCE 27, no.4 (December 1989): 319-351.

324 Micale, Mark S. "Hysteria Male/Hysteria Female: Reflections on Comparative Gender Construction in Nineteenth-Century France and Britain." In SCIENCE AND SENSIBILITY: GENDER AND SCIENTIFIC ENQUIRY, 1780-1945, ed. by Marina Benjamin, pp.200-237. Cambridge, MA: Basil Blackwell, 1991.

325 Mitchinson, Wendy. "Gender and Insanity as Characteristics of the Insane: A Nineteenth-Century Case." CANADIAN BULLETIN OF MEDICAL HISTORY/BULLETIN CANADIEN D'HISTOIRE DE LA MEDICINE 4 (Winter 1987): 99-117.

326 Mitchinson, Wendy. "Historical Attitudes Toward Women and Childbirth." ATLANTIS 4, no.2, part 2 (Spring 1979): 13-34. Focus on Canada.

327 Mitchinson, Wendy. "Hysteria and Insanity in Women: A Nineteenth- Century Canadian Perspective." JOURNAL OF CANADIAN STUDIES/REVUE D' TUDES CANADIENNES 21 (Fall 1986): 87-105.

328 Mitchinson, Wendy. "Medical Perceptions of Female Sexuality: A Late Nineteenth Century Case." SCIENTIA CANADENSIS 9 (1985): 67-81.

329 Mitchinson, Wendy. "Medical Perceptions of Healthy Women: The Case of Late Nineteenth-Century Canada." CANADIAN WOMAN STUDIES/LES CAHIERS DE LA FEMMME 8 (Winter 1987): 42-43.

330 Mitchinson, Wendy. "The Medical View of Women: The Case of Late Nineteenth-Century Canada." CANADIAN BULLETIN OF MEDICAL HISTORY/BULLETIN CANADIEN D'HISTOIRE DE LA MEDICINE 3 (Winter 1986): 207-224.

331 Mitchinson, Wendy. THE NATURE OF THEIR BODIES: WOMEN AND THEIR DOCTORS IN VICTORIAN CANADA. Toronto; Buffalo, NY: University of Toronto Press, 1991.

332 Morantz, Regina Markell. "The Lady and Her Physician." In CLIO'S CONSCIOUSNESS RAISED: NEW PERSPECTIVES ON THE HISTORY OF WOMEN, ed. Mary S. Hartman and Lois Banner, pp.38-53. New York: Harper & Row, 1974. Expanded version of "The Perils of Feminist History," orig. published in JOURNAL OF INTERDISCIPLINARY HISTORY and repr. in WOMEN AND HEALTH IN AMERICA: HISTORICAL READINGS, pp.239-245. Ed. by Judith Walzer Leavitt. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 1984. An answer to Ann Wood's article, "The Fashionable Diseases," cited below.

333 Mort, Frank. DANGEROUS SEXUALITIES: MEDICO-MORAL POLITICS IN ENGLAND SINCE 1830. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1987.

334 Moscucci, Ornella. "Hermaphroditism and Sex Difference: The Construction of Gender in Victorian England." SCIENCE AND SENSIBILITY: GENDER AND SCIENTIFIC ENQUIRY, 1780-1945, ed. by Marina Benjamin, pp.174-199. Cambridge, MA: Basil Blackwell, 1991.

335 Moscucci, Ornella. THE SCIENCE OF WOMAN: GYNAECOLOGY AND GENDER IN ENGLAND, 1800-1929. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990. Embraces women in science, the scientific construction of gender, and the interplay of race, class, and culture with the concept of nature itself.

336 Mosedale, Susan Sleeth. "Science Corrupted: Victorian Biologists Consider `The Woman Question'." JOURNAL OF THE HISTORY OF BIOLOGY 11, no.1 (Spring 1978): 1-55. Demonstrated how eminent biologists "provided rationales and prescriptions based outside science for maintaining the female status quo." Treats Charles Darwin, Herbert Spencer, George J. Romanes, Edward Drinker Cope, Patrick Geddes, J. Arthur Thomson, and Jean Finet.

337 Newman, Louise Michele, ed. MEN'S IDEAS/WOMEN'S REALITIES: POPULAR SCIENCE, 1870-1915. New York: Pergamon, 1984. Reprints articles and editorials from the magazine POPULAR SCIENCE on women's nature, education, and capacity for employment.

338 Niccoli, Ottavia. "`Menstruum Quasi Monstruum': Monstrous Births and Menstrual Taboo in the 16th Century." In SEX AND GENDER IN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE, ed. Edward Muir & Guido Ruggiero, pp.1-25. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1990.

339 O'Brien, Patricia. "The Kleptomania Diagnosis: Bourgeois Women and Theft in Late Nineteenth-Century France." JOURNAL OF SOCIAL HISTORY 17 (Fall 1983): 65-77.

340 Oppenheim, Janet. "SHATTERED NERVES": DOCTORS, PATIENTS, AND DEPRESSION IN VICTORIAN ENGLAND. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.

341 Outram, Dorinda. "Before Objectivity: Wives, Patronage, and Cultural Reproduction in Early Nineteenth-Century French Science." In UNEASY CAREERS AND INTIMATE LIVES: WOMEN IN SCIENCE, 1789-1979, ed. Pnina G. Abir-Am and Dorinda Outram, pp.19-30. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1987.

342 Outram, Dorinda. "Fat, Gorillas, and Misogyny: Women's History in Science." THE BRITISH JOURNAL FOR THE HISTORY OF SCIENCE 24, no.82 (September 1991): 361-368.

343 Perry, Ruth. "Colonizing the Breast: Sexuality and Maternity in Eighteenth-Century England." In FORBIDDEN HISTORY: THE STATE, SOCIETY, AND THE REGULATION OF SEXUALITY IN MODERN EUROPE, ed. John C. Fout, pp.107-138. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992.

344 Person, Ethel Spector. "Sexuality as the Mainstay of Identity: Psychoanalytic Perspectives." SIGNS 5 (1980): 605-630.

345 Peterson, M. Jeanne. "Dr. Acton's Enemy: Medicine, Sex, and Society in Victorian England." VICTORIAN STUDIES 29 (Summer 1986): 569-590.

346 Pickering, George White. CREATIVE MALADY: ILLNESS IN THE LIVES AND MINDS OF CHARLES DARWIN, FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE, MARY BAKER EDDY, SIGMUND FREUD, MARCEL PROUST, ELIZABETH BARRETT BROWNING. New York: Oxford University Press, 1974.

347 Pierce, Jennifer L. "The Relationship Between Emotion, Work, and Hysteria: A Feminist Reinterpretation of Freud's STUDIES IN HYSTERIA." WOMEN'S STUDIES 16, no.3/4 (1989): 255-270.

348 Pittenger, Mark. "Evolution, `Woman's Nature', and American Feminist Socialism, 1900-1915." RADICAL HISTORY REVIEW 36 (1986): 47-61.

349 Poovey, Mary. "Speaking of the Body: Mid-Victorian Constructions of Female Desire." In BODY/POLITICS: WOMEN AND THE DISCOURSES OF SCIENCE, ed. by Mary Jacobus, Evelyn Fox Keller, and Sally Shuttleworth, pp.29-46. New York: Routledge, 1990.

350 Porter, Roy. "Women as Subjects and Objects of Scientific and Scholarly Work." MINERVA 30 (1992): 117-120. Review essay on recent books.

351 Reed, Evelyn. SEXISM AND SCIENCE. New York: Pathfinder Press, 1978. Collection of articles on evolution, anthropology, sociobiology, and primatology.

352 Richards, Evelleen. "Huxley and Woman's Place in Science: The `Woman Question' and the Control of Victorian Anthropology." In HISTORY, HUMANITY AND EVOLUTION, ed. by J.R. Moore, pp.253-284. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989.

353 Ripa, Yannick. WOMEN AND MADNESS: THE INCARCERATION OF WOMEN IN NINETEENTH-CENTURY FRANCE. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 1991. Translated by Catherine du Peloux Menage.

354 Risse, Guenter B. "Hysteria at the Edinburgh Infirmary: The Construction and Treatment of a Disease, 1770-1800." MEDICAL HISTORY 32, no.1 (1988): 1-22.

355 Robinson, Paul. THE MODERNIZATION OF SEX: HAVELOCK ELLIS, ALFRED KINSEY, WILLIAM MASTERS, AND VIRGINIA JOHNSON. New York: Harper & Row, 1976.

356 Rosenbeck, Bente. "The Boundaries of Femininity: The Danish Experience, 1880-1980." SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF HISTORY 12, no.1 (1987): 47-62. Argues that gynecology replaced the Church as authority on sexuality.

357 Rusbridger, Alan. A CONCISE HISTORY OF THE SEX MANUAL, 1886-1986. London: Faber, 1986.

358 Ruse, Michael. IS SCIENCE SEXIST? AND OTHER PROBLEMS IN THE BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES. Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel, 1981. Philosophical treatment of evolutionary theory, genetics, and sociobiology. Defends sociobiology against charges of sexism.

359 Russett, Cynthia Eagle. SEXUAL SCIENCE: THE VICTORIAN CONSTRUCTION OF WOMANHOOD. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1989. Catalogs the many ways male Victorian scientists found to denigrate female anatomy, physiology, birthing, and nurturing.

360 Sahli, Nancy Ann. "Sexuality and Woman's Sexual Nature." In WOMEN, HEALTH, AND MEDICINE IN AMERICA: A HISTORICAL HANDBOOK, ed. by Rima D. Apple, pp.81-99. New York: Garland, 1990.

361 Sahli, Nancy Ann. "Sexuality in 19th and 20th Century America: The Sources and Their Problems." RADICAL HISTORY REVIEW 20 (1979): 89-96.

362 Sahli, Nancy Ann. WOMEN AND SEXUALITY IN AMERICA: A BIBLIOGRAPHY. Boston: G.K. Hall, 1984. Cites medical and scientific writings, as well as prescriptive literature, often with detailed annotations.

363 Salisbury, Joyce E. MEDIEVAL SEXUALITY: A RESEARCH GUIDE. New York: Garland, 1990.

364 Sayers, Janet. BIOLOGICAL POLITICS: FEMINIST AND ANTI-FEMINIST PERSPECTIVES. New York: Methuen, 1982. Examines the historical and social roots of biological explanations for sexual inequality, and posits a feminist middle ground between biological essentialism and social constructionism.

365 Schiebinger, Londa. "The Anatomy of Difference: Race and Gender in Eighteenth-Century Science." EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY STUDIES 23 (1990): 387-406.

366 Schiebinger, Londa L. "The Private Life of Plants: Sexual Politics in Carl Linnaeus and Erasmus Darwin." In SCIENCE AND SENSIBILITY: GENDER AND SCIENTIFIC ENQUIRY, 1780-1945, ed. by Marina Benjamin, pp.121-143. Cambridge, MA: Basil Blackwell, 1991.

367 Schiebinger, Londa L. "Skeletons in the Closet: The First Illustrations of the Female Skeleton in Eighteenth-Century Anatomy." REPRESENTATIONS 14 (1986): 42-82. Also repr. in THE MAKING OF THE MODERN BODY: SEXUALITY AND SOCIETY IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY, ed. Catherine Gallagher and Thomas Laqueur. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1987.

368 Schiebinger, Londa L. "Why Mammals Are Called Mammals: Gender Politics in Eighteenth-Century Natural History." AMERICAN HISTORICAL REVIEW 98, no.2 (April 1993): 382-411. Excerpt from the author's NATURE'S BODY: GENDER IN THE MAKING OF MODERN SCIENCE (1993).

369 Scott, Clifford H. "A Naturalistic Rationale for Women's Reform: Lester Frank Ward on the Evolution of Sexual Relations." HISTORIAN 33, no.1 (1970): 54-67.

370 Scull, Andrew T., and Favreau, Diane. "`A Chance to Cut is a Chance to Cure': Sexual Surgery for Psychosis in Three Nineteenth Century Societies." RESEARCH IN LAW, DEVIANCE AND SOCIAL CONTROL 8 (1986): 3-39.

371 "Sexual Reproduction and the Central Project of Evolutionary Theory." BIOLOGY AND PHILOSOPHY 2 (1987): 383-396.

372 Shafter, R. "Women and Madness: A Social Historical Perspective." ISSUES IN EGO PSYCHOLOGY 12 (1989): 72-82.

373 Shapiro, Ann-Louise. "Disordered Bodies/Disorderly Acts: Medical Discourse and the Female Criminal in Nineteenth-Century Paris." GENDERS no.4 (Spring 1989): 68-86. Examines the diagnosis of "monomania," its relation to the menstrual cycle, and its use as an explanation for criminal behavior.

374 Shields, Stephanie A. "The Variability Hypothesis: The History of a Biological Model of Sex Differences in Intelligence." SIGNS 7, no.4 (Summer 1982): 769-797. The history of the theory that men have a biologically-based wider range of intellectual abilities than women. Repr. in SEX AND SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY, pp.187-215. Ed. by Sandra Harding and Jean F. O'Barr. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1987.

375 Shorter, Edward. "The Rise and Fall of a `Hysterical' Symptom." JOURNAL OF SOCIAL HISTORY 19 (Summer 1986): 549-582.

376 Shorter, Edward. "Women and Jews in a Private Nervous Clinic in Late Nineteenth Century Vienna." MEDICAL HISTORY 33 (1989): 149-183.

377 Shorter, Edward. WOMEN'S BODIES: A SOCIAL HISTORY OF WOMEN'S ENCOUNTER WITH HEALTH, ILL-HEALTH, AND MEDICINE. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 1991. Repr., originally published as A HISTORY OF WOMEN'S BODIES. New York: Basic Books, 1982.

378 Showalter, Elaine. THE FEMALE MALADY: WOMEN, MADNESS, AND ENGLISH CULTURE, 1830-1980. New York: Pantheon, 1986.

379 Showalter, Elaine. "Victorian Women and Insanity." VICTORIAN STUDIES 23 (Winter 1980): 157-182.

380 Shuttleworth, Sally. "Female Circulation: Medical Discourse and Popular Advertising in the Mid-Victorian Era." In BODY/POLITICS: WOMEN AND THE DISCOURSES OF SCIENCE, ed. by Mary Jacobus, Evelyn Fox Keller, and Sally Shuttleworth, pp.47-68. New York: Routledge, 1990.

381 Sicherman, Barbara. "The Uses of a Diagnosis: Doctors, Patients, and Neurasthenia." JOURNAL OF THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE AND ALLIED SCIENCES 32 (1977): 33-54.

382 Sissa, Giulia. "Subtle Bodies." FRAGMENTS FOR A HISTORY OF THE HUMAN BODY, VOL. 3, ed. M. Feher et al., pp.133-156. New York: Zone, 1989. History of the concept of the hymen.

383 Smart, Carol. "Disruptive Bodies and Unruly Sex: The Regulation of Reproduction and Sexuality in the Nineteenth Century." In REGULATING WOMANHOOD: HISTORICAL ESSAYS ON MARRIAGE, MOTHERHOOD AND SEXUALITY, ed. by Carol Smart, pp.7-32. New York: Routledge, 1992.

384 Smith, John H. "Abulia: Sexuality and Diseases of the Will in the Late Nineteenth Century." GENDERS no.6 (November 1989): 102-124.

385 Smith-Rosenberg, Carroll, and Rosenberg, Charles E. "The Female Animal: Medical and Biological Views of Woman and Her Role in Nineteenth- Century America." JOURNAL OF AMERICAN HISTORY 60, no.2 (September 1973): 332-356. Cites a wealth of primary sources. Repr. in WOMEN AND HEALTH IN AMERICA: HISTORICAL READINGS, pp.12-27. Ed. Judith Walzer Leavitt. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 1984.

386 Smith-Rosenberg, Carroll. "The Hysterical Woman: Sex Roles and Role Conflict in Nineteenth-Century America." SOCIAL RESEARCH 39, no.4 (Winter 1972): 652-678. Repr. in DISORDERLY CONDUCT: VISIONS OF GENDER IN VICTORIAN AMERICA, pp. 197-216. By Carroll Smith-Rosenberg. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.

387 Spiegel, Allen D. "Temporary Insanity and Premenstrual Syndrome: Medical Testimony in an 1865 Murder Trial." NEW YORK STATE JOURNAL OF MEDICINE 88 (1988): 482-492.

388 Spiegel, Allen D., and Spiegel, Andrea M. "Was It Murder or Insanity? Reactions to a Successful Paroxysmal Insanity Plea in 1865." WOMEN & HEALTH 18, no.2 (1992): 69-86.

389 Steen, M. "Historical Perspectives on Women and Mental Illness and Prevention of Depression in Women, Using a Feminist Framework." ISSUES IN MENTAL HEALTH NURSING 12, no.4 (October-December 1991): 359-374.

390 Stepan, Nancy Leys. "Race and Gender: The Role of Analogy in Science." ISIS 77, no.287 (1986): 261-277.

391 Stephens, Jane. "Breezes of Discontent: A Historical Perspective of Anxiety Based Illnesses Among Women." JOURNAL OF AMERICAN CULTURE 8 (Winter 1985): 11-16.

392 Stevens, Patricia E., and Hall, Joanne M. "A Critical Historical Analysis of the Medical Construction of Lesbianism." INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HEALTH SERVICE 21 (1991): 291-307.

393 Theriot, Nancy M. "Diagnosing Unnatural Motherhood: Nineteenth- Century Physicians and Puerperal Insanity." AMERICAN STUDIES 30 (Fall 1989): 69-88.

394 Theriot, Nancy M. "Psychosomatic Illness in History: The `Green Sickness' Among Nineteenth-Century Adolescent Girls." JOURNAL OF PSYCHOHISTORY 15 (Spring 1988): 461-480.

395 Thomas, Samuel J. "Nostrum Advertising and the Image of Woman as Invalid in Late Victorian America." JOURNAL OF AMERICAN CULTURE 5, no.3 (Fall 1982): 104-12.

396 Todd, Alexandra Dundas. INTIMATE ADVERSARIES: CULTURAL CONFLICT BETWEEN DOCTORS AND WOMEN PATIENTS. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1989.

397 Tomaselli, Sylvana. "Collecting Women: The Female in Scientific Biography." SCIENCE AS CULTURE 4 (1988): 95-106.

398 Tomaselli, Sylvana. "Reflections on the History of the Science of Woman." HISTORY OF SCIENCE 29, part 2, no.84 (June 1, 1991): 185-205. Historical look at how women have been perceived from the late Middle Ages through modern times by "Great Men."

399 Tomes, Nancy. "Devils in the Heart: A Nineteenth-Century Perspective on Women and Depression." TRANSACTIONS & STUDIES OF THE COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS OF PHILADELPHIA Series 5, 13 (1991): 363-386.

400 Tomes, Nancy. "Historical Perspectives on Women and Mental Illness." In WOMEN, HEALTH, AND MEDICINE IN AMERICA: A HISTORICAL HANDBOOK, ed. by Rima D. Apple, pp.143-171. New York: Garland, 1990.

401 Treckel, Paula A. "Breastfeeding and Maternal Sexuality in Colonial America." JOURNAL OF INTERDISCIPLINARY HISTORY 29 (1989): 25-52.

402 Trecker, Janice Law. "Sex, Science, and Education." AMERICAN QUARTERLY 26, no.4 (October 1974): 352-366. Examines 19th-century scientific and medical opposition to higher education for women.

403 Tuana, Nancy. THE LESS NOBLE SEX: SCIENTIFIC, RELIGIOUS, AND PHILOSOPHICAL CONCEPTIONS OF WOMAN'S NATURE. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1993. "Examines the persistence of the Western view of woman as inferior" -- publisher.

404 Ussher, Jane M. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF THE FEMALE BODY. New York: Routledge, 1989. Includes chapters on nineteenth and twentieth century madness.

405 Ussher, Jane M. WOMEN'S MADNESS: MISOGYNY OR MENTAL ILLNESS? Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press, 1992.

406 Valdiserri, Ronald O. "Menstruation and Medical Theory: An Historical Overview." JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL WOMEN'S ASSOCIATION 38, no.3 (1983): 66-70.

407 Van Deth, Ron, and Vandereycken, Walter. "Was Nervous Consumption a Precursor of Anorexia Nervosa?" JOURNAL OF THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE AND ALLIED SCIENCES 46 (January 1991): 3-19.

408 Veith, Ilza. HYSTERIA: THE HISTORY OF DISEASE. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1965.

409 Walsh, Mary Roth. "The Quirls of a Woman's Brain." BIOLOGICAL WOMAN - THE CONVENIENT MYTH, ed. by Ruth Hubbard, Mary Sue Henifin, and Barbara Fried, pp.241-263. Cambridge, MA: Schenkman, 1982.

410 Warren, Carol A.B. MADWIVES: SCHIZOPHRENIC WOMEN IN THE 1950s. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1987.

411 Warsh, Cheryl Krasnick. "The First Mrs. Rochester: Wrongful Confinement, Social Redundancy, and Commitment to the Private Asylum." HISTORICAL PAPERS/COMMUNICATIONS HISTORIQUE (1988): 145-167.

412 Wattley, L.A. "Male Physicians and Female Health and Sexuality in 19th Century English and American Society." JOURNAL OF ADVANCED NURSING 8, no.5 (September 1983): 423-428.

413 Weeks, Jeffrey. SEX, POLITICS, AND SOCIETY: THE REGULATION OF SEXUALITY SINCE 1800. New York: Longman, 1983. Sex in Victorian society; scientific and reforming concepts; sexuality, consciousness, social policy.

414 Weinberg, Martin S., Swensson, Rochelle Ganz, and Hammersmith, Sue Kiefer. "Sexual Autonomy and the Status of Women: Models of Female Sexuality in U.S. Sex Manuals fron 1950 to 1980." SOCIAL PROBLEMS 30 (1983): 312-324.

415 Wilson, Lindsay. WOMEN AND MEDICINE IN THE FRENCH ENLIGHTENMENT: THE DEBATE OVER MALADIES DES FEMMES. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993.

416 Wilson, Philip K. "`Out of Sight, Out of Mind?': The Daniel Turner- James Blondel Dispute Over the Power of the Maternal Imagination." ANNALS OF SCIENCE 49 (1992): 63-85.

417 Wood, Ann Douglas. "The Fashionable Diseases: Women's Complaints and Their Treatment in Nineteenth-Century America." JOURNAL OF INTERDISCIPLINARY HISTORY 4, no.1 (Summer 1973): 25-52. See Regina Markell Morantz, "The Lady and Her Physician," cited above, for a response to Wood's article. Repr. in CLIO'S CONSCIOUSNESS RAISED: NEW PERSPECTIVES ON THE HISTORY OF WOMEN, pp.1-22. Ed. by Mary S. Hartman and Lois Banner. New York: Harper & Row, 1974. Also repr. in WOMEN AND HEALTH IN AMERICA: HISTORICAL READINGS, pp.222-238. Ed. by Judith Walzer Leavitt. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 1984.

418 Wood, Charles T. "The Doctor's Dilemma: Sin, Salvation, and the Menstrual Cycle in Medieval Thought." SPECULUM 56 (1981): 710-727.

419 Zschoche, Sue. "Dr. Clarke Revisited: Science, True Womanhood, and Female Collegiate Education." HISTORY OF EDUCATION QUARTERLY 29 (Winter 1989): 545-569.

This section includes contemporary works critical of science and the attitude of science towards women now and in the past. For additional references, see the previous section, SCIENTIFIC VIEWS OF WOMEN.

420 Arditti, Rita, Brennan, Pat, and Cavrak, Steve, eds. SCIENCE AND LIBERATION. Boston: South End Press, 1980. See especially "Sociobiology, a Pseudo-Scientific Synthesis" by Barbara Chasin, "Sterilization Abuse" by Helen Rodriguez-Trias, "`Ladies' in the Lab" by Angela Corigliano Murphy, "Women in Chemistry" by Ana Berta Chepelinsky et al., "Declaration: Equality for Women in Science" by the Women's Group of Science for the People, and "Feminism and Science" by Rita Arditti. Includes annotated bibliography.

421 Behuniak-Long, Susan. "Radical Conceptions: Reproductive Technologies and Feminist Theories." WOMEN & POLITICS 10, no.3 (1990): 39-64.

422 Benjamin, Marina, ed. SCIENCE AND SENSIBILITY: GENDER AND SCIENTIFIC ENQUIRY, 1780-1945. Cambridge, MA: Basil Blackwell, 1991.

423 Birke, Lynda. "`Life' as We Have Known It: Feminism and the Biology of Gender." In SCIENCE AND SENSIBILITY: GENDER AND SCIENTIFIC ENQUIRY, 1780-1945, ed. by Marina Benjamin, pp.243-263. Cambridge, MA: Basil Blackwell, 1991.

424 Birke, Lynda. WOMEN, FEMINISM AND BIOLOGY: THE FEMINIST CHALLENGE. New York: Methuen, 1986. Discusses biological determinist arguments, especially in the areas of human development and the relationship of humankind to nature, and explores the possibility of a "feminist science."

425 Bleier, Ruth. "A Decade of Feminist Critiques in the Natural Sciences: An Address." SIGNS 14 (1988): 182-195.

426 Bleier, Ruth. "Science and Belief: A Polemic on Sex Differences Research." THE IMPACT OF FEMINIST RESEARCH IN THE ACADEMY, ed. Christie Farnham, pp.111-130. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987.

427 Bleier, Ruth. SCIENCE AND GENDER: A CRITICISM OF BIOLOGY AND ITS THEORIES ON WOMEN. Elmsford, NY: Pergamon, 1984. A critical look at theories of biological determinism, especially Wilsonian sociobiology.

428 Bleier, Ruth, ed. FEMINIST APPROACHES TO SCIENCE. New York: Pergamon, 1986. Contents: "Science Seen Through a Feminist Prism" by Marion Namenwirth; "Critiques of Modern Science: The Relationship of Feminism to Other Radical Epistemologies" by Elizabeth Fee; "Beyond Masculinist Realities: A Feminist Epistemology for the Sciences" by Hilary Rose; "Primatology is Politics by Other Means" by Donna Haraway; "Empathy, Polyandry, and the Myth of the Coy Female" by Sarah Blaffer Hrdy; "Sex Differences Research: Science or Belief?" by Ruth Bleier; "The Relationship Between Women's Studies and Women in Science" by Sue V. Rosser; "Taking Feminist Science to the Classroom" by Mariamne Whatley; bibliography.

429 Brighton Women and Science Group. ALICE THROUGH THE MICROSCOPE: THE POWER OF SCIENCE OVER WOMEN'S LIVES. London: Virago, 1980. Three articles on "Science and Women in Society," four on "Science and Women's Bodies," and three on "Technological Control."

430 Chesler, Phyllis. WOMEN AND MADNESS. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1972.

431 Easlea, Brian. FATHERING THE UNTHINKABLE: MASCULINITY, SCIENTISTS AND THE NUCLEAR ARMS RACE. London: Pluto Press, 1983. A socio-historical reading of scientific practice that looks closely at male/female imagery in the language of prominent scientists. Focuses on nuclear weapons technology.

432 Easlea, Brian. SCIENCE AND SEXUAL OPPRESSION: PATRIARCHY'S CONFRONTATION WITH WOMAN AND NATURE. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1981. A wide-ranging critique of the male culture of modern Western science, from the sixteenth century to the present.

433 Ehrenreich, Barbara, and English, Deirdre. COMPLAINTS AND DISORDERS: THE SEXUAL POLITICS OF SICKNESS. Old Westbury, NY: Feminist Press, 1973.

434 Fausto-Sterling, Anne. MYTHS OF GENDER: BIOLOGICAL THEORIES ABOUT WOMEN AND MEN. New York: Basic Books, 1986. Chapters are devoted to intelligence, genetics, hormones, and evolution. Copious footnotes.

435 "Feminism as an Analytic Tool for the Study of Science." ACADEME (September-October 1983): 15-21.

436 Findlen, Paula. "Gender and the Scientific `Civilizing Process'." JOURNAL OF THE HISTORY OF BIOLOGY 24 (1991): 331-338. Review essay.

437 Gilligan, Carol. IN A DIFFERENT VOICE: PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORY AND WOMEN'S DEVELOPMENT. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1982.

438 Gordon, Linda. "Who is Frightened of Reproductive Freedom for Women and Why? Some Historical Answers." FRONTIERS: A JOURNAL OF WOMEN'S STUDIES 9, no.1 (1986): 23-26.

439 Haraway, Donna. PRIMATE VISIONS: GENDER, RACE, AND NATURE IN THE WORLD OF MODERN SCIENCE. New York: Routledge, 1989.

440 Haraway, Donna. SIMIANS, CYBORGS, AND WOMEN: THE REINVENTION OF NATURE. New York: Routledge, 1991. Essays on the link between these "creatures" in the construction of scientific reality.

441 Harding, Jan, ed. PERSPECTIVES ON GENDER AND SCIENCE. London: Falmer Press, 1986. Papers from a 1985 British conference. Five grouped under "Gender Matters" are theoretical.

442 Harding, Sandra, and Hintikka, Merrill B., eds. DISCOVERING REALITY: FEMINIST PERSPECTIVES ON EPISTEMOLOGY, METAPHYSICS, METHODOLOGY, AND PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE. Dordrecht: D. Reidel, 1983. Sixteen papers, among them Lynda Lange's "Woman Is Not a Rational Animal: On Aristotle's Biology of Reproduction"; Ruth Hubbard's "Have Only Men Evolved?"; Kathryn Pyne Addelson's "The Man of Professional Wisdom"; Evelyn Fox Keller's "Gender and Science"; and Keller and Christine R. Grontkowski's "The Mind's Eye."

443 Harding, Sandra. "Feminism and Theories of Scientific Knowledge." WOMEN: A CULTURAL REVIEW 1, no.1 (April 1990): 87-98.

444 Harding, Sandra. THE SCIENCE QUESTION IN FEMINISM. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1986. Investigates feminist critiques of science and feminist theories of knowledge. See especially chapter 1, "From the Woman Question in Science to the Science Question in Feminism"; chapter 8, "`The Birth of Modern Science' as a Text: Internalist and Externalist Stories"; and chapter 9, "Problems with Post-Kuhnian Stories."

445 Harding, Sandra, and O'Barr, Jean, eds. SEX AND SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987. A selection of fifteen articles from SIGNS, grouped in categories: "The Social Structure of Science," "Misuses and Abuses of Science and Technology," "Bias in the Sciences," "Sexual Meanings of Science," and "Epistemology and Metatheory."

446 Harding, Sandra. WHOSE SCIENCE? WHOSE KNOWLEDGE? Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1991.

447 Harding, Sandra. "Women as Creators of Knowledge: New Environments." AMERICAN BEHAVIORAL SCIENTIST 32, no.6 (July/August 1989): 700-707. Discusses the history of women in science and contemporary issues.

448 Harlow, Sioban D. "Function and Dysfunction: A Historical Critique of the Literature on Menstruation and Work." In CULTURE, SOCIETY AND MENSTRUATION, ed. Virginia Oleson and Nancy Fugate Wood, pp.39-50. Washington: Hemisphere, 1986.

449 Herschberger, Ruth. ADAM'S RIB. New York: Pellegrini & Cudahy, 1948. An early feminist classic exposing the bias of "male" biology. Repr. New York: Harper & Row, 1970.

450 Horning, Beth. "The Controversial Career of Evelyn Fox Keller." TECHNOLOGY REVIEW 96 (January 1993): 58-68.

451 Hrdy, Sarah Blaffer. "Sex Bias in Nature and in History: A Late 1980s Reexaminiation of the `Biological Origins' Argument." AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY supp.11 (1990): 25-37.

452 Hrdy, Sarah Blaffer. THE WOMAN THAT NEVER EVOLVED. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1981. Reviews evidence from primatology on such topics as sex differences in body size; monogamy and polygyny; female dominance, competition, and bonding; and the origins of female sexuality.

453 Hubbard, Ruth, Henifin, Mary Sue, and Fried, Barbara, eds. BIOLOGICAL WOMAN -- THE CONVENIENT MYTH. Cambridge: Schenkman, 1982. Rev. ed. of WOMEN LOOK AT BIOLOGY LOOKING AT WOMEN, 1979. Twelve articles plus extensive bibliography.

454 Hubbard, Ruth. "The Emperor Doesn't Wear Any Clothes: The Impact of Feminism on Biology." In MEN'S STUDIES MODIFIED, ed. Dale Spender, pp.213-235. New York: Pergamon, 1981. Reviews feminist arguments against traditional theory and method in biology, adding lengthier critiques of Darwinism and sociobiology.

455 Hubbard, Ruth, and Wald, Elijah. EXPLODING THE GENE MYTH. Boston: Beacon, 1993.

456 Hubbard, Ruth. "Have Only Men Evolved?" New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1990. THE POLITICS OF WOMEN'S BIOLOGY, by Ruth Hubbard, pp.87-106.

457 Hubbard, Ruth. THE POLITICS OF WOMEN'S BIOLOGY. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1990.

458 Hudson, Gill. "Unfathering the Thinkable: Gender, Science and Pacifism in the 1930s." In SCIENCE AND SENSIBILITY: GENDER AND SCIENTIFIC ENQUIRY, 1780-1945, ed. by Marina Benjamin, pp.264-286. Cambridge, MA: Basil Blackwell, 1991.

459 Hunter, Dianne. "Hysteria, Psychoanlaysis, and Feminism: The Case of Anna O." FEMINIST STUDIES 9, no.3 (1983): 464-488.

460 Jacobus, Mary, Keller, Evelyn Fox, and Shuttleworth, Sally, eds. BODY/POLITICS: WOMEN AND THE DISCOURSES OF SCIENCE. New York: Routledge, 1990.

461 Jordanova, Ludmilla J. SEXUAL VISIONS: IMAGES OF GENDER IN SCIENCE AND MEDICINE BETWEEN THE EIGHTEENTH AND TWENTIETH CENTURIES. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 1989.

462 Keller, Evelyn Fox. "Feminism and Science." SIGNS 7, no.3 (Spring 1982): 589-602. Describes the range of feminist positions on science and their liberating potential, with particular attention to psychoanalytic theory. Repr. in FEMINIST THEORY: A CRITIQUE OF IDEOLOGY, pp.113-126. Ed. by Nannerl O. Keohane, Michelle Z. Rosaldo, and Barbara C. Gelpi. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982. Also reprinted in SEX AND SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY, pp.233-246. Ed. by Sandra Harding and Jean F. O'Barr. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987.

463 Keller, Evelyn Fox. "Feminist Critique of Science: A Forward or Backward Move?" FUNDAMENTA SCIENTIAE 1, no. 3/4 (1980): 341-349. Clarifies both the radical and the reactionary elements in the feminist critique of science.

464 Keller, Evelyn Fox. REFLECTIONS ON SCIENCE AND GENDER. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985. See also excerpt, "Women and Basic Research: Respecting the Unexpected," in TECHNOLOGY REVIEW 87, no.8 (November/December 1984): 44-47.

465 Keller, Evelyn Fox. "Science and Gender: 1990." GREAT IDEAS TODAY (1990): 68-93.

466 Keller, Evelyn Fox. "Science and Power for What?" In NINETEEN EIGHTY- FOUR: SCIENCE BETWEEN UTOPIA AND DYSTOPIA, ed. Everett Mendelsohn and Helga Nowotny, pp.261-272. Dordrecht: Reidel, 1984. Analysis of Charlotte Perkins Gilman's utopian novel HERLAND, originally published in 1915.

467 Keller, Evelyn Fox. SECRETS OF LIFE, SECRETS OF DEATH: ESSAYS ON SCIENCE AND CULTURE. New York: Routledge, 1992.

468 Kirkup, Gill, and Keller, Laurie Smith, eds. INVENTING WOMEN: SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, AND GENDER. Cambridge, England: Polity Press/Open University, 1992. Articles by Margaret Lowe Benston, Evelyn Fox Keller, Sandra Harding, and others assessing gender issues in science and technology. Chiefly contemporary.

469 Kramarae, Cheris, and Spender, Dale, eds. THE KNOWLEDGE EXPLOSION: GENERATIONS OF FEMINIST SCHOLARSHIP. New York: Teachers College Press, 1992. Chapters reviewing the history of the impact of feminism on the disciplines include: "Feminism and Medicine: Co-optation or Cooperation?" by Joan M. Altekruse and Sue V. Rosser; "Physics and Mathematics, Reality and Language: Dilemmas for Feminists," by Robyn Arianrhod; "Feminism and Engineering: The Inroads," by H. Patricia Hynes; "The Impact of Feminism on the Natural Sciences," by Marian Lowe; "Nursing and Feminism: Caring and Curing," by Joan E. Mulligan; "Home Economics: Feminism in a Hestian Voice," by Patricia J. Thompson; and "Do Mothers Invent? The Feminist Debate in the History of Technology," by Autumn Stanley.

470 Leavitt, Judith Walzer. "A Decade of Feminist Critiques in Natural Sciences: An Address by Ruth Bleier." SIGNS 14, no.1 (Autumn, 1988): 182-195

471 Lomperis, Linda, and Stanbury, Sarah, eds. FEMINIST APPROACHES TO THE BODY IN MEDIEVAL LITERATURE. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1993.

472 Lowe, Marian, and Hubbard, Ruth, eds. WOMAN'S NATURE: RATIONALIZATION OF INEQUALITY. New York: Pergamon, 1983. Articles by five scientists and four social scientists. Theoretical, not historical.

473 Lowie, Robert H., and Hollingworth, Leta Stetter. "Science and Feminism." SCIENTIFIC MONTHLY 2 (September 1916): 277-284. Reviews comparative biological and psychological data on women and men to debunk "scientific" arguments for limiting women's activities.

474 Magner, Lois. "Women and the Scientific Idiom: Textual Episodes from Wollstonecraft, Fuller, Gilman, and Firestone." SIGNS 4, no.1 (Autumn 1978): 61-80. Demonstrates how feminist theorists incorporated the scientific paradigms of their times into their writings.

475 Martin, Emily. "The Egg and the Sperm: How Science Has Constructed a Romance Based on Stereotypical Male-Female Roles." SIGNS 16 (1991): 485-501.

476 McGaw, Judith A. "No Passive Victims, No Separate Spheres: A Feminist Perspective on Technology's History." In IN CONTEXT, ed. by S.H. Cutcliffe and R.C. Post, pp.172-91. Cranbury, NJ: Lehigh University Press; Associated University Presses, 1989.

477 Merchant, Carolyn. "Ecological Revolutions: Nature, Gender, and Science in New England." Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1989.

478 Morantz-Sanchez, Regina. "Feminist Theory and Historical Practice: Rereading Elizabeth Blackwell." HISTORY AND THEORY 31, no.4 (1992): 51-69.

479 Olson, Richard. "Historical Reflections on Feminist Critiques of Science: The Scientific Background to Modern Feminism." HISTORY OF SCIENCE 28, pt.2, no.80 (June 1990): 125-148.

480 Poovey, Mary. UNEVEN DEVELOPMENTS: THE IDEOLOGICAL WORK OF GENDER IN MID-VICTORIAN ENGLAND. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988. Feminist criticism of the Victorian view of difference as sexual differences.

481 Rose, Hilary. "Gendered Reflexions on the Laboratory in Medicine." In THE LABORATORY REVOLUTION IN MEDICINE, ed. Andrew Cunningham and Perry Williams, pp.304-323. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992.

482 Rosenberg, Rosalind. "In Search of Woman's Nature, 1850-1920." FEMINIST STUDIES 3, no.1/2 (Fall 1975): 141-153. How feminists such as Antoinette Brown, Charlotte Perkins Gilman, and Helen Thompson used Darwinism to justify their expanded spheres of activity.

483 Rosser, Sue V. FEMINISM WITHIN THE SCIENCE AND HEALTH CARE PROFESSIONS: OVERCOMING RESISTANCE. Elmsford, NY: Pergamon, 1988.

484 Rothman, Barbara Katz. IN LABOR: WOMEN AND POWER IN THE BIRTHPLACE. New York: Norton, 1982. 1984 Penguin ed. published as GIVING BIRTH: ALTERNATIVES IN CHILDBIRTH

485 Sapiro, Virginia, ed. WOMEN, BIOLOGY, AND PUBLIC POLICY. Newbury Park, CA: Sage, 1985. Articles on sociobiology, women's health, and government policy.

486 Sayers, Janet. BIOLOGICAL POLITICS: FEMINIST AND ANTI-FEMINIST PERSPECTIVES. New York: Methuen, 1982. Examines the historical and social roots of biological explanations for sexual inequality, and posits a feminist middle ground between biological essentialism and social constructionism.

487 Schiebinger, Londa L. "Feminine Icons: the Face of Early Modern Science." CRITICAL INQUIRY 14 (Summer 1988): 661-691.

488 Schiebinger, Londa L. THE MIND HAS NO SEX?: WOMEN IN THE ORIGINS OF MODERN SCIENCE. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1989. Covers both the history of women's contributions to the development of early modern science and the interrelationship between their subsequent exclusion from science and the growth of new "scientific" doctrines of gender differences.

489 Schiebinger, Londa L. NATURE'S BODY: GENDER IN THE MAKING OF MODERN SCIENCE. Boston, MA: Beacon, 1993.

490 Searing, Susan. "Women and Science: Issues and Resources." Madison, WI: Women's Studies Librarian's Office, 1991. Wisconsin Bibliographies in Women's Studies Series. Updates frequently. 1992 and 1993 updates by Phyllis Holman Weisbard.

491 Shepherd, Linda J. LIFTING THE VEIL: THE FEMININE FACE OF SCIENCE. Boston: Shambhala, 1993.

492 SIGNS 4, no.1 (Autumn 1978); Special Issue: "Women, Science, and Society." Partial contents: "Women and Evolution, Part II: Subsistence and Social Organization Among Early Hominids," by Adrienne L. Zihlman; "Animal Sociology and a Natural Economy of the Body Politic," Parts I and II, by Donna Haraway; "Women in the Scientific Idiom: Textual Episodes from Wollstonecraft, Fuller, Gilman, and Firestone," by Lois N. Magner; "In from the Periphery: American Women in Science, 1830-1880," by Sally Gregory Kohlstedt; "Biology and Equality: A Perspective on Sex Differences," by Helen H. Lambert; "Biology and Sex Differences," by Marian Lowe; "Sexual Segregation in the Sciences: Some Data and a Model," by Margaret W. Rossiter; "Phenomenon of the Seventies: The Women's Caucuses," by Anne M. Briscoe; "Bias in Biological and Human Sciences: Some Comments," by Ruth Bleier; plus review essays on science by Michele L. Aldrich and on medicine by Dorothy Rosenthal Mandelbaum.

493 Stark, Susanne. "Overcoming Butlerian Obstacles: May Sinclair and the Problem of Biolgical Determinism." WOMEN'S STUDIES 21, no.3 (1992): 265-83.

494 Steen, M. "Historical Perspectives on Women and Mental Illness and Prevention of Depression in Women, Using a Feminist Framework." ISSUES IN MENTAL HEALTH NURSING 12, no.4 (October-December 1991): 359-374.

495 Stehelin, Liliane. "Sciences, Women, and Ideology." In THE RADICALISATION OF SCIENCE: IDEOLOGY OF/IN THE NATURAL SCIENCES, ed. Hilary Rose and Steven Rose, pp.76-89. London: Macmillan, 1976. Argues that the "production code" of science is "fundamentally masculine." Draws on French psychoanalytic and Marxist theory.

496 Stepan, Nancy Leys. "Women and Natural Knowledge: The Role of Gender in the Making of Modern Science." GENDER & HISTORY 2, no.3 (1990): 337-342. Review essay on recent books by Schiebinger, Russet, and Jordanova.

497 Tuana, Nancy. "The Weaker Seed: The Sexist Bias of Reproductive Theory." HYPATIA 3, no.1 (Spring 1988): 35-59. Examines the history of reproductive theory from Aristotle to the seventeenth century. Argues that the adherence to a belief in the inferiority of the female creative principle biased scientific perception of the nature of woman's role in human generation.

498 Tuana, Nancy, ed. FEMINISM AND SCIENCE. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1989. Originally published as special issues of HYPATIA: A JOURNAL OF FEMINIST PHILOSOPHY 2, no.3 (Fall 1987) and 3, no.1 (Spring 1988). CONTENTS I: Sue V. Rosser, "Feminist Scholarship in the Sciences: Where Are We Now and When Can We Expect a Theoretical Breakthrough?" ; Sandra Harding, "The Method Question" ; Evelyn Fox Keller, "The Gender/Science System; or Is Sex to Gender as Nature is to Science?" ; Helen E. Longino, "Can There Be a Feminist Science?" ; Luce Irigaray, "Is the Subject of Science Sexed?" ; Ruth Ginzburg, "Uncovering Gynocentric Science" ; Linda Alcoff, "Justifying Feminist Social Science" ; Lisa Heldke, "John Dewey and Evelyn Fox Keller: A Shared Epistemological Tradition." CONTENTS II: Ruth Hubbard, "Science, Facts, and Feminism;" Elizabeth Potter, "Modeling the Gender Politics in Science;" Nancy Tuana, "The Weaker Seed: The Sexist Bias of Reproductive Theory;" Biology and Gender Study Group, "The Importance of Feminist Critique for Contemporary Cell Biology;" Jacquelyn N. Zita, "The Premenstrual Syndrome: Dis-Easing the Female Cycle;" Judith Genova, "Women and the Mismeasure of Thought;" Hilary Rose, "Dreaming the Future;" Barbara Imber and Nancy Tuana, "Feminist Perspectives on Science;" Jacquelyn N. Zita, "Review Essay/A Critical Analysis of Sandra Harding's THE SCIENCE QUESTION IN FEMINISM."

499 Wajcman, Judy. "Feminism Confronts Technology." University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1991.

500 Walsh, Mary Roth. "The Rediscovery of the Need for a Feminist Medical Education." HARVARD EDUCATION REVIEW 49 (1979): 447-466.

501 "Women Look at Science: Man the Hunter; Why Science is a Woman; Discovery Naked Truth." WOMEN: A CULTURAL REVIEW 1, no.1 (April 1990): 99-104. Excerpts from three books.

502 Wylie, A., et al. "Philosophical Feminism: A Bibliographic Guide to Critiques of Science." RESOURCES FOR FEMINIST RESEARCH/ DOCUMENTATION SUR LA RECHERCHE FEMINISTE 19, no.2 (1990): 2-38.

Women in the Scientific Professions

Citations here cover astronomy and space sciences. For related references, see MATHEMATICS, STATISTICS AND COMPUTER SCIENCE, and PHYSICS.

GENERAL

503 Boyle, Charles P. "Women in Space." JOURNAL OF AEROSPACE EDUCATION 5, no.4 (May 1978): 8-9. Brief history of women as astronauts, written before Sally Ride's pioneering flight.

504 Cowley, A., et al. "Report to the Council of the AAS from the Working Group on the Status of Women in Astronomy." American Astronomical Society BULLETIN 6, no.3, part II (1974): 412-423. Includes numerous graphs and statistical tables.

505 Davis, Herman S. "Women Astronomers." POPULAR ASTRONOMY 6, nos.3&4 (May & June 1898) Part I (400 A.D.-1750), May 1898: 128-138; Part II (1750-1890), June 1898: 211-220; Part III ("Contemporary") June 1898: 220-228. Three-part biographical essay, with a review of Alphonse Rebiere's LES FEMMES DANS LA SCIENCE, Paris, 1897.

506 Fleming, Mrs. M. (Williamina P.) "A Field for Woman's Work in Astronomy." ASTRONOMY AND ASTRO-PHYSICS 12, no.8 (October 1893): 683-689. Discusses astro-photography and opportunities for women.

507 Fraknoi, Andrew, and Freitag, Ruth. "Astronomical Resources - Women in Astronomy: A Bibliography." MERCURY 21, no.1 (January/February 1992): 46-47. References on 21 women astronomers including: Jocelyn Bell Burnell, Margaret Burbridge, Annie Cannon, and Sandra Faber.

508 Grinstein, Louise S. "Women in Physics and Astronomy: A Selected Bibliography." SOCIAL SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS 80, no.5 (May/June 1980): 384-398.

509 INTERNATIONAL ASTRONOMICAL UNION COMMISSION 46 -- TEACHING ASTRONOMY NEWSLETTER (December 1981); Special Issue: "Women in Astronomy." Includes "Women in Astronomy in France," by Lucianne Gougenheim; "The Education and Astronomical Careers of Women in Poland," by Cecylia Iwaniszewska; "Women in Astronomy in the U.S.," by Caty Pilachowski; and "Women in Astronomy in the U.S.S.R.," by E. Kononovich.

510 Jones, Bessie Z., and Boyd, Lyle. THE HARVARD COLLEGE OBSERVATORY: THE FIRST FOUR DIRECTORSHIPS, 1839-1919. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1971. See chapter II, "A Field for Women."

511 Kidwell, Peggy Aldrich. "Women Astronomers in Britain, 1780-1930." ISIS 75 (September 1984): 534-546.

512 Kistiakowsky, Vera. "Women in Physics and Astronomy." In EXPANDING THE ROLE OF WOMEN IN THE SCIENCES, ed. by Anne Briscoe and Sheila Pfafflin, 35-47. A look at women's status in the 1970s. (ANNALS OF THE NEW YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 323; 1979.) Includes statistical tables.

513 Lankford, John, and Slavings, Rickey L. "Gender and Science: Women in American Astronomy, 1859-1940." PHYSICS TODAY 43, no.3 (March 1990): 58-65. For responses to this article, see "Giving Women Astronomers Their Due" in PHYSICS TODAY 43 pt.1 (August 1990): 91-92.

514 Mack, Pamela E. "Strategies and Compromises: Women in Astronomy at Harvard College Observatory, 1870-1920." JOURNAL FOR THE HISTORY OF ASTRONOMY 21 (1990): 65-76.

515 Mack, Pamela E. "Straying from Their Orbits: Women in Astronomy in America." In WOMEN OF SCIENCE: RIGHTING THE RECORD, ed. by G. Kass-Simon & Patricia Farnes, pp.72-116. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1990.

516 Reed, H. "Women's Work at Harvard Observatory." NEW ENGLAND MAGAZINE 6 (1892): 174.

517 Slavings, Rickey L. "Gender and Science: Women in American Astronomy, 1859-1940." PHYSICS TODAY 43, no.3 (March 1990): 58-65.

518 SPACE FOR WOMEN: PERSPECTIVES ON CAREERS IN SCIENCE. Cambridge, MA: Center for Astrophysics, 1976. Summarizes a 1975 symposium on careers for women in astronomy, astrophysics, and earth and planetary sciences.

519 "Two Star-Catalogue Anniversaries (E. HEVELIUS PRODROMUS ASTRONOMIAE and THE DRAPER CATALOGUE OF STELLAR SPECTRA)." SKY & TELESCOPE 80 (October 1990): 349-350. Both catalogues were compiled by women: Elisabetha Koopman Hevelius and Williamina Paton Stevens Fleming.

520 Warner, Deborah J. "Women Astronomers." NATURAL HISTORY 88, no.5 (May 1979): 12-26. Overview of women's place in American astronomy from the mid-19th century to the present.

521 "Women in Astronomy: A Sampler of Issues and Ideas." MERCURY 21, no.1 (January 1992): 27-37.

BIOGRAPHIES AND STUDIES OF INDIVIDUALS

NOTE: Many obituaries of women astronomers have been published in such periodicals as the JOURNAL OF THE BRITISH ASTRONOMICAL ASSOCIATION, MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, and POPULAR ASTRONOMY. NOTABLE AMERICAN WOMEN, edited by Edward T. James et al. (3 vols., Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1971), contains entries for Annie Jump Cannon, Williamina Fleming, Henrietta Swan Leavitt, Maria Mitchell, Sarah Frances Whiting, and Mary Watson Whitney. Antonia Maury is covered in NOTABLE AMERICAN WOMEN: THE MODERN PERIOD, edited by Barbara Sicherman and Carol Hurd Green (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1980). Consult also the section on "Astronomers" in WOMEN IN THE SCIENTIFIC SEARCH: AN AMERICAN BIO-BIBLIOGRPAHY, 1724-1979, by Patricia Joan Siegel and Kay Thomas Finley (Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow, 1985).

522 Abell, George O. "Interview with Margaret Geller." In REALM OF THE UNIVERSE, by George O. Abell, pp.480-483. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders College Pub., 1992.

523 Bartusiak, Marcia. "The Woman Who Spins the Stars." DISCOVER (October 1990): 88-94. Career biography of Vera Rubin.

524 Bell Burnell, Jocelyn. "Little Green Men, White Dwarfs, or What?" SKY & TELESCOPE 55, no.3 (March 1978): 218+. Recounts her experience in the discovery of pulsars.

525 "Beryl Potter." PHYSICS TODAY 39 (February 1986): 92. Obituary.

526 Bracher, Katherine. "Dorothea Klumpke Roberts: A Forgotten Astronomer." MERCURY 10 (1981): 139-140.

527 Bullard, Margaret. "My Small Newtonian Sweeper -- Where is it Now?" NOTES AND RECORDS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF LONDON 42 (1988): 139-148. On telescopes used by Caroline Herschel.

528 Campbell, Leon. "Annie Jump Cannon." POPULAR ASTRONOMY 49 (1941): 345-347.

529 Cannon, Annie J. "Williamina Paton Fleming." ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL 34, no.1 (July 1911): 311-317. Obituary.

530 "Caroline Ellen Furness." MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE R.A.S. 97 (February 1937): 272-3. Obituary.

531 Dobson, Andrea K., and Bracher, Katherine. "Urania's Heritage: A Historical Introduction to Women in Astronomy." MERCURY 21, no.1 (January/February 1992): 4-15. Includes Caroline Herschel, Maria Mitchell, Cecilia Gaposchkin, and others.

532 "Frances Wright, 1897-1989." SKY & TELESCOPE 78 (November 1989): 460.

533 Furness, Caroline E. "Mary W. Whitney." POPULAR ASTRONOMY 30 (1922): 597-608; 31 (1923): 25-36.

534 Gaposchkin, Cecilia Helena Payne; ed. by Katherine Haramundanis. CECILIA PAYNE-GAPOSCHKIN: AN AUTOBIOGRAPHY AND OTHER RECOLLECTIONS. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984.

535 Goldsmith, Donald. THE ASTRONOMERS. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1991. See chapter 5 on M. Geller.

536 Greenstein, George. "Neutron Stars and the Discovery of Pulsars." MERCURY 14, no.2 (March/April 1985): 34-39; and 14, no.3 (May/June 1985): 66-73. On Jocelyn Bell Burnell's and Antony Hewish's work on pulsars. Excerpted from Greenstein's 1983 book FROZEN STAR.

537 Harry, Owen. "The Hon. Mrs. Ward (1827-1869): A Wife, Mother, Microscopist and Astronomer in Ireland 1854-1869." In SCIENCE IN IRELAND, 1800-1930: TRADITION AND REFORM, ed. John R. Nudds et al. Dublin: Trinity College Dublin, 1988.

538 Herschel, Mary Cornwallis (Mrs. John Herschel) MEMOIR AND CORRESPONDENCE OF CAROLINE HERSCHEL. London: John Murray, 1876.

539 Hill, Edward. MY DAUGHTER BEATRICE: A PERSONAL MEMOIR OF DR. BEATRICE TINSLEY, ASTRONOMER. New York: American Physical Society, 1986.

540 Hoffleit, Dorrit. "Antonia Maury." SKY & TELESCOPE 9, no.5 (March 1952): 106. Obituary.

541 Hoffleit, Dorrit. "Some Glimpses From My Career." MERCURY 21, no.1 (January/February 1992): 16-18. In special issue on women in astronomy.

542 Hogg, Helen Sawyer. "Anne Sewell Young." QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY 3 (1962): 355-357.

543 Hogg, Helen Sawyer. "A. Vibert Douglas (obituary)." PHYSICS TODAY 42, (July 1989): 88-89. Canadian astrophysicist.

544 Hoskin, Michael, and Warner, Brian. "Caroline Herschel's Comet Sweepers." JOURNAL OF THE HISTORY OF ASTRONOMY 12 (1981): 27-34.

545 Kendall, Phebe Mitchell, comp. MARIA MITCHELL: LIFE, LETTERS, AND JOURNALS. Boston: Lee & Shepard, 1896.

546 Kidwell, Peggy Aldrich. "Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin: Astronomy in the Family." In UNEASY CAREERS AND INTIMATE LIVES: WOMEN IN SCIENCE, 1789-1979, ed. Pnina G. Abir-Am and Dorinda Outram, pp.216-238. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1987.

547 Kidwell, Peggy Aldrich. "Three Women of American Astronomy (Maria Mitchell (1818-1889), Annie Jump Cannon (1863-1941), and Cecilia Payne- Gaposchkin (1900-1979)) AMERICAN SCIENTIST 78 (May/June 1990): 244-251.

548 Klumpke, Dorothea. "The Work of Women in Astronomy." OBSERVATORY 22 (August 1899): 295-300. Antiquity through 19th century.

549 Kohlstedt, Sally Gregory. "Maria Mitchell: The Advancement of Women in Science." NEW ENGLAND QUARTERLY 51, no.1 (March 1978): 39-63. Draws extensively on primary sources as evidence of Mitchell's work on behalf of women. Repr. in UNEASY CAREERS AND INTIMATE LIVES: WOMEN IN SCIENCE, 1789-1979, pp.129-146. Ed. by Pnina G. Abir-Am and Dorinda Outram. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1987.

550 Lightman, Alan P., and Brawer, Roberta. ORIGINS: THE LIVES AND WORLDS OF MODERN COSMOLOGISTS. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1990. Includes interviews with astronomers Vera Rubin, pp.285-305, and Margaret Geller, pp.359-377.

551 Lubbock, Constance A. THE HERSCHEL CHRONICLE: THE LIFE-STORY OF WILLIAM HERSCHEL AND HIS SISTER CAROLINE. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1933. Written by William Herschel's granddaughter.

552 Mary Thomas a Kempis, Sister. "Caroline Herschel." SCRIPTA MATHEMATICA 21, no.4 (June 1955): 237-251.

553 McKenney, Anne P. "What Women Have Done for Astronomy in the United States." POPULAR ASTRONOMY 12 (March 1904): 171-182. Biographical sketches.

554 Merriam, Eve, ed. "Maria Mitchell." In GROWING UP FEMALE IN AMERICA: TEN LIVES, ed. by Eve Merriam, pp.75-92. Extracts from Mitchell's diary, selected for the general reader. New York: Doubleday, 1971.

555 Mitchell, Helen Buss. "Henrietta Swan Leavitt and Cepheid Variables." PHYSICS TEACHER 14, no.2 (February 1976): 162-167. Biographical sketch.

556 Nelson, Debra L. "Daughters of the Sky: A Brief History of Women in Astronomy." GRIFFITH OBSERVER 47, no.3 (March 1983): 2-10. With illustrations.

557 Newall, H. "Dame Margaret Lindsay Huggins." MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE R.A.S. 76 (February 1916): 278-82. Obituary.

558 O'Meara, Stephen James. "Women in Astronomy." SKY & TELESCOPE 77 (March 1989): 317-318.

559 Ogilvie, Marilyn Bailey. "Caroline Herschel's Contributions to Astronomy." ANNALS OF SCIENCE 32 (1975): 149-161.

560 Oles, Carole. NIGHT WATCHES: INVENTIONS ON THE LIFE OF MARIA MITCHELL. Cambridge, MA: A. James Books, 1985.

561 Opalko, Jane. "Maria Mitchell's Haunting Legacy." SKY & TELESCOPE 83 (May 1992): 505-7.

562 Payne-Gaposchkin, Cecilia H. "Miss Cannon and Stellar Spectroscopy." THE TELESCOPE 8, no.3 (1941): 62-3. On Cannon's work on the Henry Draper Catalogue.

563 Reed, George. "The Discovery of Pulsars: Was Credit Given Where It Was Due?" ASTRONOMY 11, no.12 (December 1983): 24-28. On Jocelyn Bell Burnell's exclusion from the 1974 Nobel Prize.

564 Reynolds, J. "Dorothea Klumpke Roberts." MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE R.A.S. 104, no.2 (1944): 92+.

565 Richardson, Robert S. THE STAR LOVERS. New York: Macmillan, 1967. Chapter 11 is on Margaret Huggins and other women astronomers: pp.157-178.

566 Rizzo, P.V. "Early Daughters of Urania." SKY AND TELESCOPE 14, no.1 (November 1954): 7-9. Identifies "lady astronomers" before Caroline Herschel.

567 Robinson, Leif J. "Obituary [of Antoinette de Vaucouleurs]" SKY & TELESCOPE 74 (December 1987): 598. For another obituary see, "Antoinette de Vaucouleurs," by Frank Bash, Harlan J. Smith, and J. Craig Wheeler. PHYSICS TODAY 41 (July 1988): 92.

568 Rubin, Vera. "Women's Work: Discrimination Against Women in Astronomy." SCIENCE 86, v.7 (July/August 1986): 58-65. Discusses the careers of Maria Mitchell, Annie Jump Cannon and others.

569 Schiebinger, Londa L. "Maria Winkelmann at the Berlin Academy: A Turning Point for Women in Science." ISIS 78, no.292 (1987): 172-198. Also published in "Maria Winkelmann: The Clash Between Guild Traditions and Professional Science," in CURRENT ISSUES IN WOMEN'S HISTORY, ed. Arina Angerman, Geerte Binnema, Annemieke Keunen, Vefie Poels, Jacqueline Zirkzee. (London/New York: Routledge, 1989), and in GENDERED DOMAINS: RETHINKING PUBLIC AND PRIVATE IN WOMEN'S HISTORY, ed. Dorothy Helly and Susan Reverby (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1992), pp.56-70.

570 Smith, E. "Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin." PHYSICS TODAY (June 1980): 64.

571 Spradley, Joseph L. "The Industrious Mrs. Fleming." ASTRONOMY 18 (July 1990): 48-51. The first American woman admitted to the Royal Astronomical Society (1906).

572 Spradley, Joseph L. "Women and the Stars." PHYSICS TEACHER 28, no.6 (September 1990): 372-377. Describes the work of 15 women astronomers.

573 Stephens, Sally. "Vera Rubin: An Unconventional Career." MERCURY 21, no.1 (January/February 1992): 38-45.

574 Thompson, Grace A. "Williamina Fleming." NEW ENGLAND MAGAZINE 48 (1912): 458-467.

575 Tousey, R. "The Solar Spectrum from Fraunhofer to Skylab: An Appreciation of the Contribution of Charlotte Moore Sitterly." JOURNAL OF THE OPTICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA. B, OPTICAL PHYSICS 5, no.10 (October 1988): 2230-2236. Chiefly technical description of Sitterly's work in solar spectroscopy.

576 Weitzenhoffer, Kenneth. "The Education of Mary Somerville." SKY AND TELESCOPE 73 (February 1987): 138-139. Nineteenth-century astronomer who wrote THE MECHANISM OF THE HEAVENS: ON THE CONNEXION OF THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES, PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY, AND MOLECULAR AND MICROSCOPIC SCIENCE.

577 Weitzenhoffer, Kenneth. "A Forgotten Astronomer (Elizabeth Brown)." ASTRONOMY 20 (October 1992): 13-14.

578 Weitzenhoffer, Kenneth. "The Triumph of Dorothea Klumpke." SKY AND TELESCOPE 72 (August 1986): 109-110.

579 Welther, B. "Annie Jump Cannon: Classifier of the Stars." MERCURY 8, no.1 (January-February 1984): 28-29.

580 Whineray, Scott, ed. "Beatrice (Hill) Tinsley, 1941-1981, Astronomer: A Tribute in Memory of an Outstanding Physicist." Palmerston North, N.Z.: Massey University, New Zealand Institute of Physics Education Committee, 1985.

581 Whitney, Charles A. "Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin: An Astronomer's Astronomer." SKY & TELESCOPE 59, no.3 (March 1980): 212-214.

582 Wright, Helen. SWEEPER IN THE SKY: THE LIFE OF MARIA MITCHELL, FIRST WOMAN ASTRONOMER IN AMERICA. New York: Macmillan, 1949.

Chemistry (583-674)

Because women chemists contributed to many scientific fields, this section overlaps with others. Some of the listings will also be found under HOME ECONOMICS/DOMESTIC SCIENCE and NATURAL, BIOLOGICAL, AND LIFE SCIENCES in particular. Besides the listings below, many short news items on the status of women in chemistry have appeared over the years in CHEMICAL ENGINEERING NEWS.

REFERENCE

583 Grinstein, Louise S., Rose, Rose K., and Rafailovich, Miriam H., eds. WOMEN IN CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS: A BIOBIBLIOGRAPHIC SOURCEBOOK. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1993. Biographies of seventy-five chemists and physicists accompanied by bibliographies of works by and about each.

GENERAL

584 Adams, F. W. "Opportunities for Women as Research Bibliographers." JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL EDUCATION 12 (January 1935): 581-583. Describes the position of bibliographer in an industrial research organization, for which "women are temperamentally well equipped."

585 Chepelinsky, Ana Berta, et al. "Women in Chemistry: Part of the 51% Minority." SCIENCE FOR THE PEOPLE 4, no.4 (July 1972): 4-8. Focuses on "the mechanisms by which women are kept 'in their place' using chemistry as an example." Repr. in SCIENCE AND LIBERATION, pp.257-266. Ed. by Rita Arditti, Pat Brennan, and Steve Cavrak. Boston: South End Press, 1980.

586 Cortelyou, Ethaline. "Counseling the Woman Chemistry Major." JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL EDUCATION 32 (April 1955): 196-197. Touts technical editing as a career.

587 Everett, K. G., and Deloach, W. S. "Chemistry Doctorates Awarded to Women in the United States - A Historical Perspective." JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL EDUCATION 68, iss.7 (1991): 545-547.

588 Farnsworth, Marie K. "Women in Chemistry: A Statistical Study." INDUSTRIAL AND ENGINEERING CHEMISTY 3 (1925): 4.

589 Foster, Mary Louise. "The Education of Spanish Women in Chemistry." JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL EDUCATION 8, no.1 (January 1931): 30-34.

590 French, Ethel L. "A Survey of the Training and Placement of Women Chemistry Majors in Women's and Co-Educational Colleges." JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL EDUCATION 16 (December 1939): 574-577. Includes statistical tables.

591 "The Future Role of Women in Science and the World." CHEMIST 57, no.1 (January 1980): 3-18. Twenty-three professional women share their views.

592 Gramse, Erna L. "Women in Chemistry." CHEMIST 54, no.5 (1977): 14-15.

593 Handler, Bonnie S., and Shmurak, Carole B. "Rigor, Resolve, Religion: Mary Lyon and Science Education." TEACHING EDUCATION 3, no.2 (Winter/Spring 1991): 137-142. Lyon was the founder of Mount Holyoke College where she established a chemistry department responsible for training many women chemists.

594 Hearsey, Evelyn. "The Woman Chemist in the Control Laboratory: Training and Qualifications." JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL EDUCATION 16 (December 1939): 587. Brief statement about women's innate qualifications and training needs.

595 Houlihan, Sherida, and Wotiz, John H. "Women in Chemistry Before 1900." JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL EDUCATION 52, no.6 (June 1975): 362-364. Chronological account of key figures since antiquity.

596 Hunter, Elizabeth. "Women as Patent Attorneys." JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL EDUCATION 16 (December 1939): 589-590. Suggests career pathways for working with patents.

597 Jones, Julie. "Women in Cereal Chemistry." FOODS WORLD 21, no.5 (May 1976): 206-208.

598 Landis, W.S. "Women Chemists in Industry." JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL EDUCATION 16 (December 1939): 577-579. Discusses barriers to women's success in industry -- primarily sex-typed upbringing and education, and women's own "psychology."

599 Lindee, M. Susan. "The American Career of Jane Marcet's CONVERSATIONS ON CHEMISTRY, 1806-1853." ISIS 82 (March 1991): 8-23.

600 Mason, Joan. "A Forty Years' War." CHEMISTRY IN BRITAIN 27 (1991): 233-238. On getting women admitted to the Chemical Society of London.

601 Miller, Jane A. "Daughters of Isis: Women in Chemistry." 2YC DISTILLATE 3, no.3 (1985): 1+.

602 Miller, Jane A. "Women in Chemistry." In WOMEN OF SCIENCE: RIGHTING THE RECORD, ed. by G. Kass-Simon & Patricia Farnes, pp.300-334. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1990.

603 Nixon, Alan. "Changing Attitudes Toward Women in the Profession of Chemistry." In EXPANDING THE ROLE OF THE WOMEN IN THE SCIENCES, ed. by Anne Briscoe and Sheila Pfafflin, pp.146-172. (ANNALS OF THE NEW YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 323; 1979.)

604 Parrish, John B. "Women BS Graduates in Chemistry: A Survey of Career Experience." JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL EDUCATION 42, no.4 (April 1965): 216-217. Surveys women who graduated from eight Big Ten universities, 1958-1963.

605 Parrish, John B. "Women PhDs in Chemistry: A Survey of Career Data." JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL EDUCATION 41, no.9 (September 1964): 506-508. Statistical study; pays special attention to dual role of chemist and mother.

606 Rawls, Rebecca L., and Fox, Jeffrey L. "Women in Academic Chemistry Find Rise to Full Status Difficult." CHEMICAL AND ENGINEERING NEWS 56, no.37 (September 11, 1978): 26-32, 36.

607 Rayner-Canham, Geoffrey W., and Frenette, H. "Some French Women Chemists." EDUCATION IN CHEMISTRY 22, no.6 (November 1985): 176-178. Briefly treats Marie Meurdrac, Marie Lavoisier, Claudine Picardet, Albertine Necker de Saussure, and Marguerite Perey.

608 Roscher, Nina M., and Cavanaugh, Margaret A. "Academic Women Chemists in the 20th Century: Past, Present, Projections." JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL EDUCATION 64 (October 1987): 823-827. Discussion: 66 (May 1989): 447-448; Part II: 69 (November 1992): 870-873.

609 Roscher, Nina M., and Ammons, Phillip L. "Early Women Chemists of the Northeast." JOURNAL OF THE WASHINGTON ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 71, no.4 (December 1981): 177-182.

610 Roscher, Nina M. "Women Chemists." CHEMTECH 6, no.12 (December 1976): 738-743. Profiles selected Garvan medalists.

611 Sherman, H.C. "Training and Opportunities for Women in Chemistry." JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL EDUCATION 16 (December 1939): 579-581. Brief overview, emphasizing home economics, food chemistry, and nutrition as areas for women.

612 Snell, Cornelia T. "Organic Analysis as a Tool for Women Chemists." JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL EDUCATION 27 (March 1950): 138-141. Describes the challenges in chemical analysis and why women excel at it.

613 Snell, Cornelia T. "Women as Professional Chemists." JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL EDUCATION 25 (August 1948): 450-453. Advises on college training, fields of specialized work, opportun ities for advancement, and job hunting.

614 Snell, Cornelia T. "Writing About Chemistry." JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL EDUCATION 16 (December 1939): 588. Opportunities for secretaries, editors, and technical writers.

615 Vetter, Betty M. "Women in Chemistry: Challenges of Finding, Keeping a Job." CHEMIST 53, no.7 (1976): 4-6.

616 Wallace, Earl K. "A Survey of Chemistry in Women's Colleges." JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL EDUCATION 14 (June 1937): 285. Includes tables and charts of various aspects of chemistry curriculum in American women's colleges.

617 Weirick, Elizabeth. "Experiences in Merchandise Control." JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL EDUCATION 16 (December 1939): 585-587. Describes technical laboratories at Sears, Roebuck & Co. and the career path of their female chief.

618 Whitsitt, May L. "A Backward Glance Gives a Forward Look." JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL EDUCATION 16 (December 1939): 590-594. Summary paper for 1939 Symposium on Training and Opportunities for Women in Chemistry. Documents discrimination. See also other papers in the same issue.

619 Wikoff, Helen L. "Occupations and Earnings of Women in Chemistry." INDUSTRIAL AND ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY 25 (1933): 467-472.

620 "Women in Chemistry." CHEMIST 52, no.7 (1976): 14-15.

621 WOMEN IN CHEMISTRY: A STUDY OF PROFESSIONAL OPPORTUNITIES. New York: Bureau of Vocational Information, 1922.

622 "Women's Club Study Course in American Chemistry." JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL EDUCATION 7 (Febraury 1930): 325-340. Syllabus for non-technical chemistry course, with readings and assigned questions.

623 Woodford, Lois W. "Trends in the Industrial Employment of Women Chemists." JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL EDUCATION 22 (May 1945): 236-238. A look at post-war opportunities.

624 Worner, Ruby K. "Opportunites for Women Chemists in Washington." JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL EDUCATION 16 (December 1939): 583-585. Surveys federal employment.

625 Zinberg, Dorothy. "The Past Decade for Women Scientists -- Win, Lose, or Draw?" TRENDS IN BIOCHEMICAL SCIENCES 2, no.6 (1977): 123-126.

BIOGRAPHIES AND STUDIES OF INDIVIDUALS

NOTE: Biographies of Rachel Bodley, Dorothy Hahn, and Ellen Richards are included in NOTABLE AMERICAN WOMEN, edited by Edward T. James et al. (3 vols., Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1971). NOTABLE AMERICAN WOMEN: THE MODERN PERIOD, edited by Barbara Sicherman and Carol Hurd Green (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1980) has entries for Emma Perry Carr and Mary Engle Pennington. Twenty-four women are covered under "Chemists and Biochemists" in WOMEN IN THE SCIENTIFIC SEARCH: AN AMERICAN BIO-BIBLIOGRAPHY, 1724-1979, by Patricia Joan Siegel and Kay Thomas Finley (Metuchen: Scarecrow, 1985). Obituaries and short biographical profiles of women chemists have appeared in CHEMICAL ENGINEERING NEWS, JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL EDUCATION, and other journals in the field. Women are represented in AMERICAN CHEMISTS AND CHEMICAL ENGINEERS, edited by Wyndham D. Miles (Washington: American Chemical Society, 1976). Works on Marie Curie are listed in this section.

626 Armstrong, Evan. "Jane Marcet and Her `Conversations on Chemistry'." JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL EDUCATION 15, no.2 (February 1938): 53-57.

627 Barr, E. Scott. "The Incredible Marie Curie and Her Family." PHYSICS TEACHER 2 (1964): 251-259. Includes Irene Joliet-Curie.

628 Bartow, Virginia. "Philosophical Studies by the Duchess of Newcastle." JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL EDUCATION 34 (1957): 82.

629 Bigland, Eileen. MADAME CURIE New York: Criterion Books, 1957.

630 Bishop, Lloyd D., and Deloach, Will S. "Marie Meurdrac -- First Lady of Chemistry." JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL EDUCATION 47 (1970): 448-449.

631 Briscoe, Anne. "Diary of a Mad Feminist Chemist." INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF WOMEN'S STUIDES 4, no.4 (September/October 1981): 420-430. Autobiographical account, with background on the Association for Women in Science.

632 Briscoe, Anne. "Scientific Sexism: The World of Chemistry." In WOMEN IN SCIENTIFIC AND ENGINEERING PROFESSIONS, ed. by Violet B. Haas & Carolyn Perrucci, pp.147-159. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1984. Contains autobiographical material.

633 Brody, Judith. "Behind Every Great Scientist...Madame Lavoisier Was Not Just the Wife of the Famous Chemist." NEW SCIENTIST 116 (December 24-31, 1987): 19-21.

634 Brown, Sanborn C. COUNT RUMFORD, PHYSICIST EXTRAORDINARY. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1962. See material on Marie Lavoisier, pp.138, 141-145, 150-152.

635 Creese, Mary R.S., and Creese, Thomas M. "Laura Alberta Linton (1853-1915): An American Chemist." BULLETIN FOR THE HISTORY OF CHEMISTRY 8 (1990): 15-18.

636 Crellin, John K. "Mrs. Marcet's `Conversations on Chemistry'." JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL EDUCATION 56 (1979): 459-460.

637 Creese, Mary R.S. "British Women of the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries Who Contributed to Research in the Chemical Sciences." THE BRITISH JOURNAL FOR THE HISTORY OF SCIENCE 24 (September 1991): 275-305.

638 Curie, Eve. MADAME CURIE. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1937. Classic biography of Marie Curie, by her daughter. Repr. Jersey City, NJ: DaCapo, 1986.

639 Davis, Kathleen A. "Katherine Blodgett and Thin Films." JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL EDUCATION 61 (May 1984): 437-439.

640 Derrick, M. Elizabeth. "Agnes Pockels, 1862-1935." JOURNAL OF

641 Duveen, Denis I. "Madame Lavoisier." CHYMIA: ANNUAL STUDIES IN THE HISTORY OF CHEMISTRY 4 (1953): 13-29.

642 Elder, Eleanor S. "Agnes Pockels: Indeed a Lady." CHEMISTRY 47, no.1 (1974): 10-12.

643 Farago, Peter. "Interview with Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin." JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL EDUCATION 54 (1977): 214-216. Biochemist, crystallographer, 1964 Nobelist.

644 Giroud, Fran oise. MARIE CURIE: A LIFE. New York: Holmes & Meier, 1986. Translated by Lydia Davis.

645 Gleiser, Molly. "The Garvan Women." JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL EDUCATION 62 (1985): 1065-1068.

646 Hartwell, Anne. "Mary E. Pennington, Who Keeps Cold Storage Cold." WOMAN'S JOURNAL 15, no.11 (November 1930): 11, 42-43. Interview with "America's foremost woman chemist."

647 Hoobler, Icie Gertrude Macy. BOUNDLESS HORIZONS: PORTRAIT OF A PIONEER WOMAN SCIENTIST. Smithtown, NY: Exposition Press, 1982. A biochemist concerned with nutrition.

648 Hunt, Caroline L. THE LIFE OF ELLEN H. RICHARDS. Boston: Whitcomb & Barrows, 1912. Repr. Washington: American Home Economics Association, 1958.

649 Jennings, Bojan Hamlin. "The Professional Life of Emma Perry Carr." JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL EDUCATION 63 (1986): 923-927.

650 Julian, Maureen M. "Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin: Nobel Laureate." JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL EDUCATION 59 (1982): 124.

651 Julian, Maureen M. "Dorothy Wrinch and a Search for the Structure of Proteins." JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL EDUCATION 61, no.10, (October 1984): 890-891.

652 Julian, Maureen M. "Isabella L. Karle and a New Mathematical Breakthrough in Crystallography." JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL EDUCATION 63 (1986): 66-67.

653 Kampmeier, R. H. "Ann Stone Minot (1894-1980): Clinical Chemist and Teacher." CLINICAL CHEMISTRY 32 (1986): 1602-1609.

654 Kampmeier, R. H. "Ann Stone Minot: Vanderbilt Teacher and Clinical Chemist, 1894-1980." NUTRITION HISTORY NOTES 24 (Fall 1985): 1-6.

655 Meites, Samuel. "Willey Glover Denis (1879-1929), Pioneer Woman of Clinical Chemistry." CLINICAL CHEMISTRY 31 (1985): 774-778.

656 Noble, Deborah. "Marie Curie: Half-Life of a Legend." ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY 65 (February 15, 1993): 215A-219A.

657 Okey, Ruth. "A Woman in Science: 1893-1973." THE JOURNAL OF NUTRITION 118 (December 1988): 1425-1431. Autobiographical article.

658 Patai, Raphael. "Maria the Jewess: Founding Mother of Alchemy." AMBIX 29 (1982): 177-197.

659 Pflaum, Rosalynd. GRAND OBSESSION: MADAME CURIE AND HER WORLD. New York: Doubleday, 1989.

660 Pramer, Stacey. "Mary Fieser: A Transitional Figure in the History of Women." JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL EDUCATION 62 (1985): 186-191.

661 Pycior, Helena M. "Marie Curie's `Anti-natural Path': Time Only for Science and Family." In UNEASY CAREERS AND INTIMATE LIVES: WOMEN IN SCIENCE, 1789-1979, ed. Pnina G. Abir-Am and Dorinda Outram, pp.191-214. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1987.

662 Rae, Ian D. "Clara Taylor (1885-1940)." CHEMISTRY IN BRITAIN 27 (1991): 145-148.

663 Rayner-Canham, Geoffrey W. "Two British Women Chemists." EDUCATION IN CHEMISTRY 20 , no.4 (July 1983): 140-141. Treats Jane Marcet and Elizabeth Fulhame, both active in the late-18th and early-19th centuries.

664 Reid, Robert William. MARIE CURIE. New York: Saturday Review Press, 1974. Includes photographs.

665 Roscher, Nina M., and Nguyen, Chinh K. "Helen M. Dyer: A Pioneer in Cancer Research." JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL EDUCATION 63 (1986): 253-255.

666 Rosen, George. "Ellen H. Richards (1824-1911): Sanitary Chemist and Pioneer of Professional Equality for Women in Health Sciences." AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH 64 (1974): 312-323.

667 Sayre, Anne. ROSALIND FRANKLIN AND DNA. New York: Norton, 1975.

668 Shmurak, Carole B., and Handler, Bonnie S. "Castle of Science: Mount Holyoke College and the Preparation of Women in Chemistry, 1837-1941." HISTORY OF EDUCATION QUARTERLY 32, no.3 (Fall 1992): 315-342.

669 Shmurak, Carole B., and Handler, Bonnie S. "Lydia Shattuck: `A Streak of the Modern.'" TEACHING EDUCATION 3, no.2 (Winter-Spring 1991): 127-131. Shattuck taught chemistry and botany at Mount Holyoke in the mid-nineteenth century.

670 Smeaton, William A. "Madame Lavoisier, P.S. and E.I. DuPont de Nemours, and the Publication of Lavoisier's `Memoires de Chemie.'" AMBIX: JOURNAL OF THE SOCIETY FOR THE HISTORY OF ALCHEMY AND CHEMISTRY 36 (1989): 22-30.

671 Smeaton, William A. "Monsieur and Madame Lavoisier in 1798: The Chemical Revolution and the French Revolution." AMBIX: JOURNAL OF THE SOCIETY FOR THE HISTORY OF ALCHEMY AND CHEMISTRY 36 (1989): 1-4.

672 Tarbell, A.T., and Tarbell, D.S. "Helen Abbott Michael: Pioneer in Plant Chemistry." JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL EDUCATION 59 (1982): 548.

673 Weeks, Mary Elvira, and Dains, F.B. "Mrs. A.H. Lincoln Phelps and Her Services to Chemical Education." JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL EDUCATION 14 (1937): 53-57.

674 Weiner, Ruth. "Chemist and Eco-Freak." In SUCCESSFUL WOMEN IN THE SCIENCES: AN ANALYSIS OF DETERMINANTS, ed. by Ruth B. Kundsin, pp.52-56. (ANNALS OF THE NEW YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 208; 1973.) Repr. with title, WOMEN AND SUCCESS: THE ANATOMY OF ACHIEVEMENT. New York: Morrow, 1974.

Geology and Earth Sciences (675-747)

Here are listed works on women in the geosciences, including geology and meteorology.

GENERAL

675 Aldrich, Michele L. "Women in Geology." In WOMEN OF SCIENCE: RIGHTING THE RECORD, ed. by G. Kass-Simon & Patricia Farnes, pp.42-71. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1990.

676 Aldrich, Michele L. "Women in Paleontology in the United States, 1840-1960." EARTH SCIENCES HISTORY 1 (1982): 14-22.

677 Arnold, Lois Barber. "American Women in Geology -- A Historical Perspective." GEOLOGY 5, no.8 (August 1977): 493-494. One of six papers in a symposium on "Women and Careers in Geoscience."

678 Coates, Mary Sue. "Women Geologists Work Toward Equality." GEOTIMES 31, no.11 (November 1986): 11-14. History and current status of women in geology.

679 Elder, Eleanor S. "Women in Early Geology." JOURNAL OF GEOLOGICAL EDUCATION 30, no.5 (November 1982): 287-293. Biographical sketches of Martine de Bertereau, Baroness de Beausoleil (ca. 1602-1640); Mary Ann Anning (1799-1847); Elizabeth Philpot (1780?-1857); Erminnie Adele Platt Smith (1836-1886); Ida H. Ogilvie (1874-1963); Mignon Talbot (1869-1950); Carlotta J. Maury (1874-1938); Elizabeth Florette Fisher (1873-1941); Inge Lehmann (b.1888).

680 Geological Survey (U.S.) WINGS: WOMEN IN THE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. Denver, CO: Geologic Division Women's Advisory Committee, Central Region, 1991. Bimonthly periodical which began in June 1991.

681 Halsey, Susan D. et al., eds. WOMEN IN GEOLOGY. Canton, NY: Ash Lad Press, 1976. Proceeding of the First Northeastern Women's Geoscientists Conference, St. Lawrence University, 1976. Includes scientific papers and self- disclosing presentations by a panel of "role models."

682 Johnson, Diane. "Women in Meteorology: A Glimpse of the Large-Scale Pattern." WEATHERWISE 28, no.3 (June 1975): 108-113.

683 Rossiter, Margaret W. "Geology in Nineteenth Century Women's Education in the United States." JOURNAL OF GEOLOGICAL EDUCATION 29, no.5 (November 1981): 228-232.

684 Sand, Virginia Murphy, and Bunning, Bonnie Butler. "Ten Years of Progress for AGI's Women Geoscientists Committee." JOURNAL OF GEOLOGICAL EDUCATION 33, no.4 (September 1985): 212-215. Reviews the committee's activities and charts gains in women's education and employment.

685 Schrock, Robert Rakes. "Women in Geology at M.I.T." In GEOLOGY AT M.I.T. 1865-1965, VOL. 2, pp.395-442. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1982.

686 Schwarzer, Theresa F. "The Changing Status of Women in the Geosciences." In EXPANDING THE ROLE OF WOMEN IN THE SCIENCES, ed. by Anne Briscoe and Sheila Pfafflin, pp.48-64. (ANNALS OF THE NEW YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 323; 1979.) A look at women's status in the 1970s. Includes statistical charts.

687 Simpson, Joanne, and LeMone, Margaret. "Women in Meteorology." BULLETIN OF THE AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY 55, no.2 (February 1974): 122-131.

688 Suiter, Marilyn J. "Women in Geoscience: A Resource to Develop." GEOTIMES 37, no.1 (1992): 14-17.

689 Wallace, Jane H. "Women in the Survey." GEOTIMES 24, no.3, (March 1979): 34. Covers women's roles in the U.S. Geological Survey.

BIOGRAPHIES AND STUDIES OF INDIVIDUALS

NOTE: Obituaries are the sole source of biographical background for many women geologists. For additional citations, consult GEOLOGISTS AND THE HISTORY OF GEOLOGY: AN INTERNATIONAL BIBLIOGRAPHY FROM THE ORIGINS TO 1978, by William A.S. Sarjeant (7 vols., New York: Arno Press, 1980), and SUPPLEMENT, 1979-1984 AND ADDITIONS (Malabar, FL: R.E. Krieger, 1987). In NOTABLE AMERICAN WOMEN, edited by Edward T. James et al. (3 vols., Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1971), see the entry for Florence Bascom, and in NOTABLE AMERICAN WOMEN: THE MODERN PERIOD, edited by Barbara Sicherman and Carol Hurd Green (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1980), entries for Eleanora Knopf, Tilly Edinger, Winifred Goldring, and Julia Anna Gardner. Patricia Joan Siegel and Kay Thomas Finley's WOMEN IN THE SCIENTIFIC SEARCH: AN AMERICAN BIO-BIBLIOGRAPHY, 1724- 1979 (Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow, 1985) covers eleven women geologists.

690 Adkins, Mary Grace Muse. "Helen Jeanne Plummer (1891-1951)." AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF PETROLEUM GEOLOGISTS BULLETIN 38, no.8 (August 1954): 1854-1857.

691 Andrews, S.M. DISCOVERY OF FOSSIL FISHES IN SCOTLAND UP TO 1845. Edinburgh: Royal Scottish Museum, 1982. Treats Lady Eliza Maria Gordon Cumming, pp.72-73.

692 Applin, E.R. "Memorial to Laura Lane Weinzierl." JOURNAL OF PALEONTOLOGY 2, no.4 (December 1928): 383.

693 Arnold, Lois Barber. "Florence Bascom and the Exclusion of Women from Earth Science Curriculum Materials." JOURNAL OF GEOLOGICAL EDUCATION 23, no.4 (September 1975): 110-113.

694 Arnold, Lois Barber. "Ida Ogilvie." BARNARD ALUMNAE MAGAZINE 67 (1978): 12-13.

695 Arnold, Lois Barber. "The Wissahickon Controversy: Florence Bascom vs. Her Students." EARTH SCIENCE HISTORY 2, no.2 (1983): 130-142. Chronicles a split between a mentor and her protegees, unusual because all were women.

696 Behre, Charles H., Jr. "Memorial to Mary Welleck Garretson, 1896-1971." GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA MEMORIALS 4 (1975): 72-73.

697 Berdan, Jean M. "Memorial to Esther Richards Applin, 1895-1972." GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA MEMORIALS 4 (1975): 14-18.

698 Buzas, Martin A., and Low, Doris. "Memorial to Ruth Todd, 1913-1984." GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA MEMORIALS 16 (1986).

699 Byers, Virginia, and Osterwald, Doris. "Memorial to Margaret Fuller Boos, 1892-1978." GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA MEMORIALS 11 (1981).

700 Campbell, Catherine C. IAN AND CATHERINE CAMPBELL, GEOLOGISTS: TEACHING, GOVERNMENT SERVICE, EDITING. Berkeley, CA: Regional Oral History Office, the Bancroft Library, University of California, 1989.

701 Caster, Kenneth E. "Katherine Van Winkle Palmer, 1895-1982." JOURNAL OF PALEONTOLOGY 57, no.5 (September 1983): 1141-1144. Repr. in GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA MEMORIALS 17 (1987).

702 Christensen, Lawrence O. "Being Special: Women Students at the Missouri School of Mines and Metallurgy." MISSOURI HISTORICAL REVIEW 83, no.1 (1988): 17-35.

703 Christman, Robert A. "Marie B. Pabst (1909-1963)." JOURNAL OF GEOLOGICAL EDUCATION 11, no.3 (September 1963): 94.

704 Copeland, Charles W. "Memorial to Josie Winifred McGlamery, 1887-1977." GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA MEMORIALS 9 (1979).

705 Dietrich, Richard. "Memorial to Anna I. Jonas Stose, 1881-1974." GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA MEMORIALS 6 (1977).

706 Dinely, David L. "Shirley Coryndon, 1926-1976." SOCIETY OF VERTEBRATE PALEONTOLOGY NEWS BULLETIN no.111 (1977): 39-40.

707 Ellis, Brooks F. "Memorial to Angelina Rose Messina (1910-1968)." GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA PROCEEDINGS FOR 1968 (1971): 212-214.

708 Fahey, Joseph J. "Memorial to Margaret D. Foster, March 4, 1895 - November 5, 1970." AMERICAN MINERALOGIST 56, no.3/4 (March/April 1971): 686-690.

709 Fisher, Donald W. "Memorial to Winifred Goldring, 1888-1971." GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA MEMORIALS 3, (1974): 96-102.

710 Flower, Rousseau H. "Memorial to Helen M. Duncan, 1910-1971." GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA MEMORIALS 5 (1977).

711 Gabunia, L., and Trofimov, B.A. "Vera Gromova, 1891-1973." SOCIETY OF VERTEBRATE PALEONTOLOGY NEWS BULLETIN no.99 (1973): 64-65.

712 Gershanovich, D. Ye. "Tat'yana Ivanova Gorshkova on Her Ninetieth Birthday." OCEANOLOGY 26, no.3 (December 1986): 405-406.

713 Haff, John C. "Memorial to Mignon Talbot." GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA PROCEEDINGS FOR 1951 (1952): 157-158.

714 Jesperson, Anna. "Memorial to Jewell Jeannette Glass (1888-1966)." GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA PROCEEDINGS FOR 1966 (1968): 225-227.

715 Jesperson, Anna. "Memorial to Marjorie Hooker, 1908-1976." GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA MEMORIALS 8 (1978).

716 Kerr, Paul F. "Memorial to Peggy-Kay Hamilton (1922-1959)." GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA PROCEEDINGS FOR 1959 (1960): 133-136.

717 Knopf, Eleanora Bliss. "Memorial of Florence Bascom." AMERICAN MINERALOGIST 31, no.3/4 (March/April 1946): 168-172.

718 Ladd, Harry S. "Memorial to Julia Anna Gardner (1882-1960)." GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA PROCEEDINGS FOR 1960 (1962): 87-92.

719 Leiser, J.B. "Fanny Carter Edson (1887-1952)." AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF PETROLEUM GEOLOGISTS BULLETIN 37, no.5 (May 1953): 1182-1186.

720 Maher, John C. "Esther Richards Applin (1895-1972)." AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF PETROLEUM GEOLOGISTS BULLETIN 57, no.3 (March 1973): 596-597.

721 Mayer, Dale C. "Not One to Stay at Home: The Papers of Lou Henry Hoover." PROLOGUE 19, no.2 (1987): 85-93. Wife of President Herbert Hoover and the first woman in the United States to be granted a degree in geology.

722 Meadowcroft, Barbara. "Alice Wilson, 1881-1964: Explorer of the Earth Beneath Her Feet." In DESPITE THE ODDS: ESSAYS ON CANADIAN WOMEN AND SCIENCE, ed. by Marianne Gosztonyi Ainley, pp.204-219. Montreal: Vehicule Press; Buffalo, NY: U.S. distributor, University of Toronto Press, 1990.

723 Nicholson, Alexander. "Louise Jordan (1908-1966)." AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF PETROLEUM GEOLOGISTS BULLETIN 52, no.10 (October 1968): 2058-2059.

724 Oros, Margaret O. "Memorial to Virginia Harriett Kline (1910-1959)." GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA PROCEEDINGS FOR 1960 (1962): 115-117.

725 Packer, Duane R., and Dickinson, William R., and Nichols, Kathryn M. "Memorial to Marjorie K. Korringa, 1943-1974." GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA MEMORIALS 6 (1977).

726 Palmer, Katherine Van Winkle. "Dorothy K. Palmer, 1897-1947." JOURNAL OF PALEONTOLOGY 22, no. 4 (July 1948): 518-519.

727 Patterson, Bryan. "Margaret Jean Ringier Hough, 1903-1961." SOCIETY OF VERTEBRATE PALEONTOLOGY NEWS BULLETIN 62 (1961): 36.

728 Paull, Rachel K., and Paull, Richard A. "Memorial to Katherine Greacen Nelson, 1913-1982." GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA MEMORIALS 15 (1985).

729 Phelps, Miriam E. "Memorial to Eleanor Seely Salmon, 1910-1984." GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA MEMORIALS 17 (1987).

730 Reeds, Charles A. "Memorial to Carlotta Joaquina Maury." GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA PROCEEDINGS FOR 1938 (1939): 157-168.

731 Rodgers, John. "Memorial to Eleanora Bliss Knopf, 1883-1974." GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA MEMORIALS 6 (1977).

732 Romer, Alfred S. "Memorial [to Augusta Hasslock Kemp]." JOURNAL OF PALEONTOLOGY 38, no. 5 (1964): 1008.

733 Romer, Alfred S. "Tilly Edinger, 1897-1967." SOCIETY OF VERTEBRATE PALEONTOLOGY NEWS BULLETIN no. 81 (1967): 51-53.

734 Sayre, A. Nelson. "Julia Anna Gardner (1882-1960)." BULLETIN OF THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF PETROLEUM GEOLOGISTS 45 (August 1961): 1418-1421.

735 Schwartzwalder, Karl. "Memorial of Helen Blair Bartlett, December 14, 1901 - August 25, 1969." AMERICAN MINERALOGIST 56, no.3/4 (March/April 1971): 668-670.

736 Seward, A. C. "Ruth Holden (1890-1917)." NEW PHYTOLOGIST 16 (1917): 154-156.

737 Shang Rongguang, and Guo Meini. "The Path Less Traveled: A Woman Geologist." BEIJING REVIEW 33 (July 23, 1990): 30-32.

738 Simpson, Joanne. "Meteorologist." In SUCCESSFUL WOMEN IN THE SCIENCES: AN ANALYSIS OF DETERMINANTS, ed. by Ruth B. Kundsin, pp.41-46. (ANNALS OF THE NEW YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 208; 1973.) Repr. with title, WOMEN AND SUCCESS: THE ANATOMY OF ACHIEVEMENT. New York: Morrow, 1974.

739 Sinclair, G. Winston. "Memorial to Alice G. Wilson (1881-1964)." GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA BULLETIN 77 (July/December 1966): P215-P218.

740 Smith, Isabel Fothergill. THE STONE LADY: A MEMOIR OF FLORENCE BASCOM. Bryn Mawr, PA: Bryn Mawr College, 1981.

741 Spieker, Edmund M. "Memorial to Grace Anne Stewart, 1893-1970." GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA MEMORIALS 2 (1973): 110-114.

742 Teas, L. P. "Alva Christine Ellisor (1892-1964)." AMERICAN ASSOCIAION OF PETROLEUM GEOLOGISTS BULLETIN 49, no. 4 (April 1965): 467-471.

743 Teitz, Joyce. "Oceanographer: Sylvia A. Earl." In WHAT'S A NICE GIRL LIKE YOU DOING IN A PLACE LIKE THIS?, by Joyce Teitz, pp.100-123. New York: Coward, McCann & Geoghegan, 1972.

744 Tharp, Marie, and Frankel, Henry. "Mappers of the Deep." NATURAL HISTORY 95, no.10 (1986): 49-62. Tharp was co-discoverer of the rift valley in the mid-Atlantic Ridge.

745 Watson, Edward H. "Geology, Florence Bascom, and Ida Ogilvie." BRYN MAWR ALUMNAE BULLETIN 46 (1945): 11-14.

746 White, Alice. "Billie R. Untermann, 1906-1973." SOCIETY OF VERTEBRATE PALEONTOLOGY NEWS BULLETIN no.99 (1973): 65-66.

747 Wood, Elizabeth A. "Memorial to Ida Helen Ogilvie (1874-1963)." GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA BULLETIN 75 (1964): P35-P39.

Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science (748-849)

This section covers women in mathematics, mathematical statistics, and the development of computer science. Some of the entries concern research on sex differences in mathematical ability and achievement.

REFERENCE

748 Campbell, Paul J., and Grinstein, Louise S. "Women and Mathematics: A Preliminary Selected Bibliography." PHILOSOPHIA MATHEMATICA 13/14 (1976/77): 171-203. A detailed list of seventy women mathematicians, providing birth and death dates, nationality, areas of interest, and related reference material. Includes extensive index of references in biographical dictionaries, encyclopedias, books, and periodical literature

749 Green, Judy, and LaDuke, Jeanne, and Perl, Teri H. "Women in Mathematics." In THE HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS FROM ANTIQUITY TO THE PRESENT: A SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY, ed. by Joseph W. Dauben, pp.428-434. New York: Garland, 1985.

750 Grinstein, Louise S., and Campbell, Paul J., eds. WOMEN IN MATHEMATICS: A BIOBIBLIOGRAPHIC SOURCEBOOK. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1987. Biographies and bibliographies of forty-three leading women mathematicians.

GENERAL

751 Anderson, Margo. "The History of Women and the History of Statistics." JOURNAL OF WOMEN'S HISTORY 4, no.1 (Spring 1992): 14-36.

752 Arianrhod, Robyn. "Physics and Mathematics, Reality and Language: Dilemmas for Feminists." In THE KNOWLEDGE EXPLOSION: GENERATIONS OF FEMINIST SCHOLARSHIP, ed. Cheris Kramarae & Dale Spender, pp.41-53. New York: Teachers College Press, 1992. Reviews the impact of feminism on physics and mathematics since the late 1960s.

753 ASSOCIATION FOR WOMEN IN MATHEMATICS NEWSLETTER. 1971--. 6/year. Box 178, Wellesley College, Wellesley, MA 02181. Contains many biographical articles on women mathematicians and other articles on issues which concern women and mathematics. Specifically historical articles appear starting in 1976.

754 Eells, Walter Crosby. "American Doctoral Dissertations on Mathematics and Astronomy Written by Women in the Nineteenth Century." THE MATHEMATICS TEACHER 50, no.5 (May 1957): 374-376. Identifies eleven women Ph.D.'s.

755 Eriksson, Inger V., Kitchenham, Barbara A., and Tijdens, Kea G., eds. WOMEN, WORK, AND COMPUTERIZATION: UNDERSTANDING AND OVERCOMING BIAS IN WORK AND EDUCATION: PROCEEDINGS OF THE IFIP TC9/WG 9.1 CONFERENCE ON WOMEN, WORK, AND COMPUTERIZATION, HELSINKI, FINLAND, 30 JUNE-2 JULY 1991. New York: North- Holland/Elsevier Science Pub. Co., 1991.

756 Friedman, Batya. "Bringing Knowledge of Women Mathematicians into the Mathematics Classroom." MATHEMATICS AND COMPUTER EDUCATION 24, no.3 (Fall 1990): 250-253. Chiefly contemporary.

757 Gray, Mary. "Women in Mathematics." AMERICAN MATHEMATICAL MONTHLY 79 (1972): 475-479.

758 Green, Judy. "American Women in Mathematics -- the First Ph.D.'s." ASSOCIATION FOR WOMEN IN MATHEMATICS NEWSLETTER 8 (April 1978): 13-15.

759 Green, Judy, and LaDuke, Jeanne. "Contributions to American Mathematics: An Overview and Selection." In WOMEN OF SCIENCE: RIGHTING THE RECORD, ed. by G. Kass-Simon & Patricia Farnes, pp.117-146. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1990.

760 Green, Judy, and LaDuke, Jeanne. "Women in the American Mathematical Community: The Pre-1940 Ph.D's." MATHEMATICAL INTELLIGENCER 9, no.1 (1987): 11-23.

761 King, Amy C. "Woman Ph.D.'s in Mathematics in USA and Canada: 1886-1973." PHILOSOPHIA MATHEMATICA 13/14 (1976/77): 79-129. An incomplete listing of Ph.D. earners, noting year of degree, degree-granting institution, and area of specialization.

762 Kroll, D. "Evidence from the Mathematics Teacher (1908-1920) on Women and Mathematics." FOR THE LEARNING OF MATHEMATICS 5, no.2 (1985): 7-10.

763 Perl, Teri. "The LADIES' DIARY or WOMAN'S ALMANACK, 1704-1841." HISTORIA MATHEMATICA 6, no.1 (February 1979): 36-53.

764 Perry, Ruth, and Greber, Lisa. "Women and Computers: An Introduction." SIGNS: JOURNAL OF WOMEN IN CULTURE AND SOCIETY 16, no.1 (Autumn 1990): 74-101. Includes discussion of women's roles in the development of the computer.

765 PHILOSOPHIA MATHEMATICA 13/14 (1976/77); Special Issue: "Women and Mathematics: A Critical Inquiry."

766 Rappaport, Karen D. "Sexual Roles and Mathematical Expectations." MATHEMATICAL ASSOCIATION OF TWO YEAR COLLEGES JOURNAL 12, no.3 (Fall 1978): 195-198.

767 Rothman, Patricia. "Genius, Gender, and Culture: Women Mathematicians of the 19th Century." INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE REVIEW 13 (1988): 64-72.

768 Stinnett, Sandra. "Women in Statistics: Sesquicentennial Activities (Part of a Special Issue on: American Statistical Association History)." THE AMERICAN STATISTICIAN 44, no.2 (May 1990): 74-80.

769 Turkle, Sherry. "Women and Computer Programming: A Different Approach." TECHNOLOGY REVIEW 87, no.8 (November/December 1984): 48-50.

770 Wallis, Ruth, and Wallis, Peter. "Female Philomaths." HISTORIA MATHEMATICA 7, no.1 (February 1980): 57-64.

771 Whitman, Betsey S. "Women in the American Mathematical Society before 1900." ASSOCIATION FOR WOMEN IN MATHEMATICS NEWSLETTER 13, no.5 (September/October 1983): 7-9. Discusses twenty-two women who joined the AMS between its founding in 1888 and 1900.

772 "Women Mathematicians before 1950." ASSOCIATION FOR WOMEN IN MATHEMATICS NEWSLETTER 9, no.4 (July/August 1979): 9-11.

773 WOMEN OF COMPUTER HISTORY: FORGOTTEN PIONEERS. Wilmington, DE: The Institute, 1989.

BIOGRAPHIES AND STUDIES OF INDIVIDUALS

NOTE: See NOTABLE AMERICAN WOMEN, edited by Edward T. James, et al. (3 vols., Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1971), for biographies of Christine Ladd- Franklin and Charlotte Angas Scott, and NOTABLE AMERICAN WOMEN: THE MODERN PERIOD, edited by Barbara Sicherman and Carol Hurd Green (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1980) for sketches of Irmgard Flugge-Lotz, Hilda Geiringer, Margaret Hagood, Catherine Stern, and Anna Johnson Pell Wheeler. Nineteen mathematicians are covered in Patricia Joan Siegel and Kay Thomas Finley's WOMEN IN THE SCIENTIFIC SEARCH: AN AMERICAN BIO-BIBLIOGRAPHY, 1724-1979, and seven in BLACK WOMEN IN AMERICA: AN HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA, edited by Darlene Clark Hine (2 vols., Brooklyn: Carlson, 1993). See entries in the DICTIONARY OF SCIENTIFIC BIOGRAPHY, edited by Charles Coulston Gillespie (New York: Scribner, 1970 and subsequent eds.), for Maria Agnesi, Emilie du Chatelet, Sophie Germain, Hypatia, Sofia Kovalevskaia, and Emmy Noether. The ASSOCIATION FOR WOMEN IN MATHEMATICS NEWSLETTER regularly features biographical profiles; some are cited below.

774 Abir-Am, Pnina G. "Synergy or Clash: Disciplinary and Marital Strategies in the Career of Mathematical Biologist Dorothy Wrinch." In UNEASY CAREERS AND INTIMATE LIVES: WOMEN IN SCIENCE, 1789-1979, ed. Pnina G. Abir-Am and Dorinda Outram, pp.239-280. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1987.

775 Anand, Kailash. "Cypra Cecilia Krieger and the Human Side of Mathematics." Montreal: Vehicule Press; Buffalo, NY: U.S. distributor, University of Toronto Press, 1990. DESPITE THE ODDS: ESSAYS ON CANADIAN WOMEN AND SCIENCE, ed. by Marianne Gosztonyi Ainley, pp.248-251.

776 Anderson, R. L., et al. "Gertrude M. Cox -- A Modern Pioneer in Statistics." BIOMETRICS 35 (1979): 3-7.

777 Angluin, Dana. "Lady Lovelace and the Analytical Engine." ASSOCIATION FOR WOMEN IN MATHEMATICS NEWSLETTER 6, no.1 (January 1976): 5-10; 6, no.2 (February 1976): 6-8.

778 Archibald, Raymon Clare. "Women as Mathematicians and Astronomers." AMERICAN MATHEMATICAL MONTHLY 25, no.3 (March 1918): 136-139. Suggested topics for undergraduate mathematics club programs. Brief biographical information.

779 Baum, Joan. THE CALCULATING PASSION OF ADA BYRON. Hamden, CT: Archon Books, 1986.

780 Brewer, James W, and Smith, Martha K. EMMY NOETHER: A TRIBUTE TO HER LIFE AND WORK." New York: Marcel Dekker, 1981.

781 Bromberg, Howard. "Grace Murray Hopper: A Remembrance." IEEE SOFTWARE 9, no.3 (May 1992): 103. U.S. Navy Rear Admiral Hopper (d. January 1, 1992) was the co-inventor of the computer language COBOL. Obituaries also appeared in COMMUNICATIONS OF THE ACM 32, no.4 (April 1992): 128; DIGITAL REVIEW 9, no.2 (January 20, 1992): 40; FEDERAL COMPUTER WEEK 6, no.1 (January 13, 1992): 26; IEEE SOFTWARE 9, no.2 (March 1992): 95, and elsewhere.

782 Bucciarelli, Louis L., and Dworsky, Nancy. SOPHIE GERMAIN: AN ESSAY IN THE HISTORY OF THE THEORY OF ELASTICITY. Dordrecht: Reidel, 1980. Studies in the History of Modern Science, 6. Sophie Germain (1776-1831) of France won a competition sponsored by the French Academy of Science in 1809 for her analysis of the modes of vibration of elastic surfaces.

783 Cameron, Alan. "Isidore of Miletus and Hypatia: On the Editing of Mathematical Texts." GREEK, ROMAN AND BYZANTINE STUDIES 31 (1990): 103-127.

784 Cantwell, Catherine. "BU Math Professor's Life Filled with Firsts." ASSOCIATION FOR WOMEN IN MATHEMATICS NEWSLETTER 16, no.4 (July/August 1986): 8-9. Black American mathematician.

785 Chowdhury, M. R., and Koblitz, Ann Hibner. "Koblitz, Klein and Kovalevskaia (discussion)." THE MATHEMATICAL INTELLIGENCER 8, no.4 (1986): 68-72.

786 Cooke, Roger. "Sonya Kovalevskaya's Place in Nineteenth Century Mathematics." Providence, RI: American Mathematical Society, 1986. THE LEGACY OF SONYA KOVALEVSKAYA: PROCEEDINGS OF A SYMPOSIUM, ed. Linda Keen, pp.17-51.

787 Coolidge, Julian L. "Six Female Mathematicians." SCRIPTA MATHEMATICA 17, no.1/2 (March-June 1951): 20-31. Biographies of Hypatia, Maria Agnesi, Emilie du Chatelet, Mary Somerville, Sophie Germain, and Sofya Kovalevskaya.

788 Dahan-Dalmedico, Amy. "Sophie Germain." SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 265 (December 1991): 116-120+.

789 Dana, Rosamond, and Hilton, Peter J. "Mina Rees." In MATHEMATICAL PEOPLE, ed. by Donald J. Albers and G. L. Alexanderson, pp.256-267. Boston: Birkhauser, 1985. Interview with first woman president of the AAAS.

790 Dick, August. EMMY NOETHER, 1882-1935. Boston: Birkhauser, 1981.

791 DuBreil-Jacotin, Marie-Louise. "Women Mathematicians." In GREAT CURRENTS IN MATHEMATICAL THOUGHT, ed. by F. LeLionnais, vol.1, pp.168-180. New York: Dover, 1971. Translation of 1962 French edition. Short biographies of Agnesi, Germain, Somerville, Kovalevskaya, and Noether.

792 Eggleston, H. G. "Winifred L. C. Sargent." BULLETIN OF THE LONDON MATHEMATICAL SOCIETY 13, no.2 (March 1981): 173-176. Repr. in ASSOCIATION FOR WOMEN IN MATHEMATICS NEWSLETTER 13, no.1 (January/February 1983): 7-10.

793 Farquhar, Diane, and Mary-Rose, Lynn. WOMEN SUM IT UP: BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF WOMEN MATHEMATICIANS. Christchurch, New Zealand: Hazard Press, 1989.

794 Gilbert, Lynn, and Moore, Gaylen. PARTICULAR PASSIONS: TALKS WITH WOMEN WHO HAVE SHAPED OUR TIMES. New York: Crown, 1981. Pp. 58-63, Grace Brewster Murray Hopper, mathematician and computer software designer known as "the mother of COBOL."

795 Grattan-Guinness, Ivor. "A Mathematical Union: William Henry and Grace Chishom Young." ANNALS OF SCIENCE 29, no.2 (August 1972): 105-186.

796 Gray, Mary. "Sophie Germain: A Bicentennial Appreciation." ASSOCIATION FOR WOMEN IN MATHEMATICS NEWSLETTER 6, no.6 (September/October 1976): 10-14.

797 Grinstein, Louise S., and Campbell, Paul J. "Anna Johnson Pell Wheeler: Her Life and Work." HISTORIA MATHEMATICA 9, no.1 (February 1982): 37-53.

798 Grinstein, Louise S. "Some `Forgotten' Women of Mathematics: A Who Was Who." PHILOSOPHIA MATHEMATICA 13/14 (1976/77): 73-78. Short professional profiles of a dozen mathematicians.

799 Hamel, Frank. AN EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY MARQUISE: A STUDY OF EMILIE DU CHATELET AND HER TIMES. New York: J. Pott, 1911.

800 Huskey, Velma R., and Huskey, Harry D. "Lady Lovelace and Charles Babbage." ANNALS OF THE HISTORY OF COMPUTING 2, no.4 (1980): 299-329. Reproduces and comments on correspondence between Lovelace and Babbage.

801 Iacobacci, Rora F. "Women of Mathematics." ARITHMETIC TEACHER 17, no.4 (April 1970): 316-324. Short biographies of Hypatia, Maria Agnesi, Sophie Germain, Sophia Kovalevskaya, and Emmy Noether. Also in MATHEMATICS TEACHER 63, no.4 (April 1970): 329-337.

802 Iltis, Carolyn Merchant. "Madame du Chatelet's Metaphysics and Mechanics." STUDIES IN HISTORY AND PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE 8 (1977): 29-48.

803 Jones, Burton W., and Rosenbaum, Robert A. "Louise Johnson Rosenbaum." ASSOCIATION FOR WOMEN IN MATHEMATICS NEWSLETTER 12, no.4 (July/August 1982): 16-19.

804 Keen, Linda, ed. THE LEGACY OF SONYA KOVALEVSKAYA: PROCEEDINGS OF A SYMPOSIUM SPONSORED BY THE ASSOCIATION FOR WOMEN IN MATHEMATICS AND THE MARY INGRAHAM BUNTING INSTITUTE, OCTOBER 25-28, 1985. Providence: American Mathematical Society, 1986.

805 Kennedy, Don H. LITTLE SPARROW: A PORTRAIT OF SOPHIA KOVALEVSKY. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 1983.

806 Kenschaft, Patricia C. "Black Men and Women in Mathematical Research." JOURNAL OF BLACK STUDIES 18, no.2 (December 1987): 170-190. Discusses notable Black American mathematicians including Gloria Conyers Hewitt.

807 Kenschaft, Patricia C. "Black Women in Mathematics in the United States." AMERICAN MATHEMATICAL MONTHLY 88, no.8 (October 1981): 592-604. Twenty-one brief biographies. Repr. with photographs added in JOURNAL OF AFRICAN CIVILIZATIONS 4, no.1 (April 1982): 63-83.

808 Kenschaft, Patricia C. "Charlotte Angas Scott, 1858-1931." ASSOCIATION FOR WOMEN IN MATHEMATICS NEWSLETTER 7, no.6 (November/December 1977): 9-10; 8, no.1 (April 1978): 11-12.

809 Kenschaft, Patricia C. "Charlotte Angas Scott, 1858-1931." THE COLLEGE MATHEMATICS JOURNAL 18 (March 1987): 98-110. Includes bibliography.

810 Kenschaft, Patricia C. "Women in Mathematics Around 1900." SIGNS 7, no.4 (Summer 1982): 906-909.

811 Kimberling, Clark H. "Emmy Noether." AMERICAN MATHEMATICAL MONTHLY 79, no.2 (February 1972): 136-149.

812 Koblitz, Ann Hibner. "Careers and Home Life in the 1880s: The Choices of Mathematician Sofia Kovalevskaia." In UNEASY CAREERS AND INTIMATE LIVES: WOMEN IN SCIENCE, 1789-1979, ed. Pnina G. Abir-Am and Dorinda Outram, pp.172-190. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1987.

813 Koblitz, Ann Hibner. "Changing Views of Sofia Kovalevskaia." In THE LEGACY OF SONYA KOVALEVSKAYA: PROCEEDINGS OF A SYMPOSIUM, ed. Linda Keen, pp.53-76. Providence, RI: American Mathematical Society, 1986.

814 Koblitz, Ann Hibner. A CONVERGENCE OF LIVES: SOFIA KOVALEVSKAIA: SCIENTIST, WRITER, REVOLUTIONARY. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers, 1993. Rev. ed.

815 Koblitz, Ann Hibner. "Elizaveta Fedorovna Litvinova (1845-1919) -- Russian Mathematician and Pedagogue." ASSOCIATION FOR WOMEN IN MATHEMATICS NEWSLETTER 14, no.1 (January/February 1984): 13-17.

816 Koblitz, Ann Hibner. "Sofia Kovalevskaia -- A Biographical Sketch." THE LEGACY OF SONYA KOVALEVSKAYA: PROCEEDINGS OF A SYMPOSIUM, ed. Linda Keen, pp.3-16. Providence, RI: American Mathematical Society, 1986.

817 Koblitz, Ann Hibner. "Sofia Kovalevskaia and the Mathematical Community." MATHEMATICAL INTELLIGENCER 6, no.1 (1984): 20-29.

818 Kochina, P. Ia., Ishlinsky, A. Yu., and Sokolovskaya, Z. K., eds. LOVE AND MATHEMATICS: SOFYA KOVALEVSKAYA. Moscow: Mir, 1985.

819 Kovalevskaya, Sofya. A RUSSIAN CHILDHOOD. New York: Springer, 1978. Autobiographical novel, first published in 1889.

820 Kramer, Edna E. "Six More Female Mathematicians." SCRIPTA MATHEMATICA 23, no.1/4 (1957): 83-95. Short biographies.

821 Ladd-Franklin, Christine. "Sophie Germain: An Unknown Mathematician." CENTURY 48 (October 1894): 946-949. Repr. in ASSOCIATION FOR WOMEN IN MATHEMATICS NEWSLETTER 11, no.3 (May/June 1981): 7-11.

822 Love, Rosaleen. "`Alice in Eugenics-Land': Feminism and Eugenics in the Scientific Careers of Alice Lee and Ethel Elderton." ANNALS OF SCIENCE 36 (1979): 145-158.

823 Mary Thomas a Kempis, Sister. "The Walking Polyglot." SCRIPTA MATHEMATICA 6, no.4 (December 1939): 211-217. On Maria Gaetana Agnesi.

824 Mitford, Nancy. VOLTAIRE IN LOVE London: Hamish Hamilton, 1957. Detailed biography of the Marquise du Chatelet, based on manuscripts and published materials.

825 Morris, Edie, and Harkleroad, Leon. "Rozsa Peter: Recursive Function Theory's Founding Mother." THE MATHEMATICAL INTELLIGENCER 12 (Winter 1990): 59+

826 Narek, Diane. "A Woman Scientist Speaks." New York: New American Library, 1970. VOICES FROM WOMEN'S LIBERATION, ed. by Leslie R. Tanner, pp.325-329. A personal account of how one woman became a mathematician despite alienation and lack of support.

827 Osen, Lynn M. WOMEN IN MATHEMATICS. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1974. Biographies of Hypatia (370-415), Maria Agnesi (1718-1799), Emilie de Breteuil (1706-1749), Caroline Herschel (1750-1848), Mary Somerville (1780-1872), Sofya Kovalevskaya (1850-1891), and Emmy Noether (1882-1935). Repr. in 1988.

828 Patterson, Elizabeth C. "Mary Somerville." BRITISH JOURNAL FOR THE HISTORY OF SCIENCE 4, no.16 (1969): 311-339.

829 Patterson, Elizabeth C. MARY SOMERVILLE, 1780-1872. New York: Oxford University Press, 1979.

830 Patterson, Elizabeth C. MARY SOMERVILLE AND THE CULTIVATION OF SCIENCE, 1815-1840. The Hague: Nijhoff, 1983. International Archives for the History of Ideas, 102

831 Polubarinova-Kochina, P. Ia. LOVE AND MATHEMATICS: SOFYA KOVALEVSKAYA. Moscow: Mir, 1985.

832 Rappaport, Karen D. "Rediscovering Women Mathematicians." MATHEMATICAL ASSOCIATION OF TWO YEAR COLLEGES JOURNAL 13, no. 1,2,3 (Winter- Fall 1979). Part I: Winter 1979; Part II: Spring 1979: 94-97; Part III: Fall 1979: 174-178.

833 Rappaport, Karen D. "S. Kovalevsky: A Mathematical Lesson." AMERICAN MATHEMATICAL MONTHLY 88, no.8 (October 1981): 564-574.

834 Reid, Constance. "The Autobiography of Julia Robinson." COLLEGE MATHEMATICS JOURNAL 17, no.1 (January 1986): 2-21. Robinson was the first female mathematician elected to the National Academy of Sciences, and the first woman president of the American Mathematical Society.

835 Rist, John. "Hypatia." PHOENIX 19, no.3 (1965): 214-225.

836 Sampson, J. H. "Sophie Germain and the Theory of Numbers." ARCHIVE FOR HISTORY OF EXACT SCIENCES 41 (1990): 157-161.

837 Smorynski, C. "Julia Robinson, In Memoriam." THE MATHEMATICAL INTELLIGENCER 8, no.2 (1986): 77-79.

838 Somerville, Martha. PERSONAL RECOLLECTIONS FROM EARLY LIFE TO OLD AGE, OF MARY SOMERVILLE. WITH SELECTIONS FROM HER CORRESPONDENCE. Boston: Roberts Brothers, 1876. Includes portraits.

839 Srinivasan, Bhama, and Sally, Judith D., eds. EMMY NOETHER IN BRYN MAWR: PROCEEDINGS OF A SYMPOSIUM SPONSORED BY THE ASSOCIATION FOR WOMEN IN MATHEMATICS IN HONOR OF EMMY NOETHER'S 100TH BIRTHDAY. New York: Springer- Verlag, 1983.

840 Srinivasan, Bhama. "Ruth Moufang, 1905-1977." THE MATHEMATICAL INTELLIGENCER 6, no.2 (1984): 51-55.

841 Stein, Dorothy. ADA: A LIFE AND A LEGACY. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1985. Biography of Ada Lovelace.

842 Stillman, Beatrice. "Sofya Kovalevskaya: Growing Up in the Sixties." RUSSIAN LITERATURE TRIQUARTERLY 9 (Spring 1974): 276-302.

843 Tee, Garry J. "The Pioneering Women Mathematicians." MATHEMATICAL CHRONICLE 10, no.1/2 (January 1981): 31-56. Summarizes the lives of Hypatia, Emilie du Chatelet, Maria Agnesi, Sophie Germain, Mary Somerville, and Ada Lovelace. Repr. in MATHEMATICAL INTELLIGENCER 5, no.4 (1983): 27-36.

844 Toole, Betty. ADA, THE ENCHANTRESS OF NUMBERS: A SELECTION FROM THE LETTERS OF LORD BYRON'S DAUGHTER AND HER DESCRIPTION OF THE FIRST COMPUTER. Sausalito, CA: Strawberry Press, 1992. P.O. Box 452, Sausalito, CA 94966. Letters of the first programmer, Ada Lovelace.

845 Troemel-Ploetz, Senta. "Mileva Einstein-Maric -- The Woman Who Did Einstein's Mathematics." WOMEN'S STUDIES INTERNATIONAL FORUM 13, no.5 (1990): 415-432.

846 Truesdell, C. "Maria Gaetana Agnesi." ARCHIVE FOR HISTORY OF EXACT SCIENCES 40 (1989): 113-142.

847 Weyl, Hermann. "Emmy Noether." SCRIPTA MATHEMATICA 3, no.3 (July 1935): 201-220.

848 Whitman, Betsey S. "An American Woman in Gottingen." THE MATHEMATICAL INTELLIGENCER 15 (Winter 1993): 60-62. On 1893 mathematics student Mary Frances Winston.

849 Wiegand, Sylvia. "Grace Chisholm Young." ASSOCIATION FOR WOMEN IN MATHEMATICS NEWSLETTER 7, no.3 (May/June 1977): 5-10.

Natural, Biological and Life Sciences (850-1006)

This section covers the traditional natural sciences, particularly botany, and such newer fields as microbiology, environmental science, and genetics. Primatology, veterinary science, and experimental psychology are some of the special fields covered here, along with the role of women in the conservation movement or as observers of nature.

GENERAL

850 Ainley, Marianne G. "The Involvement of Women in the American Ornithologists' Union." In A CENTENNIAL HISTORY OF THE AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION, 1883-1983, ed. K.B. Sterling and M.G. Ainley. Washington: 1987.

851 Ainley, Marianne G. "Last in the Field? Canadian Women Natural Scientists, 1815-1965." In DESPITE THE ODDS: ESSAYS ON CANADIAN WOMEN AND SCIENCE, ed. by Marianne Gosztonyi Ainley, pp.25-62. Montreal: Vehicule Press, 1990.

852 Allen, David E. "The Women Members of the Botanical Society of London, 1836-56." BRITISH JOURNAL FOR THE HISTORY OF SCIENCE 13 (1980): 240-254.

853 Baker, Gladys. "Women in the United States Department of Agriculture." AGRICULTURAL HISTORY 50 (1976): 190-201.

854 Bennett, Jennifer. LILIES OF THE HEARTH: THE HISTORICAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WOMEN & PLANTS. Camden East, Ont.: Camden House, 1991.

855 Brouwer, Christien. "Nature in Terms of Femininity: The Case of Nineteenth Century Plant Geography." COMMUNICATION & COGNITION 21 (1988): 129-132.

856 Burrage, Hilary F. "Women University Teachers of Natural Science, 1971-72: An Empirical Study." SOCIAL STUDIES OF SCIENCE 13, no.1 (February 1983): 147-160."

857 Burstyn, Joan N. "Early Women in Education: The Role of the Anderson School of Natural History." JOURNAL OF EDUCATION 159, no.3 (August 1977): 50-64.

858 Churchill, Frederick. "Sex and the Single Organism." STUDIES IN THE HISTORY OF BIOLOGY 3 (1979): 139-177.

859 Davies, Katherine. "Historical Associations: Women and the Natural World." WOMEN AND ENVIRONMENTS 9, no.2 (Spring 1987): 4-6.

860 FOREST & CONSERVATION HISTORY 34, no.1 (January 1990); Special Issue: "Special Issue on Women's Roles in Conservation History."

861 Furumoto, Laurel, and Scarborough, Elizabeth. "Placing Women in the History of Psychology: The First American Women Psychologists." In RE-PLACING WOMEN IN PSYCHOLOGY: READINGS TOWARD A MORE INCLUSIVE HISTORY, ed. Janis S. Bohan, pp.87-99. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt Publishing, 1992.

862 Griffin, Susan. WOMAN AND NATURE: THE ROARING INSIDE HER. New York: Harper & Row, 1978. Exploration of Western patriarchal attitudes toward the natural world and toward women, who are perceived as closer to nature than are men.

863 Haraway, Donna. PRIMATE VISIONS: GENDER, RACE, AND NATURE IN THE WORLD OF MODERN SCIENCE. New York: Routledge, 1989.

864 Haraway, Donna. "Signs of Dominance." STUDIES IN THE HISTORY OF BIOLOGY 5 (1981): 129-219.

865 Herrick, John B. "Veterinarians All." JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN VETERINARY MEDICAL ASSOCIATION 201 (August 15, 1992): 554.

866 Holmes, F. W., and Heybroek, H. M. DUTCH ELM DISEASE; THE EARLY PAPERS: SELECTED WORKS OF SEVEN DUTCH WOMEN PHYTOPATHOLOGISTS. St. Paul, MN: American Phytopathological Society, 1990.

867 James, C. "Women in the Forest Service: The Early Years." FOREST SERVICE HISTORY LINE (Spring 1990): 7-11. Repr. in JOURNAL OF FORESTRY 89, no.3 (1991): 14-17.

868 Kahle, Jane Butler. "Women Biologists: A View and a Vision." BIOSCIENCE 35, no.4 (April 1985): 230-234.

869 Kashket, Eva R., et al. "Status of Women Microbiologists." SCIENCE 183, no.4124 (8 February 1974): 488-494.

870 Kass-Simon, G. "Biology Is Destiny." In WOMEN OF SCIENCE: RIGHTING THE RECORD, ed. by G. Kass-Simon & Patricia Farnes, pp.215-267. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1990.

871 Lowe, Marian. "The Impact of Feminism on the Natural Sciences." In THE KNOWLEDGE EXPLOSION: GENERATIONS OF FEMINIST SCHOLARSHIP, ed. Cheris Kramarae & Dale Spender, pp.161-171. New York: Teachers College Press, 1992. Reviews the impact of feminism on science in general and on the natural sciences in particular since the late 1960s.

872 Merchant, Carolyn. "Earthcare: Women and the Environmental Movement." ENVIRONMENT 23 (1981): 8-40

873 Merchant, Carolyn. ECOLOGICAL REVOLUTIONS: NATURE, GENDER, AND SCIENCE IN NEW ENGLAND. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, 1989.

874 Merchant, Carolyn. "Gender and Environmental History." THE JOURNAL OF AMERICAN HISTORY 76 (March 1990): 1117-1121.

875 Merchant, Carolyn. "Women of the Progressive Conservation Movement: 1900-1916." ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW 8, no.1 (Spring 1984): 57-86. Part of a special interdisciplinary issue on "Women and Environmental History."

876 Morawski, Jill G., and Agronick, Gail. "A Restive Legacy: The History of Feminist Work in Experimental and Cognitive Psychology." PSYCHOLOGY OF WOMEN QUARTERLY 15 (December 1991): 567-579.

877 Norwood, Vera L. MADE FROM THIS EARTH: AMERICAN WOMEN AND NATURE. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1993. Contributions of American women botanists, biologists, conservationists, ornithologists and others to the study of nature from the 19th century to the present.

878 O'Hern, Elizabeth M. "Women in Biological Sciences." In EXPANDING THE ROLE OF WOMEN IN THE SCIENCES, ed. by Anne M. Briscoe & Sheila Pfafflin, pp.110-124. (ANNALS OF THE NEW YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 323; 1979.) Statistics from the 1960s and 70s.

879 Peterson, Abby, and Merchant, Carolyn. "`Peace With the Earth': Women and the Environmental Movement in Sweden." WOMEN'S STUDIES INTERNATIONAL FORUM 9, no.5/6 (1986): 465-479.

880 Primack, Richard B., and O'Leary, Virginia. "Cumulative Disadvantages in the Careers of Women Ecologists." BIOSCIENCE 43 (March 1993): 158-165.

881 Ranney, S.A.G. "Women and the History of American Conservation." WOMEN IN NATURAL RESOURCES 11, no.3: 44-50.

882 Rose, Hilary. "Hand, Brain, and Heart: A Feminist Epistemology for the Natural Sciences." SIGNS 9, no.1 (Autumn 1983): 73-90. Assesses the achievements of the radical critique of science and argues for a feminist theoretical analysis grounded in the sexual division of manual, mental, and reproductive labor. Repr. in SEX AND SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY, ed. by Sandra Harding and Jean F. O'Barr, pp.265-282.

883 Rose, Hilary, and Rose, Steven, eds. IDEOLOGY OF/IN THE NATURAL SCIENCES. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1980.

884 Rudolph, Emanuel D. "How It Developed That Botany Was the Science Thought Most Suitable for Victorian Young Ladies." CHILDREN'S LITERATURE 2 (1973): 92-97.

885 Rudolph, Emanuel D. "Women in Nineteenth Century American Botany: A Generally Unrecognized Constituency." AMERICAN JOURNAL OF BOTANY 69, no.8 (September 1982): 1346-1355. Surveys women's contributions to botany, citing many names and statistics.

886 Rudolph, Emanuel D. "Women Who Studied Plants in the Pre-Twentieth Century United States and Canada." TAXON 39, no.2 (May 1990): 151-205.

887 Shteir, Ann B. "Botany in the Breakfast Room: Women and Early Nineteenth-Century British Plant Study." In UNEASY CAREERS AND INTIMATE LIVES: WOMEN IN SCIENCE, 1789-1979, ed. Pnina G. Abir-Am and Dorinda Outram, pp.31-43. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1987.

888 Shteir, Ann B. "Linnaeus's Daughters: Women and British Botany." In WOMEN AND THE STRUCTURE OF SOCIETY: SELECTED RESEARCH FROM THE FIFTH BERKSHIRE CONFERENCE ON THE HISTORY OF WOMEN, ed. by Barbara J. Harris & JoAnn K. McNamara, pp.67-73. Durham: Duke University Press, 1984. Surveys the 18th and 19th centuries.

889 Shteir, Ann B. "Women and Plants: A Fruitful Topic." ATLANTIS 6, no.2 (Spring 1981): 114-122.

890 Spanier, Bonnie. "Gender and Ideology in Science: A Study of Molecular Biology." NWSA JOURNAL 3, no.2 (1991): 167-198.

891 Stevens, Gwendolyn, and Gardner, Sheldon. THE WOMEN OF PSYCHOLOGY. Cambridge, MA: Schenkman, 1982. 2 vol.

892 Vetter, Betty M. "Women in the Natural Sciences." SIGNS 1, no.3, pt.1 (Spring 1976): 713-720. Assesses status of women scientists in the mid-1970s.

BIOGRAPHIES AND STUDIES OF INDIVIDUALS

NOTE: In the index to NOTABLE AMERICAN WOMEN, edited by Edward T. James, et al. (3 vols., Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1971), see "Biologists," "Botanists and Horticulturalists," and "Naturalists." In NOTABLE AMERICAN WOMEN: THE MODERN PERIOD, edited by Barbara Sicherman and Carol Hurd Green (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1980), see "Biology," "Botany," "Conservation," "Medicine-Researchers" (for microbiologists and biochemists), and "Nutrition" (especially biochemists). WOMEN IN THE SCIENTIFIC SEARCH: AN AMERICAN BIO-BIBLIOGRAPHY, 1724-1979, by Patricia Joan Siegel and Kay Thomas Finley (Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow, 1985) employs numerous categories for this general area. Brief obituaries of women botanists (e.g., Clara Cummings, Annie Morrill Smith, E.M. Dunham, Caroline Haynes, Annie Lorenz, Elizabeth G. Britton) may be found in the BULLETIN OF THE TORREY BOTANICAL CLUB, THE BRYOLOGIST, JOURNAL OF THE NEW YORK BOTANICAL GARDEN, SCIENCE, and RHODORA.

893 Abir-Am, Pnina G. "Synergy or Clash: Disciplinary and Marital Strategies in the Career of Mathematical Biologist Dorothy Wrinch." In UNEASY CAREERS AND INTIMATE LIVES: WOMEN IN SCIENCE, 1789-1979, ed. Pnina G. Abir-Am and Dorinda Outram, pp.239-280. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1987.

894 Ainley, Marianne G. "Field Work and Family: North American Women Ornithologists, 1900-1950." In UNEASY CAREERS AND INTIMATE LIVES: WOMEN IN SCIENCE, 1789-1979, ed. Pnina G. Abir-Am and Dorinda Outram, pp.60-76. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1987.

895 "Aleen Cust: First Woman Veterinary Surgeon." VETERINARY RECORD 115 (December 22-29, 1984): 639.

896 Allen, David E. "The First Woman Pteridologist." BRITISH PTERIDOLOGICAL SOCIETY BULLETIN 1, no.6 (1978): 247-249.

897 Allen, David E., and Lousley, Dorothy W. "Some Letters to Margaret Stovin (1756?-1846), Botanist of Chesterfield." NATURALIST 104 (1979): 155-163.

898 Allen, Nessy. "Australian Women in Science: Two Unorthodox Careers." WOMEN'S STUDIES INTERNATIONAL FORUM 15, nos. 5/6 (1992): 551-562. Examines the careers of animal geneticist Helen Newton Turner and marine biologist Isobel Bennett.

899 Arber, Agnes. "Ethel Sargant." NEW PHYTOLOGIST 18 (March/April 1919): 120-128.

900 Arber, Muriel A. "A List of Published Works of Agnes Arber, E.A.N. Arber and Ethel Sargant." JOURNAL OF THE SOCIETY FOR THE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF NATURAL HISTORY 4, no.7 (1968): 370-384. See also supplementary listing by Rudolf Schmid and Muriel A. Arber, with "Biographical Notes" by William T. Stern. JOURNAL OF THE SOCIETY FOR THE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF NATURAL HISTORY 8, no.2 (1977): 180-183.

901 Baldwin, Richard S. THE FUNGUS FIGHTERS: TWO WOMEN SCIENTISTS AND THEIR DISCOVERY. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1981. Microbiology, mycology. Biographies of Rachel Brown and Elizabeth Lee Hazen.

902 Barnhart, John Hendley. "The Published Work of Elizabeth Gertrude Britton." BULLETIN OF THE TORREY BOTANICAL CLUB 62, no.1 (January 1935): 1-17. An exhaustive bibliography of the writings of Britton (1858-1934), a leading specialist in mosses, ferns, and flowering plants.

903 Bartow, Virginia. "Philosophical Studies by the Duchess of Newcastle." JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL EDUCATION 34 (1957): 82.

904 Benson, Maxine. MARTHA MAXWELL, ROCKY MOUNTAIN NATURALIST. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1986. Biography of Maxwell (1831-1881), a woman pioneer in natural history, taxidermy, and museology.

905 Bischoff, Charles. THE HARD ROAD: THE LIFE STORY OF AMALIE DIETRICH, NATURALIST, 1821-1891. London: Hopkinson, 1931.

906 Blaydes, Sophia B. "Nature Is a Woman: The Duchess of Newcastle and 17th-Century Philosophy." In MAN, GOD, AND NATURE IN THE ENLIGHTENMENT, ed. Donald C. Mell et al., pp.51-64. East Lansing, MI: Colleagues Press, 1988. On natural philosopher Margaret Cavendish.

907 Bolzau, Emma Lydia. ALMIRA HART LINCOLN PHELPS: HER LIFE AND WORK. Lancaster, PA: Science Press, 1936. Phelps (1793-1884) was a science textbook author and writer on botany, chemistry, and natural history.

908 Bonta, Marcia Myers. WOMEN IN THE FIELD: AMERICA'S PIONEERING WOMEN NATURALISTS. College Station, TX: Texas A & M University, 1991.

909 Bowman, Lindsey E. "Rachel Carson: The Genesis of SILENT SPRING." MICHIGAN ACADEMICIAN: PAPERS OF THE MICHIGAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCE, ARTS, AND LETTERS 19 (1987): 373-380.

910 Brightwen, Eliza Elder. ELIZA BRIGHTWEN, THE LIFE AND THOUGHTS OF A NATURALIST. London: Leipsic, T.F. Unwin, 1909. Also available in microfilm as number 5698 of the History of Women collection (Woodbridge, CT: Research Publications, 1977.)

911 Brooks, Paul. THE HOUSE OF LIFE: RACHEL CARSON AT WORK. Boston: 1972; Boston: G.K. Hall, 1989. Biography of a leading U.S. ecologist.

912 Bryant, Jennifer. MARJORY STONEMAN DOUGLAS: VOICE OF THE EVERGLADES. Frederick, MD: Twenty-First Century Books, 1992.

913 Carr, Florence H. HELEN BLACKBURN HOOVER: SCIENTIST, NATURALIST, WRITER. Roseville, MN: F.H. Carr, 1990.

914 Clark, Eugenie. LADY AND THE SHARKS. Sarasota, NY: Mote Marine Lab, 1991. Autobiography of an ichthyologist, reprinted from a 1969 edition.

915 Clarke, Robert. ELLEN SWALLOW: THE WOMAN WHO FOUNDED ECOLOGY. Chicago: Follett, 1973.

916 Clarke, Robert. "The Woman Who Founded Ecology: Ellen Swallow Richards." AWIS MAGAZINE 21, no.3 (May/June 1992): 14-15.

917 Cleevely, R.J., Tripp, R.P., and Howell, Y. "Mrs. Elizabeth Grey (1831-1924): A Passion for Fossils." BULLETIN OF THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY): HISTORICAL SERIES 17, no.2 (1989): 167-258.

918 Cori, Carl F. "The Call of Science." ANNUAL REVIEW OF BIOCHEMISTRY 38 (1969): 1-20. Carl F. Cori's autobiography, containing much information on Gerty T. Cori.

919 Desmond, Ray. DICTIONARY OF BRITISH AND IRISH BOTANISTS AND HORTICULTURISTS: INCLUDING PLANT COLLECTORS AND BOTANICAL ARTISTS. London: Taylor & Francis, 1977. Many women noted, with brief biographical sketches and areas of interest.

920 Douglas, Marjory Stoneman with John Rothchild. MARJORY STONEMAN DOUGLAS: VOICE OF THE RIVER. Englewood, FL: Pineapple Press, 1987.

921 Drum, Sue, and Whitely, H. Ellen. WOMEN IN VETERINARY MEDICINE: PROFILES OF SUCCESS. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press, 1991.

922 Eifert, Virginia S. "Jane Colden, First Woman Botanist." In TALL TREES AND FAR HORIZONS: ADVENTURES AND DISCOVERIES OF EARLY BOTANISTS IN AMERICA, pp.49-62. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1965.

923 Estey, Ralph. "Margaret Newton: Distinguished Canadian Scientist." In DESPITE THE ODDS: ESSAYS ON CANADIAN WOMEN AND SCIENCE, ed. by Marianne Gosztonyi Ainley, pp.236-247. Montreal: Vehicule Press; Buffalo, NY: U.S. Distributor, University of Toronto Press, 1990.

924 Evert, Ray F. "Katherine Esau." PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN 31, no.5 (1985): 33-37.

925 Fedoroff, Nina, and Botstein, David, eds. THE DYNAMIC GENOME: BARBARA McCLINTOCK'S IDEAS IN THE CENTURY OF GENETICS. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1992.

926 Fink, Augusta. I-MARY: A BIOGRAPHY OF MARY AUSTIN. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press, 1983.

927 Ford, Charlotte A. "Eliza Frances Andrews, Practical Botanist, 1840-1931." GEORGIA HISTORY QUARTERLY 70 (Spring 1986): 63-80.

928 Fromer, Julie. JANE GOODALL: LIVING WITH THE CHIMPS. Frederick, MD: Twenty-First Century Books, 1992.

929 Fryer, G. "Sidnie Milana Manton, 4 May 1902 - 2 January 1979." BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS OF FELLOWS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY 26 (1980): 327-356. Zoologist.

930 Furumoto, Laurel. "Joining Separate Spheres: Christine Ladd-Franklin, Woman Scientist (1847-1930)." AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST 47, no.2 (February 1992): 175-182. An experimental psychologist who devised a theory of color vision.

931 Fussell, G. E. "Some Lady Botanists of the Nineteenth Century, 4: Elizabeth and Sarah Mary Fitton." GARDENERS' CHRONICLE 130 (1951): 179-181.

932 Gage, Loretta, and Gage, Nancy. IF WISHES WERE HORSES: THE EDUCATION OF A VETERINARIAN. New York: St. Martin's, 1992.

933 Garfield, Eugene. "A Tribute to Miriam Rothschild: Entomologist Extraordinaire." CURRENT CONTENTS (April 1984): 3-15.

934 Gartner, Carol B. RACHEL CARSON. New York: Ungar, 1983.

935 Gillett, Margaret. "Carrie Derick (1862-1941) and the Chair of Botany at McGill." In DESPITE THE ODDS: ESSAYS ON CANADIAN WOMEN AND SCIENCE, ed. by Marianne Gosztonyi Ainley, pp.74-87. Montreal: Vehicule Press, 1990.

936 Gilpatrick, Naomi. "The Secret Life of Beatrix Potter." NATURAL HISTORY 81, no.8 (October 1972): 38-41, 88-97. Potter, famous as the author and illustrator of PETER RABBIT and other children's books, was a botanist thwarted by discrimination against women.

937 Gladstone, Valerie. "Marjory Stoneman Douglas." MS. 17 (January/February 1989): 68-71. Everglades preservationist.

938 Goodall, Jane. THROUGH THE WINDOW: MY THIRTY YEARS WITH THE CHIMPANZEES OF GOMBE. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 1990.

939 Haddock, Sally. THE MAKING OF A WOMAN VET. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1985.

940 Hall, Ruth. PASSIONATE CRUSADER: THE LIFE OF MARIE STOPES. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1977.

941 Harvey, Joy. "`Strangers to Each Other': Male and Female Relationships in the Life and Work of Cl mence Royer." In UNEASY CAREERS AND INTIMATE LIVES: WOMEN IN SCIENCE, 1789-1979, ed. Pnina G. Abir-Am and Dorinda Outram, pp.147-171. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1987.

942 Hayter-Hames, Jane. MADAME DRAGONFLY: THE LIFE AND TIMES OF CYNTHIA LONGFIELD. Edinburgh: Pentland Press, 1991.

943 Hollingsworth, Buckner. HER GARDEN WAS HER DELIGHT. New York: Macmillan, 1962. Includes treatments of Jane Colden, pp.23-24, and Alice Eastwood, pp.126-138.

944 Houssay, B. A. "Carl F. and Gerty T. Cori." BIOCHIMICA AND BIOPHYSICA ACTA 20 (1956): 11-16.

945 Howe, Marshall A. "Elizabeth Gertrude Britton." JOURNAL OF THE NEW YORK BOTANICAL GARDENS 35 (May 1934): 97-104.

946 Hynes, H. Patricia. "Catalysts of the American Environmental Movement: Profiles of Ellen Swallow, Lois Gibbs, and Rachel Carson." WOMAN OF POWER no.9 (Spring 1988): 37-41, 78-80. Revised version of article appearing WOMEN'S STUDIES INTERNATIONAL FORUM 8, no.4 (1985): 291-298.

947 Hynes, H. Patricia. THE RECURRING SILENT SPRING. New York: Pergamon Press, 1989.

948 Kaufman, Polly Welts. "Challenging Tradition: Pioneer Women Naturalists in the National Park Service." FOREST & CONSERVATION HISTORY 34, no.1 (January 1990): 4-16.

949 Keenan, Katherine. "Lilian Vaughan Morgan (1870-1952): Her Life and Work." AMERICAN ZOOLOGIST 23 (1983): 867-876.

950 Keller, Evelyn Fox. A FEELING FOR THE ORGANISM: THE LIFE & TIMES OF BARBARA MCCLINTOCK. San Francisco: Freeman, 1983. Study of Barbara McClintock, plant geneticist.

951 Keller, Evelyn Fox. "One Woman and Her Theory." NEW SCIENTIST 111 (July 3, 1986): 46-50. On biologist Lynn Margulis.

952 Kerling, L.C.P. et al. "Johanna Westerdijk: Pioneer Leader in Plant Pathology." ANNUAL REVIEW OF PHYTOPATHOLOGY 24 (1986): 33-41.

953 Kevles, Bettyann. WATCHING THE WILD APES: THE PRIMATE STUDIES OF GOODALL, FOSSEY, AND GALDIKAS. New York: Dutton, 1976.

954 Kitching, Jessie. "Two Women Botanists of Yosemite National Park." NATURE STUDY 42, no.1/2 (October 1988): 6-8. On Mary Tresidder and Della Taylor Moss.

955 Kleineberger-Nobel, Emmy. MEMOIRS London: Academic Press, 1980. Bacteriologist.

956 Kofalk, Harriet. NO WOMAN TENDERFOOT: FLORENCE MERRIAM BAILEY, PIONEER NATURALIST. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press, 1989. Bailey (b.1863) observed birds.

957 Lang, Anton. "Elisabeth Schiemann: Life and Career of a Woman Scientist in Berlin." In BOTANY IN BERLIN, ed. Hildemar Scholz, pp.17-28. Berlin: Botanische Garten und Botanischen Museum Berlin-Dahlem, 1987.

958 Loftus, Maryann F., Roane, Curtis W., and Roane, Martha K. "Muriel J. O'Brien, 1915-1985 (obituary)." PHYTOPATHOLOGY 82 (April 1992): 379.

959 Lurie, Alison. "Beatrix Potter: More Than Just Peter Rabbit." MS. (September 1977): 42-45.

960 "Margaret Cavendish: Natural Philosopher." In A HISTORY OF WOMEN PHILOSOPHERS: 1600-1900, ed. by Mary Ellen Waithe, vol.3, pp.1-20. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic, 1991. Also repr. in WOMEN AND PHILOSOPHY, special issue of DOCUMENTATION SUR LA RECHERCHE FEMINISTE 16 (1987): 60-61.

961 McBeath, Lida W. "Eloise Gerry: A Woman of Forest Science." JOURNAL OF FOREST HISTORY 22, no.3 (1978): 128-135.

962 McCay, Mary A. RACHEL CARSON. New York: Twayne, 1993.

963 Montgomery, Sy. WALKING WITH THE GREAT APES: JANE GOODALL, DIAN FOSSEY, BIRUTE GALDIKAS. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin/Davison, 1991.

964 Morell, Virginia. "Called `Trimates,' Three Bold Women Shaped Their Field." SCIENCE 260 (April 16, 1993): 420-425. On Jane Goodall, Dian Fossey, and Birute Galdikas. This article is part of a thematic section "Women in Science '93: Gender and the Culture of Science."

965 Needham, James G. "The Lengthened Shadow of a Man and His Wife." SCIENTIFIC MONTHLY 62 (February 1946): 140-150; (March 1946): 219-232. Two-part article covers John Henry Comstock and Anna Comstock's roles in developing the Department of Entomology at Cornell.

966 Norwood, Vera L. "The Nature of Knowing: Rachel Carson and the American Environment." SIGNS 12, no.4 (Summer 1987): 740-760.

967 Ochoa, Severo, and Kalckar, Herman M. "Gerty T. Cori, Biochemist." SCIENCE 128, no.3314 (4 July 1958): 16-17.

968 Ogilvie, Marilyn Bailey. "The `New Look' Women and the Expansion of American Zoology: Nettie Maria Stevens (1861-1912) and Alice Middleton Boring (1883-1955)." In THE EXPANSION OF AMERICAN BIOLOGY, ed. Keith R. Benson et al., pp.52-79. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1991.

969 Ogilvie, Marilyn Bailey, and Choquette, Clifford J. "Nettie Maria Stevens (1861-1912): Her Life and Contributions to Cytogenetics." PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY 125 (1981): 292-311.

970 Paton, Lucy Allen. ELIZABETH CARY AGASSIZ: A BIOGRAPHY. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1919.

971 Pendergrass, Lee F. "Dispelling Myths: Women's Contributions to the Forest Service in California." FOREST & CONSERVATION HISTORY 34, no.1 (January 1990): 17-25.

972 Pincetl, Stephanie S. "The Peculiar Legacy of Progressivism: Claire Dedrick's Encounter with Forest Practices Regulation in California." FOREST & CONSERVATION HISTORY 34, no.1 (January 1990): 26-34.

973 Randall, John. "Emmeline Jean Hanson, 14 November 1919 - 10 August 1973." BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS OF FELLOWS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY 21 (1975): 313-344. Zoologist who specialized in muscle research.

974 Remington, Jeanne E. "Katharine Jeannette Bush: Peabody's Mysterious Zoologist." DISCOVERY 12 (1977): 3-8.

975 Rose, June. MARIE STOPES AND THE SEXUAL REVOLUTION. Boston, MA: Faber and Faber, 1992.

976 Rudolph, Emanuel D. "Almira Lincoln Phelps (1793-1884) and the Spread of Botany in 19th Century America." AMERICAN JOURNAL OF BOTANY 71 (1984): 1161-1167.

977 Russell, Frederick. "Sheina Macalister Marshall, 20 April 1896 - 7 April 1977." BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS OF FELLOWS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY 24 (1978): 369-389. Marine biologist.

978 Sarasohn, Lisa. "A Science Turned Upside Down: Feminism and the Natural Philosophy of Margaret Cavendish." HUNTINGTON LIBRARY QUARTERLY 47, no.4 (1984): 289-307.

979 Sayre, Anne. ROSALIND FRANKLIN AND DNA. New York: Norton, 1975.

980 Scarborough, Elizabeth. "Mrs. Ricord and Psychology for Women, Circa 1840." AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST 47 (February 1992): 274-280. On Elizabeth Stryker Ricord, instructor at the Geneva Female Seminary, who wrote the first comprenhesive textbook of what was to become the field of psychology.

981 Scarborough, Elizabeth, and Furumoto, Laurel. UNTOLD LIVES: THE FIRST GENERATION OF AMERICAN WOMEN PSYCHOLOGISTS. New York: Columbia University Press, 1987.

982 Schiebinger, Londa. "Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Newcastle: Natural Philosopher (1617-1673)." RFR 16, no.3 (September 1987): 60-61.

983 Schmid, Rudolf. "Annotated Bibliography of Works By and About Emily Lovira Gregory (1841-1897)." BULLETIN OF THE TORREY BOTANICAL CLUB 114 (1987): 319-324.

984 Schmid, Rudolf. "Edith R. Saunders and Floral Anatomy: Bibliography and Index to Families She Studied." BOTANICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY 74 (1977): 179-187.

985 Scott, Robert C. "Adventures of the Bumming Botanists: From the Diary of Nelle Stevenson, 1907." ESSAYS AND MONOGRAPHS IN COLORADO HISTORY 5 (1987): 67-77.

986 Setchell, William Albert. "Townshend Stith Brandegee and Mary Katherine (Layne) (Curran) Brandegee." UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PUBLICATIONS IN BOTANY 13 (1924/27): 154-178. Memorial to a husband-and-wife botanist team, with bibliographies of their works.

987 Shmurak, Carole B., and Handler, Bonnie S. "Castle of Science: Mount Holyoke College and the Preparation of Women in Chemistry, 1837-1941." HISTORY OF EDUCATION QUARTERLY 32, no.3 (Fall 1992): 315-342.

988 Shmurak, Carole B., and Handler, Bonnie S. "Lydia Shattuck: `A Streak of the Modern.'" TEACHING EDUCATION 3, no.2 (Winter-Spring 1991): 127-131. Shattuck taught chemistry and botany at Mount Holyoke in the mid-nineteenth century.

989 Shteir, Ann B. "Botanical Dialogues: Maria Jacson and Women's Popular Science Writing in England." EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY STUDIES 23 (Spring 1990): 301-317.

990 Shteir, Ann B. "Priscilla Wakefield's Natural History Books." In FROM LINNEAUS TO DARWIN: COMMENTARIES ON THE HISTORY OF BIOLOGY AND GEOLOGY, ed. by Alwyne Wheeler et al., pp.29-36. London: Society for the Study of Natural History, 1985.

991 Slack, Nancy G. "Nineteenth-Century American Women Botanists: Wives, Widows, and Work." In UNEASY CAREERS AND INTIMATE LIVES: WOMEN IN SCIENCE, 1789-1979, ed. Pnina G. Abir-Am and Dorinda Outram, pp.77-103. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1987.

992 Smith, Beatrice Scheer. "Hannah English Williams: America's First Woman Natural History Collector." SOUTH CAROLINA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE 87 (April 1986): 83-92.

993 Smith, Beatrice Scheer. "Jane Colden (1724-1766) and Her Botanic Manuscript." AMERICAN JOURNAL OF BOTANY 75 (July 1988): 1090-1096.

994 Smith, Beatrice Scheer. "Maria L. Owen, Nineteenth-Century Nantucket Botanist." RHODORA, JOURNAL OF THE NEW ENGLAND BOTANICAL CLUB 89, no.858 (1987).

995 Stearn, William T. "Maria Sibylla Merian (1647-1717) as a Botanical Artist." TAXON 31 (1982): 529-534.

996 Sterling, Philip. SEA AND EARTH: THE LIFE OF RACHEL CARSON. New York: Crowell, 1970.

997 Stuckey, Ronald L. "E. Lucy Braun (1889-1971), Outstanding Botanist and Conservationist: A Biographical Sketch, with Bibliography." THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 12 (March 1973): 83-106.

998 Stuckey, Ronald L. WOMEN BOTANISTS OF OHIO: BORN BEFORE 1900: WITH REFERENCE CALENDARS FROM 1776 TO 2028. Columbus, OH: RLS Creations, 1992.

999 Thomas, H. Hamshaw. "Agnes Arber, 1879-1960." BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS OF FELLOWS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY 6 (November 1960): 1-11. Includes bibliography.

1000 von Baeyer, Edwinna. "Isabella Preston, 1881-1964: An Explorer of the Horticultural Frontier." In DESPITE THE ODDS: ESSAYS ON CANADIAN WOMEN AND SCIENCE, ed. by Marianne Gosztonyi Ainley, pp.220-235. Montreal: Vehicule Press; Buffalo, NY: U.S. distributor, University of Toronto Press, 1990.

1001 Wallace, Robert, ed. ELEANOR ORMEROD, LL.D., ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGIST: AUTOBIOGRAPHY AND CORRESPONDENCE. New York: Dutton, 1904.

1002 Warner, Deborah J. GRACEANNA LEWIS: SCIENTIFIC AND HUMANITARIAN. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1979. Lewis (1821-1912) specialized in ornithology and natural history.

1003 Weisstein, Naomi. "`How Can a Little Girl Like You Teach a Great Big Class of Men?' The Chairman Said, and Other Adventures of a Woman in Science." In WORKING IT OUT: 23 WOMEN WRITERS, ARTISTS, SCIENTISTS AND SCHOLARS TALK ABOUT THEIR LIVES AND WORK, ed. Sara Ruddick & Pamela Daniels, pp.241-250. New York: Pantheon, 1977. From an experimental psychologist.

1004 Wilson, Carol Green. ALICE EASTWOOD'S WONDERLAND: THE ADVENTURES OF A BOTANIST. San Francisco: California Academy of Science, 1955.

1005 Wood, Sharon E. "Althea Sherman and the Birds of Prairie and Dooryard: A Scientist's Witness to Change." PALIMPSEST 70 (Winter 1989): 164-185.

1006 Wystrach, V. P. "Anna Blackburne (1726-1793) - A Neglected Patron of Natural History." JOURNAL OF THE SOCIETY FOR THE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF NATURAL HISTORY 8, no.2 (1977): 148-168. Includes many quotations from primary sources.

Physics (1007-1070)

Nuclear physics, spectroscopy, and crystallography are some of the specialized fields in which women physicists have been active. Because the disciplines of physics, astronomy, and mathematics are closely allied, please consult the ASTRONOMY and MATHEMATICS sections for additional references. For works on Marie Curie, see CHEMISTRY.

REFERENCE

1007 Grinstein, Louise S., Rose, Rose K., and Rafailovich, Miriam H., eds. WOMEN IN CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS: A BIOBIBLIOGRAPHIC SOURCEBOOK. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1993. Biographies of seventy-five chemists and physicists accompanied by bibliographies of works by and about each.

GENERAL

1008 American Physical Society. Committee on Women in Physics. "Women in Physics." American Physical Society BULLETIN 17 (1972): 740-753.

1009 Ancker-Johnson, Betsy. "Physicist." In SUCCESSFUL WOMEN IN THE SCIENCES: AN ANALYSIS OF DETERMINANTS, ed. by Ruth B. Kundsin, pp.23-28. (ANNALS OF THE NEW YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 208; 1979.) Repr. with title WOMEN AND SUCCESS: THE ANATOMY OF ACHIEVEMENT. New York: Morrow, 1974.

1010 Ancker-Johnson, Betsy. "Women's Lib and Physics." PHYSICS TEACHER 10, no.9 (December 1972): 499-508.

1011 Arianrhod, Robyn. "Physics and Mathematics, Reality and Language: Dilemmas for Feminists." In THE KNOWLEDGE EXPLOSION: GENERATIONS OF FEMINIST SCHOLARSHIP, ed. Cheris Kramarae & Dale Spender, pp.41-53. New York: Teachers College Press, 1992. Reviews the impact of feminism on physics and mathematics since the late 1960s.

1012 Brush, Stephen G. "Women in Physical Science: From Drudges to Discoverers." PHYSICS TEACHER 23 (January 1985): 11-19.

1013 Couture-Cherki, Monique. "Women in Physics." In IDEOLOGY OF/IN THE NATURAL SCIENCES, ed. by Hilary Rose and Steven Rose, pp.206-216. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1980. Discusses the status of women physicists in France.

1014 Fehrs, Mary, and Czujko, Roman. "Women in Physics: Reversing the Exclusion." PHYSICS TODAY 45, no.8 (August 1992): 33-40.

1015 Franz, Judy. "Has Anything Changed?" PHYSICS TEACHER 28 (February 1990): 71. On physics education for women 1960-1990.

1016 Henderson, Bonnie C. "State and Society--Discrimination Against Women in Physics." PHYSICS TODAY 25 (1972): 61-72.

1017 Hughes, Rhonda. "Status of Women in the Physical Sciences." Cambridge, MA: Bunting Institute, 1980. CHOICES FOR SCIENCE, pp.27-32.

1018 Jackson, Shirley A. "From Clerk-Typist to Research Physicist." In EXPANDING THE ROLE OF WOMEN IN THE SCIENCES, ed. by Anne Briscoe & Sheila Pfafflin, pp.296-299. (ANNALS OF THE NEW YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 323; 1979.)

1019 Jones, L.M. "Intellectual Contributions of Women to Physics." In WOMEN OF SCIENCE: RIGHTING THE RECORD, ed. by G. Kass-Simon & Patricia Farnes, pp.188-214. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1990.

1020 Julian, Maureen M. "Women in Crystallography." In WOMEN OF SCIENCE: RIGHTING THE RECORD, ed. by G. Kass-Simon & Patricia Farnes, pp.335-384. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1990.

1021 Kahne, Hilda. "Women in Physics." American Physical Society BULLETIN 17 (1977): 740-751.

1022 Kelly, Alison. "Women in Physics and Physics Education." In NEW TRENDS IN PHYSICS TEACHING, ed. by J. Lewis. New York: Unesco, 1976.

1023 Kistiakowsky, Vera. "Women in Physics and Astronomy." In EXPANDING THE ROLE OF WOMEN IN THE SCIENCES, ed. by Anne Briscoe and Sheila Pfafflin, 35-47. (ANNALS OF THE NEW YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 323; 1979.) A look at women's status in the 1970s. Includes statistical tables.

1024 Kistiakowsky, Vera. "Women in Physics: Unnecessary, Injurious and Out of Place?" PHYSICS TODAY 33, no.2 (February 1980): 32-40.

1025 Lotze, Barbara, ed. MAKING CONTRIBUTIONS: AN HISTORICAL OVERVIEW OF WOMEN'S ROLE IN PHYSICS. College Park, MD: American Association of Physics Teachers, 1984.

1026 Lubkin, Gloria. "Women in Physics." PHYSICS TODAY 24, no.4 (April 1971): 23-27.

1027 MAKING CONTRIBUTIONS: AN HISTORICAL OVERVIEW OF WOMEN'S ROLES IN PHYSICS. College Park, MD: American Association of Physics Teachers, 1984.

1028 Meitner, L. "The Status of Women in the Profession." PHYSICS TODAY 13 (1960): 116-121.

1029 Patterson, Elizabeth C. MARY SOMERVILLE AND THE CULTIVATION OF SCIENCE, 1815-1840. The Hague: Nijhoff, 1983. International Archives for the History of Ideas, 102

1030 Pollack, B. L., and Little, L. K. "Experimental Project in Physics Education, or New Avenue for Women." PHYSICS TEACHER 11 (1973): 391-399.

1031 Roth, Laura M., and O'Fallon, Nancy M. WOMEN IN PHYSICS. New York: American Physical Society, Committee on the Status of Women, 1976.

1032 Traweek, Sharon. "High Energy Physics: A Male Preserve." TECHNOLOGY REVIEW 87, no.8 (November/December 1984): 42-43.

1033 Walberg, Herbert J. "Physics, Femininity, and Creativity." DEVELOPMENT PSYCHOLOGY 1, no.1 (1969): 47-54. Research showing that "the apparent trait discontinuities in feminine and scientific roles help to account for the relatively poor showing of women in science."

1034 Weeks, Dorothy W. "Women in Physics." PHYSICS TODAY 13, no.22, (August 1960): 22-23.

1035 Wilson, Jane S., and Serber, Charlotte, eds. STANDING BY AND MAKING DO: WOMEN OF WARTIME LOS ALAMOS. Los Alamos, NM: Los Alamos Historical Society, 1988.

1036 "Women Physicists in the U.S.: The Career Influence of Marital Status." Fava, Sylvia F. Deierlein, Kathy CSWP GAZETTE: NEWSLETTER OF THE COMMITTEE ON THE STATUS OF WOMEN IN PHYSICS 8, no.2 (August 1988): 1-3. Part of larger study on career paths of women physicists.

BIOGRAPHIES AND STUDIES OF INDIVIDUALS

NOTE: In NOTABLE AMERICAN WOMEN, edited by Edward T. James et al. (3 vols., Combridge: Harvard University Press, 1971), see entries for Margaret Maltby and Sarah Whiting. In NOTABLE AMERICAN WOMEN: THE MODERN PERIOD, edited by Barbara Sicherman and Carol Hurd Green (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1980), see Elda Anderson, Maria Mayer, and Marie Rand. WOMEN IN THE SCIENTIFIC SEARCH: AN AMERICAN BIO-BIBLIOGRAPHY, 1724-1979, by Patricia Joan Siegel and Kay Thoms Finley (Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow, 1985) covers ten women physicists.

1037 Barr, E. Scott. "Margaret Eliza Maltby." AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICS 28 (1960): 474-475. First woman to receive a Ph.D. from a German university.

1038 Crawford, Deborah. LISE MEITNER, ATOMIC PIONEER. New York: Crown, 1969.

1039 Dash, Joan. "Maria Goeppert-Mayer." In A LIFE OF ONE'S OWN: THREE GIFTED WOMEN AND THE MEN THEY MARRIED, pp.229-346, 368-369. New York: Harper & Row, 1973.

1040 Dickman, Steven. "Meitner Receives Her Due (Fifty Years After She Participated in the Discovery of Nuclear Fission)." NATURE 340 (August 17, 1989): 497.

1041 Elena, Alberto. "In Lode della Filosofessa di Bologna": An Introduction to Laura Bassi." ISIS 82 (September 1991): 510-518. Laura Maria Caterina Bassi (1711-78), Italian physicist and anatomist.

1042 Freeman, Joan. A PASSION FOR PHYSICS: THE STORY OF A WOMAN PHYSICIST. New York: A. Hilger, 1991.

1043 Frisch, O. R. "Lise Meitner, 1878-1968." BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS OF FELLOWS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY 16 (1970): 405-420. Nuclear physicist, co- discoverer of fission.

1044 Glasser, Robert G., and Snow, George A. "Bice Sechi-Zorm." PHYSICS TODAY 38 (April 1985): 101. Obituary.

1045 Herzenberg, Caroline L., and Howes, Ruth Hege. "Women of the Manhattan Project." TECHNOLOGY REVIEW (in press).

1046 Hodgkin, Dorothy H. C. "Kathleen Lonsdale, 28 January 1903 - 1 April 1971." BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS OF FELLOWS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY 21 (1975): 447-484. Crystallographer, physicist, chemist. First woman president of the British Association for the Advancement of Science.

1047 Horning, Beth. "The Controversial Career of Evelyn Fox Keller." TECHNOLOGY REVIEW 96 (January 1993): 58-68.

1048 Howes, Ruth Hege, and Herzenberg, Caroline L. "Women in Weapons Development: The Manhattan Project." In WOMEN AND THE USE OF MILITARY FORCE, ed. Ruth Hege Howes and Michael R. Stevenson, pp.95-110. Boulder, CO: Lynne Riener, 1993.

1049 Johnson, Karen E. "Maria Goeppert Mayer: Atoms, Molecules, and Nuclear Shells." PHYSICS TODAY 39 (September 1986): 44-49. On her work during 1930-1946 which gained her a Nobel Prize.

1050 Julian, Maureen M. "Dame Kathleen Lonsdale (1903-1971)." PHYSICS TEACHER 19 (1981): 159-165.

1051 Keller, Evelyn Fox. "The Anomaly of a Woman in Physics." In WORKING IT OUT: 23 WOMEN WRITERS, ARTISTS, SCIENTISTS, AND SCHOLARS TALK ABOUT THEIR LIVES AND WORK, ed. by Sara Ruddick & Pamela Daniels, pp.77-91. New York: Pantheon, 1977.

1052 Libby, Leona Marshall. THE URANIUM PEOPLE. New York: Crane Russak, 1979. Chatty memoir by a nuclear physicist.

1053 Lubkin, Gloria. "Chien-Shiung Wu, the First Lady of Physics Research." SMITHSONIAN 1 (1971): 52-57.

1054 Maradudin, Alexei A., and Yen, William M. "Ljubov A. Rebane (obituary)." PHYSICS TODAY 45 (October 1992): 137-8. Russian spectroscopist.

1055 Mason, Joan. "The Admission of the First Women to the Royal Society of London." NOTES AND RECORDS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF LONDON 46 (1992): 279-300. On Kathleen Lonsdale and Marjory Stephenson.

1056 Mason, Joan. "Hertha Ayrton (1854-1923) and the Admission of Women to the Royal Society of London." NOTES AND RECORDS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF LONDON 45 (1991): 201-220.

1057 McCann, Mary. "No Parity in Science: Being a Woman in Nuclear Physics." SCIENCE FOR THE PEOPLE no.46 (1980): 9-11. Autobiographical.

1058 Rayner-Canham, Geoffrey W., and Rayner-Canham, Marelene F. HARRIET BROOKS: PIONEER NUCLEAR SCIENTIST. Buffalo, NY and Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1992.

1059 Rayner-Canham, Marelene F., and Rayner-Canham, Geoffrey W. "Harriet Brooks, 1876-1933: Canada's First Woman Nuclear Physicist." In DESPITE THE ODDS: ESSAYS ON CANADIAN WOMEN AND SCIENCE, ed. by Marianne Gosztonyi Ainley, pp.195-203. Montreal: Vehicule Press; Buffalo, NY: U.S. Distributor Press, University of Toronto Press, 1990.

1060 Rayner-Canham, Marelene F., and Rayner-Canham, Geoffrey W. "Pioneer Women in Nuclear-Science." AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICS 58, no.11 (1990): 1036-1043.

1061 Rife, Pat. "Lise Meitner (1878-1968). Part 1: The Early Years." ASSOCIATION FOR WOMEN IN MATHEMATICS NEWSLETTER 10, no.3 (May/June 1980): 8-13.

1062 Rife, Pat. "Lise Meitner (1878-1968). Part 2: the Mathematical Interpretation of Nuclear Fission." ASSOCIATION FOR WOMEN IN MATHEMATICS NEWSLETTER 10, no.4 (July/August 1980): 9-14.

1063 Sachs, Robert G. "Maria Goeppert Mayer, June 28, 1906-February 20, 1972." BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCE 50 (1979): 311-328.

1064 Sharp, Evelyn. HERTHA AYRTON: A MEMOIR. London: Arnold, 1926.

1065 Sime, Ruth Lewin. "Lise Meitner and the Discovery of Fission." JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL EDUCATION 66 (May 1989): 373-376.

1066 Spradley, Joseph L. "Women and the Elements: The Role of Women in Element and Fission Discoveries." PHYSICS TEACHER 27, no.9 (December 1989): 656-662. Describes the work of Marie Curie, Lise Meitner, Ida Noddack, Irene Curie, Marguerite Perey, Chien-Shiung Wu, Maria Mayer, and others.

1067 Teitz, Joyce. "Physicist: Devrie S. Intriligator." In WHAT'S A NICE GIRL LIKE YOU DOING IN A PLACE LIKE THIS?, pp. 124-144. New York: Coward, McCann & Geoghegan, 1972.

1068 Tousey, R. "The Solar Spectrum from Fraunhofer to Skylab: An Appreciation of the Contribution of Charlotte Moore Sitterly." JOURNAL OF THE OPTICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA. B, OPTICAL PHYSICS 5, no.10 (October 1988): 2230-2236. Chiefly technical description of Sitterly's work in solar spectroscopy.

1069 Watkins, Sallie A. "Lise Meitner and the Beta-Ray Energy Controversy: An Historical Perspective." AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICS 51 (1983): 550-553.

1070 Watkins, Sallie A. "Lise Meitner: The Making of a Physicist." PHYSICS TEACHER 22 (1984): 12-15.

Health & Biology

Health Reference (1071-1097)

This section contains bibliographies and review essays on women in the health professions and women's health issues. Kali Herman's WOMEN IN PARTICULAR: AN INDEX TO AMERICAN WOMEN (Phoenix: Oryx, 1984) points to biographical material on 1,318 women in the category "Medicine and Life Sciences."

1071 Apple, Rima D. "Pictorial Essay." In WOMEN, HEALTH, AND MEDICINE IN AMERICA: A HISTORICAL HANDBOOK, ed. by Rima D. Apple, pp.271-277. New York: Garland, 1990.

1072 BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE. Bethesda, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, National Library of Medicine, 1965- . This annual reference tool lists current work in the history of medicine and health care under subject categories such as "Women in Medicine," "Gynecology," "Hygiene," etc.

1073 Bishop, William John, and Goldie, Sue, comps. A BIO-BIBLIOGRAPHY OF FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE. London: Dawson's of Pall Mall, 1962.

1074 Boquist, Constance, and Haase, Jeannette V. AN HISTORICAL REVIEW OF WOMEN IN DENTISTRY: AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY. Rockville, MD: U. S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, Health Resources Administration, Office of Health Resources Opportunity, 1977. DHEW Pub. no.(HRA)77-643

1075 Bullough, Bonnie, Bullough, Vern L., Garvey, Jane, and Allen, Karen Miller. ISSUES IN NURSING: AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY. New York: Garland, 1986. Comprehensive bibliography on nursing ethics, nursing education, health-care delivery, nursing specialities, and a feminist critique of nursing.

1076 Bullough, Vern L., Bullough, Bonnie, and Elcano, Barrett. NURSING: A HISTORICAL BIBLIOGRAPHY. New York: Garland, 1981.

1077 Bullough, Vern L., and Sentz, Lilli. PROSTITUTION: A GUIDE TO SOURCES, 1960-1990. New York: Garland, 1992. See "Medicine and Sexually Transmitted Diseases," pp.256-271, and "Medicine and AIDS," pp.271-286.

1078 Chaff, Sandra L., et al. WOMEN IN MEDICINE: A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE LITERATURE ON WOMEN PHYSICIANS. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow, 1977.

1079 Cirasole, D.M., and Seager, G. "Women and Reproductive Technologies: A Partially Annotated Bibliography." WOMEN & HEALTH 13, nos.1/2 (1987): 237-259.

1080 Draeger, Ida J. "Women as Physicians in the United States, 1850-1900." BULLETIN OF THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE 16, no.1 (June 1944): 72-81. Annotated bibliography.

1081 Dzuback, Mary Ann. "Nursing Historiography, 1960-1980: An Annotated Bibliography." In NURSING HISTORY: NEW PERSPECTIVES, NEW POSSIBILITIES, ed. by Ellen Condliffe Lagemann, pp.181-210. New York: Teachers College Press, 1983.

1082 Huls, Mary Ellen. UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT DOCUMENTS ON WOMEN 1800-1990: A COMPREHENSIVE BIBLIOGRAPHY. VOLUME I: SOCIAL ISSUES. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1993. Chapters "Health," "Fertility and Maternity," "Federal Maternal Health Programs," "Birth Control and Abortion," and "Illegitimacy and Adolescent Pregnancy," provide annotated listings of government publications on these topics issued in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

1083 James, Janet W. "Writing and Rewriting Nursing History: A Review Essay." BULLETIN OF THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE (1984): 568-584. Reviews eight books and identifies those listed in NURSING: A HISTORICAL BIBLIOGRAPHY by Bonnie Bullough, Vern Bullough, and Barrett Elcano.

1084 JOURNAL OF WOMEN'S HISTORY GUIDE TO PERIODICAL LITERATURE, comp. Gayle V. Fischer. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1992. See bibliographies in the sections headed "Birth Control," "Health," and "Sexuality."

1085 Kantha, Sachi Sri, comp. PROSTITUTES IN MEDICAL LITERATURE: AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1991. Covers 1900-1990.

1086 Katz, Elaine. "Early Women Medical Writers: A Descriptive Handlist." AB BOOKMAN'S WEEKLY (April 20, 1987): 1701-1703. Bibliography of works through the early 19th century, compiled by a rare book dealer.

1087 Mandelbaum, Dorothy Rosenthal. "Women in Medicine." SIGNS 4, no.1 (Autumn 1978): 136-145. Review essay.

1088 Moore, Gloria, and Moore, Ronald. MARGARET SANGER AND THE BIRTH CONTROL MOVEMENT: A BIBLIOGRAPHY, 1911-1984. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow, 1986. Over 1,300 citations, mostly with annotations.

1089 Morman, Edward T. with Jill Gates Smith and Margaret Jerrido. "Bibliography." In WOMEN, HEALTH, AND MEDICINE IN AMERICA: A HISTORICAL HANDBOOK, ed. by Rima D. Apple, pp.519-556. New York: Garland, 1990.

1090 Nordquist, Joan. EATING DISORDERS: FEMINIST, HISTORICAL, CULTURAL, PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS: A BIBLIOGRAPHY. Santa Cruz: Reference and Research Services, 1989.

1091 NURSING STUDIES INDEX, 1900-1960. New York: Garland, 1984. 4 vols. References to sixty years of nursing literature, indexed by Virginia Henderson and Leo Simmons.

1092 Sahli, Nancy Ann. "Sexuality in 19th and 20th Century America: The Sources and Their Problems." RADICAL HISTORY REVIEW 20 (1979): 89-96.

1093 Sahli, Nancy Ann. WOMEN AND SEXUALITY IN AMERICA: A BIBLIOGRAPHY. Boston: G.K. Hall, 1984. Cites medical and scientific writings, as well as prescriptive literature, often with detailed annotations.

1094 Salisbury, Joyce E. MEDIEVAL SEXUALITY: A RESEARCH GUIDE. New York: Garland, 1990.

1095 Stevens, Patricia E. "Lesbian Health Care Research: A Review of the Literature from 1970-1990." HEALTH CARE FOR WOMEN INTERNATIONAL 13 (1992): 91-120.

1096 Stinson, Shirley, Johnson, Joy Louise, and Zilm, Glennis. HISTORY OF NURSING BEGINNING BIBLIOGRAPHY: A PROEMIAL LIST WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO CANADIAN SOURCES. Edmonton, Canada: Faculty of Nursing, University of Alberta, 1992.

1097 Verbrugge, Martha H. "Women and Medicine in Nineteenth-Century America." SIGNS 1, no.4 (Summer 1976): 957-972. Review essay.

General Works on Women and Health (1098-1108)

Included here are histories of women as health care providers and of women's health.

1098 Achterberg, Jeanne. WOMAN AS HEALER. Boston, MA: Shambala; distr. Random, 1990.

1099 Apple, Rima D., ed. WOMEN, HEALTH, AND MEDICINE IN AMERICA: A HISTORICAL HANDBOOK. New York: Garland, 1990.

1100 Bourdillon, Hilary. WOMEN AS HEALERS: A HISTORY OF WOMEN AND MEDICINE. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

1101 Dakin, Theodora P. A HISTORY OF WOMEN'S CONTRIBUTION TO WORLD HEALTH. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 1991.

1102 Harrison, Brian. "Women's Health and the Women's Movement in Britain: 1840-1940." In BIOLOGY, MEDICINE AND SOCIETY 1840-9140, ed. Charles Webster, pp.15-71. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1981.

1103 Hughes, Muriel Joy. WOMEN HEALERS IN MEDIEVAL LIFE AND LITERATURE. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 1943. Repr. New York: Books for Libraries Press, 1968.

1104 Huston, Perdita. MOTHERHOOD BY CHOICE: PIONEERS IN WOMEN'S HEALTH AND FAMILY PLANNING. New York: Feminist Press, 1992. Includes Evangelina Rodriguez, the first woman doctor in the Dominican Republic; Miyoski Ohba, who introduced the use of condoms in rural Japan; Elsie Ottsen-Jensen, founder of the Swedish Association of Sex Educators, and others. Also published as THE RIGHT TO CHOOSE: PIONEERS IN WOMEN'S HEALTH AND FAMILY PLANNING (London: Earthscan, 1992).

1105 Levin, Beatrice. WOMEN AND MEDICINE: PIONEERS MEETING THE CHALLENGE! Lincoln, NE: Media Publishing, 1988. 2nd ed. Historical and contemporary biographical sketches of women in all areas of medical care.

1106 Perrone, Bobette, Stockel, H. Henrietta, and Krueger, Victoria. MEDICINE WOMEN, CURANDERAS, AND WOMEN DOCTORS. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1989. Stories of ten women healers.

1107 Tucker, Sara W. "Opportunities for Women: The Development of Professional Women's Medicine in Canton, China, 1879-1901." WOMEN'S STUDIES INTERNATIONAL FORUM 13, no.4 (1990): 357-368.

1108 Weaver, Bill L., and Thompson, James A. "Women in Medicine and the Issue in Late Nineteenth-Century Alabama." ALABAMA HISTORICAL QUARTERLY 43 (Winter 1981): 292-314.

Medicine and Dentistry: General (1109-1214)

1109 Abram, Ruth J., ed. "SEND US A LADY PHYSICIAN": WOMEN DOCTORS IN AMERICA, 1835-1920. New York: Norton, 1985.

1110 Albisetti, James O. "The Fight for Female Physicians in Imperial Germany." CENTRAL EUROPEAN HISTORY 15 (1982): 99-123.

1111 Alexander, Wendy. "Early Glasgow Women Medical Graduates." In THE WORLD IS ILL DIVIDED: WOMEN'S WORK IN SCOTLAND IN THE NINETEENTH AND EARLY TWENTIETH CENTURIES, ed. Eleanor Gordon & Esther Breitenbach, pp.70-94. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1990.

1112 Altekruse, Joan M., and Rosser, Sue V. "Feminism and Medicine: Co- optation or Cooperation?" In THE KNOWLEDGE EXPLOSION: GENERATIONS OF FEMINIST SCHOLARSHIP, ed. Cheris Kramarae & Dale Spender, pp.27-40. New York: Teachers College Press, 1992. Reviews the impact of feminism on medicine since the late 1960s.

1113 American Medical Association. WOMEN IN MEDICINE IN AMERICA: IN THE MAINSTREAM. Chicago, IL: American Medical Association, 1991.

1114 American Women's Hospitals, and Potter, Marion Craig, comp. CENSUS OF WOMEN PHYSICIANS, NOVEMBER 11, 1918. American Women's Hospitals, 1918.

1115 Bauman, Raquel. "The Status of Chicanas in Medicine." RESEARCH BULLETIN OF THE SPANISH-SPEAKING MENTAL HEALTH RESEARCH CENTER 4, no.3 (March 1980): 6-7, 12-13.

1116 Belgrave, Michael. "A Subtle Containment: Women in New Zealand Medicine, 1893-1941." NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF HISTORY 22, no.1 (1988): 44-55. Women physicians were overrepresented in low-paid positions compared to their male counterparts.

1117 Bell, Enid Hestor Chataway Moberly. STORMING THE CITADEL: THE RISE OF THE WOMAN DOCTOR. London: Constable, 1953.

1118 Bendiner, E. "The `Derailment' That Spurred A Feminist Revolution in Medicine." HOSPITAL PRACTICE 18, no.3 (March 1983): 225, 228, 233-237.

1119 Bennett, Alice H. ENGLISH MEDICAL WOMEN: GLIMPSES OF THEIR WORK IN PEACE AND WAR. London: Pitman & Sons, 1915.

1120 Benton, John F. "Trotula, Women's Problems, and the Professionalization of Medicine in the Middle Ages." BULLETIN OF THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE 59, no.1 (Spring 1985): 30-53.

1121 Blackwell, Elizabeth. "The Influence of Women in the Profession of Medicine." 1902; repr. New York: Arno, 1972. ESSAYS IN MEDICAL SOCIOLOGY (1902).

1122 Blake, John B. "Women and Medicine in Ante-bellum America." BULLETIN OF THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE 39, no.2 (1965): 99-123.

1123 Blount, Melissa. "Surpassing Obstacles: Black Women in Medicine." JOURNAL OF AMERICAN MEDICAL WOMEN'S ASSOCIATION 39, no.6 (November/December 1984): 192-195.

1124 Bonner, Thomas Neville. "Medical Women Abroad: A New Dimension of Women's Push for Opportunity in Medicine, 1850-1914." BULLETIN OF THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE 62, no.1 (1988): 58-73. After 1870, thousands of American and European women flocked to medical schools in France and Switzerland because of the quality coeducation offered.

1125 Bonner, Thomas Neville. "Pioneering in Women's Medical Education in the Swiss Universities 1864-1914." GESNERUS 45 (1988): 461-473.

1126 Bonner, Thomas Neville. "Rendezvous in Zurich: Seven Who Made a Revolution in Women's Medical Education, 1864-1874." JOURNAL OF THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE AND ALLIED SCIENCES 44, no.1 (1989): 7-27. Six of the seven women discussed came to medical school in Switzerland because their home countries were much more restrictive in allowing women to study medicine. By 1907, over 1,000 women had followed them.

1127 Bonner, Thomas Neville. TO THE ENDS OF THE EARTH: WOMEN'S SEARCH FOR EDUCATION IN MEDICINE. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1992.

1128 Bridgforth, L.R. "The Sociology of Science: Women and Medicine in Nineteenth Century Mississippi." JOURNAL OF THE MISSISSIPPI STATE MEDICAL ASSOCIATION 26, no.1 (January 1985): 9-13.

1129 Brodman, Estelle. "A Century of Women Physicians." NEW JERSEY MEDICINE 85, no.5 (May 1988): 375-382.

1130 Burlingame, L. J. "The History of Women in Medicine." MARYLAND HISTORIAN 9, no.2 (Fall 1978): 51-62. Review essay.

1131 Calmes, S.H. "From Medicine to Management: The Female Physician Executive." PHYSICIAN EXECUTIVE 17, no.1 (January/February 1991): 14-19. Includes historical look at women in medicine and medical management.

1132 Cangi, Ellen Corwin. "Patrons and Proteges: Cincinnati's First Generation of Women Doctors, 1875-1910." CINCINNATI HISTORICAL SOCIETY BULLETIN 37 (Summer 1979): 89-114.

1133 Chaff, Sandra L. "Images of Female Medical Students at the Turn of the Century." In SEX AND SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY, ed. Sandra Harding and Jean F. O'Barr. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987.

1134 Clevenger, Martha R. "From Lay Practitioner to Doctor of Medicine: Woman Physicians in St. Louis, 1860-1920." GATEWAY HERITAGE 8, no.3 (1987-1988): 12-21.

1135 Coe, D.B., and Dienst, E.R. "Women in Podiatric Medicine. Experience During Training." JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN PODIATRIC MEDICAL ASSOCIATION 80, no.6 (June 1990): 334-339.

1136 Cole, Stephen. "Sex Discrimination and Admission to Medical School, 1929-1984." AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SOCIOLOGY 92 (1986): 549-567.

1137 Conference on Meeting Medical Manpower Needs, Washington, DC, 1968. THE FULLER UTILIZATION OF THE WOMEN PHYSICIANS. Washington: U.S. Department of Labor, Women's Bureau, 1968. Report sponsored by the American Medical Women's Association, the President's Study Group on Careers for Women, and the Women's Bureau.

1138 de la Cour, Lykke, and Sheinin, Rose. "The Ontario Medical College for Women, 1883-1906: Lessons from Gender-Separatism in Medical Education." In DESPITE THE ODDS: ESSAYS ON CANADIAN WOMEN AND SCIENCE, ed. by Marianne Gosztonyi Ainley, pp.112-120. Montreal: Vehicule Press, 1990.

1139 Dickstein, Leah J., and Nadelson, Carol C., eds. WOMEN PHYSICIANS IN LEADERSHIP ROLES. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Press, 1986. Includes several historical articles on women physicians in the United States.

1140 Drachman, Virginia G. "Female Solidarity and Professional Success: The Dilemma of Women Doctors in Late Nineteenth-Century America." JOURNAL OF SOCIAL HISTORY 15, no.4 (Summer 1982): 607-620.

1141 Drachman, Virginia G. HOSPITAL WITH A HEART: WOMEN DOCTORS AND THE PARADOX OF SEPARATISM AT THE NEW ENGLAND HOSPITAL, 1862-1969. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1984.

1142 Drachman, Virginia G. "The Limits of Progress: The Professional Lives of Women Doctors, 1881-1926." BULLETIN OF THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE 60 (Spring 1986): 58-72.

1143 Dykman, Roscoe A., and Stalmaker, John M. "Survey of Women Physicians Graduating from Medical School, 1925-40." JOURNAL OF MEDICAL EDUCATION 32, no.3, pt.2 (March 1957): 3-38.

1144 Ehrenreich, Barbara, and English, Deirdre. "Women and the Rise of the American Medical Profession." In FREEDOM, FEMINISM, AND THE STATE, ed. Wendy McElroy, pp.285-304. Washington: Cato Institute, 1982.

1145 Engel, Barbara Allen. "Women Medical Students in Russia, 1872-1882: Reformers or Rebels?" JOURNAL OF SOCIAL HISTORY 12 (1979): 394-414.

1146 Giangrego, Elizabeth. "AAWD: A Voice for Women in Dentistry." JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN DENTAL ASSOCIATION 117 (1988): 441-445.

1147 Gillespie, L., Cosgrove, M., Fourcroy, J., Calmes, S. H. "Women in Urology: A Splash in the Pan." UROLOGY 25, no.1 (January 1985): 93-97.

1148 Green, Monica. "Women's Medical Practice and Health Care in Medieval Europe." SIGNS 14, no.2 (Winter 1989): 434-473. Repr. in SISTERS AND WORKERS IN THE MIDDLE AGES. Ed. by J. Bennet et al. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989.

1149 Hildreth, Martha L. "Delicacy and Propriety: The Acceptance of the Woman Physician in Victorian America." HALCYON 9 (1987): 149-165.

1150 Hine, Darlene Clark. "Co-Laborers in the Work of the Lord: Nineteenth-Century Black Women Physicians." In "SEND US A LADY PHYSICIAN": WOMEN DOCTORS IN AMERICA, 1835-1920, ed. by Ruth J. Abram, pp.107-120. New York: Norton, 1985.

1151 Hine, Darlene Clark. "Opportunity and Fulfillment: Sex, Race, and Class in Health Care Education." SAGE 2, no.2 (Fall 1985): 14-19. Examines the opportunities for medical education and nurse training available to Black women in the late nineteenth century.

1152 Holmes, Madelyn. "Go to Switzerland, Young Women, If You Want to Study Medicine." WOMEN'S STUDIES INTERNATIONAL FORUM 7, no.4 (1984): 243-245. Examines the cultural, political, and economic reasons why Switzerland educated so many European women doctors in the second half of the nineteenth century.

1153 Holoubek, Alice Baker. "Women in Medicine." NORTH LOUISIANA HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION JOURNAL 17, no.2/3 (1986): 103-110.

1154 Hurd-Mead, Kate Campbell. A HISTORY OF WOMEN IN MEDICINE: FROM THE EARLIEST TIMES TO THE BEGINNING OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. Haddam, CT: Haddam Press, 1938. Repr. Boston: Milford House, 1973.

1155 Irwin, B.S. "Researching Women Physicians." NEW JERSEY MEDICINE 85, no.5 (May 1988): 405-409.

1156 Jerrido, Margaret. "Early Black Women Physicians." WOMEN AND HEALTH 5, no.3 (Fall 1980): 1-3.

1157 Jex-Blake, Sophia. MEDICAL WOMEN: A THESIS AND A HISTORY. Edinburgh: Oliphant, Anderson & Ferrier, 1886. Repr. New York: Source Book Press, 1970.

1158 JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL WOMEN'S ASSOCIATION 36, no.2 (February 1981); Special Issue: "Women Physicians in Contemporary Society." Includes "Women in Medicine: A Historical Perspective" by Thomas B. Turner; "`On the Same Terms Precisely': The Women's Medical Fund and the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine" by Mary Patterson McPherson; "Fulfilling the Promise: Hopkins Women before World War II" by Caroline Bedell Thomas; "Little Choice and a Stimulating Environment" by Helen B. Taussig.

1159 Kaufman, Martin. "The Admission of Women to Nineteenth-Century American Medical Societies." BULLETIN OF THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE 50, no.2 (Summer 1976): 251-260.

1160 Kealey, Edward J. "England's Earliest Women Doctors." JOURNAL OF THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE AND THE ALLIED SCIENCES 40, no.4 (October 1985): 473-477.

1161 Kendall, Diana, and Feagin, Joe R. "Blatant and Subtle Patterns of Discrimination: Minority Women in Medical Schools." JOURNAL OF INTERGROUP RELATIONS 11, no.2 (1983): 8-33.

1162 King, John W., and King, Caroline R. "Early Women Physicians in Vermont." BULLETIN OF THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE 25, no.5 (September/October 1951): 429-441.

1163 Kinsler, Miriam S. "The American Woman Dentist: A Brief Historical Review from 1855 through 1968." BULLETIN OF THE HISTORY OF DENTISTRY 17 (1967): 25-31.

1164 Lander, Kathleen F. "The Study of Anatomy by Women Before the Nineteenth Century." London: 1922. PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS FOR THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE, pp.125-134.

1165 Lee, J.W. "Women Impact Dentistry." JOURNAL OF THE MASSACHUSETTS DENTAL SOCIETY 40, no.3 (Summer 1991): 113-121.

1166 Lee, J.W. "Women in Dentistry--Past, Present and Future." JOURNAL OF THE MICHIGAN DENTAL ASSOCIATION 73, no.1 (January 1991): 26-32.

1167 Loevy, H.T., and Kowitz, A.A. "Founders of the American Association of Women Dentists: Their Legacy Lingers On." INTERNATIONAL DENTISTRY JOURNAL 41, no.4 (August 1991): 240-247. History of the AAWD and biographical information on the 12 founders.

1168 Lopate, Carol. WOMEN IN MEDICINE. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1968.

1169 Lorber, Judith. WOMEN PHYSICIANS: CAREERS, STATUS, AND POWER. New York: Tavistock, 1984.

1170 Lovejoy, Esther. WOMEN DOCTORS OF THE WORLD. New York: Macmillan, 1957.

1171 Lovejoy, Esther. WOMEN PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS, NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS. Livingston, NY: Livingston Press, 1939.

1172 Lowther, Florence de Loiselle, and Downes, Helen R. "Women in Medicine." JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION 129 (October 13, 1945): 512-514.

1173 Malin, James C. DOCTORS, DEVILS AND THE WOMAN: FORT SCOTT, KANSAS, 1870-1890. Lawrence, KS: Coronado Press, 1975. Dr. Sarah C. Hall, and diseases of women and children.

1174 Marks, Geoffrey, and Beatty, William K. WOMEN IN WHITE. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1972. General history of women in medicine and related fields. Illustrated.

1175 Marrett, Cora Bagley. "Nineteenth Century Associations of Medical Women: The Beginning of a Movement." JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL WOMEN'S ASSOCIATION 32, no.12 (December 1977): 469-474.

1176 Marrett, Cora Bagley. "On the Evolution of Women's Medical Societies." BULLETIN OF THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE 53, no.3 (Fall 1979): 434-448. Repr. in WOMEN AND HEALTH IN AMERICA: HISTORICAL READINGS, pp.429-437. Ed. by Judith Walzer Leavitt. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1984.

1177 Mathes, Valerie Sherer. "Native American Women in Medicine and the Military." JOURNAL OF THE WEST 21 (April 1982): 41-48.

1178 McGovern, Constance M. "Doctors or Ladies? Women Physicians in Psychiatric Institutions, 1872-1900." BULLETIN OF THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE 55, no.1 (Spring 1981): 88-107. Repr. in WOMEN AND HEALTH IN AMERICA: HISTORICAL READINGS, pp. 438-452. Ed. by Judith Walzer Leavitt. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1984.

1179 Moldow, Gloria. "`For Women, by Women': Women's Dispensaries and Clinics in Washington, 1882-1900." RECORDS OF THE COLUMBIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON, D.C. 50 (1980).

1180 Moldow, Gloria. WOMEN DOCTORS IN GILDED-AGE WASHINGTON: RACE, GENDER, AND PROFESSIONALIZATION. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1987.

1181 Morantz-Sanchez, Regina Markell. "The Compassionate Professional: Historical Notes on the Woman Physician's Dilemma." In SEEING FEMALE, ed. by S.S. Brehm, pp.113-122. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1988.

1182 Morantz-Sanchez, Regina Markell. "The `Connecting Link': The Case for the Woman Doctor in Nineteenth Century American Medicine." In SICKNESS AND HEALTH IN AMERICA: READINGS IN THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH 2nd ed., ed. by Judith Walzer Leavitt & Ronald L. Numbers, pp.161-172. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985.

1183 Morantz-Sanchez, Regina Markell. "Not Feminized but Humanized." NEW JERSEY MEDICINE 85, no.5 (May 1988): 363-370.

1184 Morantz-Sanchez, Regina Markell. "Physicians." In WOMEN, HEALTH, AND MEDICINE IN AMERICA: A HISTORICAL HANDBOOK, ed. by Rima D. Apple, pp.477-495. New York: Garland, 1990.

1185 Morantz-Sanchez, Regina Markell. SYMPATHY AND SCIENCE: WOMEN PHYSICIANS IN AMERICAN MEDICINE. New York: Oxford University Press, 1985. Includes useful bibliographic essay.

1186 More, Ellen. "The Blackwell Medical Society and the Professionalization of Women Physicians." BULLETIN OF THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE 61 (1987): 603-628. On a women's medical society.

1187 More, Ellen. "A Certain Restless Ambition: Women Physicians and World War I." AMERICAN QUARTERLY 41 (December 1989): 636-660.

1188 Nemir, Rosa Lee. "Women in Medicine During the Last Half Century." JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL WOMEN'S ASSOCIATION 33, no.5 (May 1978): 201-206.

1189 NEW JERSEY MEDICINE 85, no.5 (May 1988); Special Issue: "Women in Medicine." CONTENTS: Regina Markell Morantz-Sanchez, "Not Feminized but Humanized;" Estelle Brodman, "A Century of Women Physicians;" Barbara Smith Unwin, "Researching Women Physicians;" and Linda Janet Holmes, "The Life of Lena Edwards."

1190 Novick, T.G. "History of the Formation of the Committee on Women of the Westchester County Medical Society." NEW YORK STATE JOURNAL OF MEDICINE 90, no.6 (June 1990): 324-326.

1191 Phillips, Dennis H. "Women in Nineteenth Century Wisconsin Medicine." WISCONSIN MEDICAL JOURNAL 71 (November 1972): 13-18.

1192 Pomeroy, Sarah B. "Plato and the Female Physician." AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHILOLOGY 99 (1978): 496-500.

1193 Price, S.S. "A Profile of Women Dentists." JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN DENTAL ASSOCIATION 120, 4 (1990): 403-407.

1194 Ross, Mary Martin. "Women's Struggles to Enter Medicine: Two Nineteenth-Century Women Physicians in America." PHAROS OF ALPHA OMEGA ALPHA- HONOR MEDICAL SOCIETY 55, no.1 (Winter 1992): 33+.

1195 Santilli, V.C. "Perspectives on Women Physicians in New York State - Past, Present, and Future." NEW YORK STATE JOURNAL OF MEDICINE 90, 6 (1990): 317-321.

1196 Scher, M. "Women Psychiatrists in the United States." AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY 130, no.10 (1973): 1118-1122.

1197 Sebald, Hans. WITCHCRAFT, THE HERITAGE OF A HERESY. New York: Elsevier, 1978. Covers magic, healing, and mental illness.

1198 Sheinin, Rose, and de la Cour, Lykke. "Canadian Women Medical Scientists of 1870-1911: A Made-Invisible Canadian Product." THE CRUCIBLE: JOURNAL OF THE SCIENCE TEACHER'S ASSOCIATION OF ONTARIO 18 (January-February 1987): 34-38.

1199 Shryock, Richard Harrison. "Women in American Medicine." JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL WOMEN'S ASSOCIATION 5, no.9 (September 1950): 371-379. Repr. as chapter 9 of MEDICINE IN AMERICA: HISTORICAL ESSAYS, by Richard H. Shryock. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1966.

1200 Smith, Jill Gates. "Women in Health Care Delivery: The Histories of Women, Medicine and Photography." CADUCEUS 1, no.4 (Winter 1985): 1-40.

1201 Tillman, Randi S. "Women in Dentistry: A Review of the Literature." JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN DENTAL ASSOCIATION 91 (1975): 1214-1215.

1202 Turner, Thomos B. "Women In Medicine -- A Historical Perspective." JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL WOMEN'S ASSOCIATION 36, no.2 (February 1981): 33-37.

1203 Tuve, Jeanette E. THE FIRST RUSSIAN WOMEN PHYSICIANS. Newtonville, MA: Oriental Research Partners, 1984.

1204 Tuve, Jeanette E. "The First Russian Women Physicians." JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL WOMEN'S ASSOCIATION 34, no.1 (January 1979): 5-11.

1205 Wahl, N. "Orthodontics with a Tender Touch." THE ANGLE ORTHODONTIST 62, no.3 (Fall 1992): 235-239.

1206 Waite, Frederick C. HISTORY OF THE NEW ENGLAND FEMALE MEDICAL COLLEGE, 1848-1874. Boston: Boston University School of Medicine, 1950.

1207 Wall, Helena M. "Feminism and the New England Hospital, 1949-1961." AMERICAN QUARTERLY 32 (Fall 1980): 435-452.

1208 Walsh, James Joseph. MEDIEVAL MEDICINE. London: A. & C. Black, 1920. See chapter 9, "Medical Education for Women." Repr. New York: AMS Press, 1979.

1209 Walsh, Mary Roth. "DOCTORS WANTED, NO WOMEN NEED APPLY": SEXUAL BARRIERS IN THE MEDICAL PROFESSION, 1839-1975. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1977.

1210 Walsh, Mary Roth. "The Rediscovery of the Need for a Feminist Medical Education." HARVARD EDUCATION REVIEW 49 (1979): 447-466.

1211 Walsh, Mary Roth. "Women in Medicine Since Flexner." NEW YORK STATE JOURNAL OF MEDICINE 90, no.6 (June 1990): 302-308. Repr. in BEYOND FLEXNER: MEDICAL EDUCATION IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY. Ed. by Barbara M. Barzansky and Norman Gevitz. New York: Greenwood, 1992.

1212 Wilson, Marjorie. "The Status of Women in Medicine: Background Data." JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL WOMEN'S ASSOCIATION 36, no.2 (February 1981): 62-79. Statistics on women physicians' education and employment in the 1970s.

1213 "Women in Medicine." NEW JERSEY MEDICINE 85, no.5 (May 1988): 363-442.

1214 Wyman, A.L. "The Surgeoness: The Female Practitioner of Surgery, 1400-1800." MEDICAL HISTORY 28 (1984): 22-41.

Medicine and Dentistry: Biographies (1215-1293)

(Full title: Medicine & Dentistry: Biographies and Studies of Individuals)

NOTE: WOMEN IN MEDICINE: A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE LITERATURE OF WOMEN PHYSICIANS, by Sandra L. Chaff et al. (above, no.1078) cites nearly 1600 biographical publications on women physicians. NOTABLE AMERICAN WOMEN, edited by Edward T. James et al. (3 vols., Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1971) has 53 entries under "Physicians," and NOTABLE AMERICAN WOMEN: THE MODERN PERIOD, edited by Barbara Sicherman and Carol Hurd Green (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1980) includes 28 under "Physicians" and another 17 under "Medicine-- Researchers." BLACK WOMEN IN AMERICA: AN HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA, edited by Darlene Clark Hine (Brooklyn: Carlson, 1993) has entries for 39 physicians.

1215 Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority. WOMEN IN MEDICINE. Chicago: 1971. On an organization of African American women physicians.

1216 Andrews-Koryta, Stepanka. "Dr. Olga Stastny, Her Service to Nebraska and the World." NEBRASKA HISTORY 68, no.1 (1987): 20-27. Czechoslavakia-born early twentieth century physician.

1217 Andriole, Vincent T. "Florence Rena Sabin: Teacher, Scientist, Citizen." JOURNAL OF THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE AND ALLIED SCIENCES 14 (1959): 320-350.

1218 Baker, S. Josephine. FIGHTING FOR LIFE. New York: Macmillan, 1939. Dr. Baker, 1873-1945, was a pediatrician and director of the New York City Bureau of Hygiene. Repr. New York: Arno Press, 1974.

1219 Barringer, Emily Dunning. BOWERY TO BELLEVUE: THE STORY OF NEW YORK'S FIRST WOMAN AMBULANCE SURGEON. New York: Norton, 1950.

1220 Blackwell, Elizabeth. PIONEER WORK IN OPENING THE MEDICAL PROFESSION TO WOMEN. London: J.M. Dent, 1914.

1221 Bluemel, Elinor. FLORENCE SABIN: COLORADO WOMAN OF THE CENTURY. Boulder: University of Colorado Press, 1959.

1222 Brunton, L. "Some Women in Medicine." CANADIAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION JOURNAL 48 (1943): 60-65. Repr. in CANADIAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION JOURNAL 146, no.6 (1992): 955-961.

1223 Calmes, S.H. "Virginia Apgar: A Woman Physician's Career in a Developing Speciality." JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL WOMEN'S ASSOCIATION 39, no.6 (November/December 1984): 184-188.

1224 Carter, Codell. "Sophia Jex-Blake's Doctoral Dissertation on Puerperal Fever." ATLANTIS 11, no.2 (1986): 145-153.

1225 Cornell, Virginia. DOC SUSIE: THE TRUE STORY OF A COUNTRY PHYSICIAN IN THE COLORADO ROCKIES. Carpinteria, CA: Manifest Publications, 1991.

1226 Davidson, Sherrie F., and Fleischer, Doris T. PAULINE TENZEL: THE LIFE STORY OF A `LADY DOCTOR'. New York: Biblio Press, 1992. The only woman obstetrician in Nashville, TN from 1932 to 1952.

1227 Davis, S. "Lucy Hobbs Taylor: The Mixed Blessing of Being First." JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN DENTAL ASSOCIATION 117 (1988): 443.

1228 Dock, George. "Robert Talbor, Madame de Sevigne and the Introduction of Cinchona: An Episode Illustrating the Influence of Women in Medicine." ANNALS OF MEDICAL HISTORY 4 (1922): 241-247.

1229 Edge, Fred. THE IRON ROSE: THE EXTRAORDINARY LIFE OF CHARLOTTE ROSS, M.D. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba Press, 1992. Canadian physician who lived from 1842-1916.

1230 Edwards, Ralph W. "The First Woman Dentist, Lucy Hobbs Taylor, D.D.S. (1833-1910)." BULLETIN OF THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE 25 (1951): 277-283.

1231 Engbring, Gertrude M. "Saint Hildegard, Twelfth Century Physician." BULLETIN OF THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE 8, no.6 (June 1940): 770-784.

1232 Evans, Barbara. FREEDOM TO CHOOSE: THE LIFE AND WORK OF DR. HELENA WRIGHT, PIONEER OF CONTRACEPTION. London: Bodley Head, 1984.

1233 Fairbanks, Virgil F. "Doctor Ashby of Virginia: An Admiring Profile." MAYO ALUMNUS 11, no.2 (April 1975): 28-33. Winifred Mayer Ashby.

1234 Forster, Margaret. SIGNIFICANT SISTERS: THE GRASSROOTS OF ACTIVE FEMINISM. New York: Knopf, 1985. Elizabeth Blackwell, pp.53-90.

1235 Fryer, Mary Beacock. EMILY STOWE: DOCTOR AND SUFFRAGIST. Toronto: Hannah Institute & Dundurn Press, 1990.

1236 Gillett, Margaret. "The Heart of the Matter: Maude Abbott, M.D., 1869-1940." In DESPITE THE ODDS: ESSAYS ON CANADIAN WOMEN AND SCIENCE, ed. by Marianne Gosztonyi Ainley, pp.179-194. Montreal: Vehicule Press; Buffalo, NY: U.S. distributor, University of Toronto Press, 1990.

1237 Goodwin, Norma J. "The Black Women Physicians." NEW YORK STATE JOURNAL OF MEDICINE 85 (April 1985): 145-147.

1238 Gordon, Felicia. THE INTEGRAL FEMINIST: MADELEINE PELLETIER, 1874-1939: FEMINISM, SOCIALISM AND MEDICINE. Oxford, England: Polity Press, 1990. Biography of French doctor, psychiatrist, and birth control advocate.

1239 Grant, Madeleine P. ALICE HAMILTON: PIONEER DOCTOR IN INDUSTRIAL MEDICINE. London: Abelard-Schuman, 1967.

1240 Hamilton, Alice. EXPLORING THE DANGEROUS TRADES: THE AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF ALICE HAMILTON. Boston: Little, Brown, 1943. Repr. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1985.

1241 Harer, W.B. Jr., and el-Dawakhly, Z. "Peseshet -- The First Female Physician?" OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY 74, no.6 (December 1989): 960-961. Ancient Egyptian known as the "Overseer of Women Physicians."

1242 Hawks, Esther Hill, and Schwartz, Gerald, ed. A WOMAN DOCTOR'S CIVIL WAR: ESTHER HILL HAWKS' DIARY. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 1989.

1243 Hellstedt, Leone McGregor, ed. WOMEN PHYSICIANS OF THE WORLD: AUTOBIOGRAPHIES OF MEDICAL PIONEERS. Washington, DC: Hemisphere, 1978.

1244 Hewitt, D.L. "Dentistry's First Lady: Lucy Hobbs Taylor." OHIO DENTISTRY JOURNAL 62, no.4 (1988): 28-31.

1245 Hine, Darlene Clark. "Black Women Physicians in America: The Pioneers, 1864-1925." HAMPTON UNIVERSITY JOURNAL OF ETHNIC STUDIES (1985)

1246 Horn, Margo. "`Sisters Worthy of Respect': Family Dynamics and Women's Roles in the Blackwell Family." JOURNAL OF FAMILY HISTORY 8 (1983): 367-382.

1247 Jacobi, Mary Putnam; ed. by Ruth Putnam. LIFE AND LETTERS OF MARY PUTNAM JACOBI. London: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1925.

1248 John, Helen J. "Hildegard of Bingen: A New Twelfth-century Woman Philosopher?" HYPATIA 7, no.1 (Winter 1992): 115-123.

1249 Kaufman, Sharon R. THE HEALER'S TALE: TRANSFORMING MEDICINE AND CULTURE. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1993.

1250 Lightfoot, Sara Lawrence. BALM IN GILEAD: JOURNEY OF A HEALER. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1988. Biography of her mother, Margaret Morgan Lawrence, one of the first Black women psychiatrists.

1251 Link, Eugene P. "Abraham and Mary P. Jacobi, Humanitarian Physicians." JOURNAL OF THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE 4 (1949): 382-392.

1252 Loevy, H. T. "M. Evangeline Jordon, Pioneer in Pedodontics." PEDIATRIC DENTISTRY 13, no.1 (January/February 1991): 69-72.

1253 Lutzker, Edythe. EDITH PECHEY-PHIPSON, M.D. New York: Exposition Press, 1973. Practiced in England and India.

1254 Lutzker, Edythe. WOMEN GAIN A PLACE IN MEDICINE. New York: McGraw- Hill, 1969. Details the careers of five pioneer English women doctors.

1255 Manton, Jo. ELIZABETH GARRETT ANDERSON. New York: Dutton, 1965.

1256 Martindale, Louisa. A WOMAN SURGEON. London: Gollancz, 1951.

1257 Mathes, Valerie Sherer. "Susan LaFlesche Picotte: Nebraska's Indian Physician, 1865-1915." NEBRASKA HISTORY 63 (Winter 1982): 502-530.

1258 McGavran, Mary Theodora, Kaiser, Robert M., Chaff, Sandra L., and Peitzman, Steven J., eds. "A Philadelphia Medical Student of the 1890's: The Diary of Mary Theodora McGavran." PENNSYLVANIA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY AND BIOGRAPHY 108 (1984): 217-236.

1259 McMaster, Philip D., and Heidelberger, Michael. "Florence Rena Sabin, November 9, 1871 - October 3, 1953." BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS, NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 34 (1960): 271-305.

1260 Mead, Kate Campbell (Hurd) MEDICAL WOMEN OF AMERICA: A SHORT HISTORY OF THE PIONEER MEDICAL WOMEN OF AMERICA AND OF A FEW OF THEIR COLLEAGUES IN ENGLAND. New York: Froben, 1933.

1261 Mitchell, A.M. "Esther Pohl Lovejoy and the American Women's Hospitals." WOMEN & HEALTH 6, nos.3/4 (Fall/Winter 1981): 89-92.

1262 Monteiro, Lois A. "On Separate Roads: Florence Nightingale and Elizabeth Blackwell." SIGNS 9, no.3 (Spring 1984): 520-533. Reprints and comments on letters between Nightingale and Blackwell.

1263 Morantz, Regina Markell. "Feminism, Professionalism, and Germs: The Thought of Mary Putnam Jacobi and Elizabeth Blackwell." AMERICAN QUARTERLY 34, no.5 (Winter 1982): 459-478. Repr. in WOMEN AND THE STRUCTURE OF SOCIETY, ed. by Barbara J. Harris and Jo Ann K. McNamara. Durham, NC: Duke University Press,1984.

1264 Morantz, Regina Markell, Pomerleau, Cynthia Stodola, and Fenichel, Carol Hansen, eds. IN HER OWN WORDS: ORAL HISTORIES OF WOMEN PHYSICIANS. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1982.

1265 Morantz-Sanchez, Regina. "Feminist Theory and Historical Practice: Rereading Elizabeth Blackwell." HISTORY AND THEORY 31, no.4 (1992): 51-69.

1266 Moye, William T. "BLS and Alice Hamilton: Pioneers in Industrial Health." MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW 109 (June 1986): 24-27. Early 20th century investigator of occupational health hazards for the Bureau of Labor.

1267 Munster, L. "Women Doctors in Medieval Italy." CIBA SYMPOSIUM 10 (1962): 136-140.

1268 Naidu, Prema M. IN LOVE WITH LIFE: MEMOIRS OF A LADY DOCTOR. New Delhi: Sterling Publishers, 1990. Gynecologist in India.

1269 Offen, Karen. "A Nineteenth-Century French Feminist Rediscovered: Jenny P. D'Hericourt, 1809-1875." SIGNS 13, no.1 (1987): 14-158. French feminist medical practitioner who also lived in the United States for ten years.

1270 Parker, Beulah. THE EVOLUTION OF A PSYCHIATRIST: MEMOIRS OF A WOMAN DOCTOR. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1987.

1271 Peitzman, Steven J. "The Quiet Life of a Philadelphia Medical Woman: Mary Willits (1855-1902)." JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL WOMEN'S ASSOCIATION 34, no.12 (December 1979): 443-457.

1272 Rhoads, Mila I. Pierce. "Beginning a Career in Pediatric Hematology: 1926." JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION 260 (September 16, 1988): 1606-1609.

1273 Robinson, Victor. "Mary Putnam Jacobi." MEDICAL LIFE 35, no.7 (July 1928): 334-353.

1274 Root, Eliza H. "Frances Emily White, M.D." WOMAN'S MEDICAL JOURNAL 14, no.5 (May 1904): 97-99.

1275 Rosenbloom, Jacob. "Statements of Medical Interest from the Letters of Madame de Sevigne." MEDICAL LIFE 30 (1923): 71-108, 133-157, 291-307.

1276 Salber, Eva J. THE MIND IS NOT THE HEART: RECOLLECTIONS OF A WOMAN PHYSICIAN. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1989. A white South African physician, she served Black patients there and in rural North Carolina.

1277 Seraile, William. "Susan McKinney Steward: New York State's First African-American Woman Physician." AFRO-AMERICANS IN NEW YORK LIFE AND HISTORY 9 (July 1985): 27-44.

1278 Shipp, Ellis Reynolds. THE EARLY AUTOBIOGRAPHY AND DIARY OF ELLIS REYNOLDS SHIPP, M.D. Salt Lake City, UT: Deseret News Press, 1962.

1279 Sicherman, Barbara. ALICE HAMILTON: A LIFE IN LETTERS. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1984. Hamilton was a physician and pioneer in the field of industrial medicine.

1280 Snyder, Charles McCool. DR. MARY WALKER: THE LITTLE LADY IN PANTS. New York: Vantage, 1962. Dr. Walker (1832-1919) won the Congressional Medal of Honor in 1865 and had it withdrawn in 1917. Repr. New York: Arno, 1974.

1281 Solberg, Winton U. "Martha G. Ripley: Pioneer Doctor and Social Reformer." MINNESOTA HISTORY 39, no.1 (Spring 1964): 1-17

1282 Stern, Madeleine. "Lydia Folger Fowler, M.D.: First American Woman Professor of Medicine." NEW YORK STATE JOURNAL OF MEDICINE 77 (1977): 1137-1140.

1283 Stone, Mildred. HEN MEDIC: FIFTY YEARS IN MEDICINE. New York: Carlton Press, 1989. Wisconsin physician.

1284 Stuard, Susan Mosher. "Dame Trot." SIGNS 1, no.2 (Winter 1975): 537-542. On Trotula of Salerno, 11th-century author of two medical treatises.

1285 Todd, Margaret. THE LIFE OF SOPHIA JEX-BLAKE. London: Macmillan, 1918.

1286 Tsai, H.H. "Scottish Women Medical Pioneers - Manchuria 1894-1912." SCOTTISH MEDICAL JOURNAL 37, no.2 (1992): 56-59.

1287 Van Hoosen, Bertha. PETTICOAT SURGEON. Chicago: Pellegrini & Cudahy, 1947. Repr. New York: Arno, 1980.

1288 Viseltear, Arthur J. "Joanna Stephens and the Eighteenth-Century Lithontriptics: A Misplaced Chapter in the History of Therapeutics." BULLETIN OF THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE 42 (1968): 199-220.

1289 Waite, Frederick C. "Dr. Lydia Folger Fowler: The Second Woman to Receive the Degree of Doctor of Medicine in the United States." ANNALS OF MEDICAL HISTORY 4 (1932): 290-297.

1290 Webb, Bernice Larson. LADY DOCTOR ON A HOMESTEAD: THE THOMAS COUNTY YEARS, 1879-1890, OF MARY AMELIA HAY (1832-1907). Colby, KS: H.F. Davis Memorial Library, Colby Community College, 1987.

1291 Wiberforce, Octavia, and Jalland, Pat, ed. OCTAVIA WILBERFORCE: THE AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF A PIONEER WOMAN DOCTOR. New York: Cassell, 1989. British physician in early twentieth century.

1292 Wilson, Dorothy Clark. LONE WOMAN. Boston: Little, Brown, 1970.

1293 Zakrzewska, Marie E.; ed. by Agnes Vietor. A WOMAN'S QUEST: THE LIFE OF MARIE ZAKRZEWSKA. New York: Appleton, 1924. Physician who worked with Elizabeth Blackwell.

Nursing (1294-1458)

GENERAL

1294 Adams, Elmer Cleveland, and Foster, W. D. HEROINES OF MODERN PROGRESS. New York: Sturgis & Walton, 1913.

1295 Allen, Natali, and Brister, Eve. "Nurses with Tuberculosis: A Preliminary Study [1901-1950]." WOMEN'S STUDIES JOURNAL 5 (December 1989): 38-60.

1296 Ashley, Jo Ann. HOSPITALS, PATERNALISM, AND THE ROLE OF THE NURSE. New York: Teachers College Press, 1976.

1297 Austin, Ann L. HISTORY OF NURSING SOURCE BOOK. New York: Putnam, 1957.

1298 Baer, Ellen D. "Nurses." In WOMEN, HEALTH, AND MEDICINE IN AMERICA: A HISTORICAL HANDBOOK, ed. by Rima D. Apple, pp.459-475. New York: Garland, 1990.

1299 Bankert, Marianne. WATCHFUL CARE: A HISTORY OF AMERICA'S NURSE ANESTHETISTS. New York: Continuum, 1989.

1300 Benson, Evelyn R., and Selekman, Janice. "Jewish Women and Nursing: An Overview of Early History." JOURNAL OF THE NEW YORK STATE NURSES ASSOCIATION 23, no.4 (December 1992): 16-19.

1301 Breckinridge, Mary, and Ireland, B. "The Birth of the Frontier Nursing Service -- The First Words, The First Steps." FRONTIER NURSING SERVICE QUARTERLY BULLETIN 62, no.1 (Summer 1986): 3-11.

1302 Breckinridge, Mary. WIDE NEIGHBORHOODS: A STORY OF FRONTIER NURSING SERVICE. New York: Harper, 1952. Repr. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1981.

1303 Brown, Mary Louise. "One Hundred Years of Industrial or Occupational Health Nursing in the United States." AAOHN JOURNAL 36 (1988): 433-36.

1304 Buhler-Wilkerson, Karen. FALSE DAWN: THE RISE AND DECLINE OF PUBLIC HEALTH NURSING, 1900-1930. New York: Garland, 1989. While public health nurses in 1900 were both providers of sick care for the poor and preventive health educators, over time their roles diverged based on whether they worked for voluntary agencies, which cared for the sick at home, or public health departments and boards of education, where they taught prevention.

1305 Buhler-Wilkerson, Karen, ed. NURSING AND THE PUBLIC'S HEALTH: AN ANTHOLOGY OF SOURCES. New York: Garland, 1989. Primary documents in the history of public health nursing.

1306 Bullough, Bonnie. "Barriers to the Nurse Practitioner Movement: Problems of Women in a Woman's Field." INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HEALTH SERVICES 5, no.2 (1975): 225-233.

1307 Bullough, Bonnie, Bullough, Vern L., Garvey, Jane, and Allen, Karen Miller. ISSUES IN NURSING: AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY. New York: Garland, 1986. Comprehensive bibliography on nursing ethics, nursing education, health-care delivery, nursing specialities, and a feminist critique of nursing.

1308 Bullough, Vern L., and Bullough, Bonnie. THE CARE OF THE SICK: THE EMERGENCE OF MODERN NURSING. New York: Prodist, 1978. Lengthy bibliography.

1309 Bullough, Vern L., Bullough, Bonnie, and Stanton, Marietta P., eds. FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE AND HER ERA: A COLLECTION OF NEW SCHOLARSHIP. Hamden, CT: Garland, 1990. (Garland reference library of social science, no.629) Nineteen papers on the life of Florence Nightingale and other nursing topics from her era.

1310 Bullough, Vern L., and Bullough, Bonnie. HISTORY, TRENDS, AND POLITICS OF NURSING. Norwalk, CT: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1984.

1311 Campbell, Anne G. "Mary Breckenridge and the American Committee for Devastated France: The Foundations of the Frontier Nursing Service." REGISTER OF THE KENTUCKY HISTORICAL SOCIETY 82 (Summer 1984): 257-276.

1312 Carnegie, Mary Elizabeth. "Black Nurses in the United States: 1879-1992." JOURNAL OF THE NATIONAL BLACK NURSES ASSOCIATION 6, no.1 (Fall/Winter 1992): 13-18.

1313 Carnegie, Mary Elizabeth. "The Impact of Integration on the Nursing Profession: An Historical Sketch." NEGRO HISTORY BULLETIN 28 (April 1965): 154-55, 168. Brief historical study of the National Association of Colored Graduate Nurses.

1314 Carnegie, Mary Elizabeth. THE PATH WE TREAD: BLACKS IN NURSING, 1854-1984. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1986.

1315 Carroll, William K., and Warburton, Rennie. "Feminism, Class Consciousness and Household-Work Linkages Among Registered Nurses in Victoria." LABOR/LE TRAVAIL 24 (Fall 1989): 131-146.

1316 Chua, Wai-Fong, and Clegg, Stewart. "Professional Closure: The Case of British Nursing." THEORY AND SOCIETY 19 (April 1990): 135-172.

1317 Coburn, David. "The Development of Canadian Nursing: Professionalization and Proletarianization." INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HEALTH SERVICES 18 (1988): 437-470.

1318 Crowe-Carraco, Carol. "Mary Breckenridge (d.1965) and the Frontier Nursing Service." REGISTER OF THE KENTUCKY HISTORICAL SOCIETY 76 (July 1978): 179-191.

1319 D'Antonio, Patricia O'Brien. "The Legacy of Domesticity: Nursing in Early Nineteenth-Century America." NURSING HISTORY REVIEW 1 (1993): 229-246.

1320 Dammann, Nancy. A SOCIAL HISTORY OF THE FRONTIER NURSING SERVICE. Sun City, AZ: Social Change Press, 1982. Operated in rural Kentucky beginning in the 1920s.

1321 Davies, Celia, ed. REWRITING NURSING HISTORY. Totowa, NJ: Barnes and Noble, 1980.

1322 Davis, Audrey B. "With Love and Money: Visiting Nursing in Buffalo, New York, 1885-1915." NEW YORK HISTORY 71 (January 1990): 45-67.

1323 Davis, Ruth W. "Behind the Battle of Gettysburg: American Nursing is Born." PENNSYLVANIA HERITAGE 13, no.4 (1987): 10-15.

1324 DeBella, Sandra, and Martin, Leonide, and Siddall, Sandra. NURSES' ROLE IN CHANGING HEALTH CARE PLANNING. East Norwalk, CT: Appleton & Lange, 1986. Covers early American times to the present.

1325 Deloughery, Grace L. HISTORY AND TRENDS OF PROFESSIONAL NURSING. St. Louis: Mosby, 1977. 8th ed.

1326 Dietz, Lena, and Lehozg, Aurelia R. HISTORY AND MODERN NURSING. Philadelphia: F. A. Davis, 1967.

1327 Dingwall, Robert, and Rafferty, Anne Marie, and Webster, Charles. AN INTRODUCTION TO THE SOCIAL HISTORY OF NURSING. London: Routledge, 1988.

1328 Dock, Lavinia L., and Stewart, Isabel Maitland. A SHORT HISTORY OF NURSING FROM THE EARLIEST TIMES TO THE PRESENT DAY. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1920. 3rd ed., 1931; 4th ed., 1938. Dock and Stewart were among the early leaders of the professionalization movement.

1329 Dolan, Josephine A., Fitzpatrick, M. Louise, and Herrman, Eleanor. NURSING IN SOCIETY: A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1983. 15th ed.

1330 Ehrenreich, Barbara, and English, Deirdre. WITCHES, MIDWIVES, AND NURSES: A HISTORY OF WOMEN HEALERS. New York: Feminist Press, 1973.

1331 Emo, Dretha M., Hall, Sharon, and Kern, Darlene. "1964: Vietnam and Army Nursing." MINERVA: QUARTERLY REPORT ON WOMEN AND THE MILITARY 8 (1990): 349-367.

1332 Fiedler, Leslie A. "Images of the Nurse in Fiction and Popular Culture." LITERATURE AND MEDICINE 2 (1985): 79-90.

1333 THE FIFTY YEAR GRADUATES OF FREEDMEN'S HOSPITAL SCHOOL OF NURSING TELL THEIR STORY. Washington, DC: Freedmen's Hospital Nurses Alumni Clubs, 1986. On fifty-one African American graduates from 1913-1935.

1334 Fitzpatrick, M. Louise, ed. HISTORICAL STUDIES IN NURSING. New York: Teachers College Press, 1978.

1335 Flaumenhaft, Eugene, and Flaumenhaft, Carol. "American Nursing and the Road Not Taken." JOURNAL OF THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE AND ALLIED SCIENCES 44 (January 1989): 72-89.

1336 Frank, Charles Marie, Sister. FOUNDATIONS OF NURSING. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1959. 2nd ed.

1337 Frank, Charles Marie, Sister. THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF NURSING, EMPHASIZING THE CULTURAL BACKGROUND OF THE RACE AND THE INFLUENCE OF PHILOSOPHY AND RELIGION ON THE HEALING ARTS. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1953.

1338 Freedman, Dan, and Rhoads, Jacqueline, eds. NURSES IN VIETNAM: THE FORGOTTEN VETERANS. Austin, TX: Texas Monthly Press, 1987. Personal narratives.

1339 Garling, Jean. "Flexner and Goldmark: Why the Difference in Impact?" NURSING OUTLOOK 33 (1985): 26-31. Contrasts the 1910 Flexner Report on medical education and the 1923 Goldmark Report on nursing education.

1340 Goodnow, Minnie. NURSING HISTORY IN BRIEF. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1950. 3rd ed.

1341 Greene, J. "The Begining of Community Psychiatric Nursing." HISTORY OF NURSING 2, no.9 (1989): 14-20.

1342 Hamilton, Diane. "The Cost of Caring: The Metropolitan Life Insurance Company's Visiting Nurse Service, 1909-1953." BULLETIN OF THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE 63 (Fall 1989): 414-434.

1343 Hine, Darlene Clark. BLACK WOMEN IN WHITE: RACIAL CONFLICT AND COOPERATION IN THE NURSING PROFESSIONS, 1890-1950. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1989.

1344 Hine, Darlene Clark. "The Ethel Johns Report: Black Women in the Nursing Profession, 1925." JOURNAL OF NEGRO HISTORY 67, no.3 (Fall 1982): 212-228.

1345 Hine, Darlene Clark. "From Hospital to College: Black Nurse Leaders and the Rise of Collegiate Nursing Schools." JOURNAL OF NEGRO EDUCATION 51 (Summer 1982): 222-237.

1346 Hine, Darlene Clark. "Opportunity and Fulfillment: Sex, Race, and Class in Health Care Education." SAGE 2, no.2 (Fall 1985): 14-19. Examines the opportunities for medical education and nurse training available to Black women in the late nineteenth century.

1347 Hine, Darlene Clark, ed. BLACK WOMEN IN THE NURSING PROFESSION: A DOCUMENTARY HISTORY. New York: Garland, 1985.

1348 Hoffman, Frances L. "Feminism and Nursing." NWSA JOURNAL 3, no.1 (1991): 53-69.

1349 James, Janet W. "Writing and Rewriting Nursing History: A Review Essay." BULLETIN OF THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE (1984): 568-584. Reviews eight books and identifies those listed in NURSING: A HISTORICAL BIBLIOGRAPHY by Bonnie Bullough, Vern Bullough, and Barrett Elcano.

1350 Jamieson, Elizabeth M., Sewall, Mary F., and Suhrie, Eleanor B. TRENDS IN NURSING HISTORY: THEIR SOCIAL, INTERNATIONAL, AND ETHNICAL RELATIONSHIPS. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1966. 6th ed.

1351 Jardine, Pauline O. "An Urban Middle-Class Calling: Women and the Emergence of Modern Nursing Education at the Toronto General Hospital, 1881-1914." URBAN HISTORY REVIEW 17 (February 1989): 177-190.

1352 Jecker, Nancy S., and Self, Donnie J. "Separating Care and Cure: An Analysis of Historical and Contemporary Images of Nursing and Medicine." JOURNAL OF MEDICINE AND PHILOSOPHY 16 (1991): 285-306.

1353 Johns, Ethel, and Pfefferkorn, Blanche. THE JOHNS HOPKINS HOSPITAL SCHOOL OF NURSES, 1889-1949. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1954.

1354 Jones, Ann Hudson. IMAGES OF NURSES IN HISTORY, LITERATURE, AND ART. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1987.

1355 Kalisch, Beatrice J., and Kalisch, Philip A. POLITICS OF NURSING. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1982.

1356 Kalisch, Philip A., and Kalisch, Beatrice J. THE ADVANCE OF AMERICAN NURSING. Boston: Little, Brown, 1986. 2nd ed. Lengthy bibliography.

1357 Kalisch, Philip A., and Kalisch, Beatrice J. THE CHANGING IMAGE OF THE NURSE. Menlo Park, CA: Addison-Wesley Health Sciences Division, 1987.

1358 Kalisch, Philip A., and Kalisch, Beatrice J. "The Image of Nurses in Novels." AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NURSING 82 (1982): 1220-24.

1359 Kalisch, Philip A., Kalisch, Beatrice J., and Scobey, M. IMAGES OF NURSES ON TELEVISION. New York: Springer, 1983.

1360 Kalisch, Philip A., and Kalisch, Beatrice J. "When Nurses Were National Heroines: Images of Nursing in American Film, 1942-1945." NURSING FORUM 20, no.1 (1981): 14-61.

1361 Keddy, Barbara. "A Canadian Historical View of Nurses and Health Care: The Traditional View of `Female Expertise.'" HISTORY OF NURSING BULLETIN 2, no.5 (1988): 16-20.

1362 Keddy, Barbara, et al. "Nurses' Work World: Scientific or `Womanly Ministering'?" RFR/DRF 16, no.4 (December 1987): 37-39. History of nursing in Canada, based on taped interviews.

1363 King, Helen. "Using the Past: Nursing and the Medical Profession in Ancient Greece." In ANTHROPOLOGY AND NURSING, ed. Pat Holden and Jenny Littlewood, pp.7-24. New York: Routledge, 1991.

1364 Lagemann, Ellen Condliffe, ed. NURSING HISTORY: NEW PERSPECTIVES, NEW POSSIBILITIES. New York: Teachers College Press, 1983.

1365 Lance, N. "Historical Lessons? The State Enrolled Nurse." HISTORY OF NURSING 2, no.9 (1989): 21-51.

1366 Lewenson, Sandra Beth. TAKING CHARGE: NURSING, SUFFRAGE, AND FEMINISM IN AMERICA, 1873-1920. New York: Garland, 1993.

1367 Linebach, Laura. "The Railroad Stewardess-Nurse: A Step Toward Autonomy in Nursing Practice." HISTORY OF NURSING BULLETIN 2, no.5 (1988): 17-35.

1368 Lyons-Barrett, Mary. "The Omaha Visiting Nurses Association During the 1920s and 1930s." NEBRASKA HISTORY 70 (Winter 1988): 283-296.

1369 Maggs, Christopher J. EXPLORING HISTORY: AN INTRODUCTION TO NURSING'S PAST. London: Continuing Nurse Education Programme, 1989.

1370 Maher, Sister Mary Denis. TO BIND UP THE WOUNDS: CATHOLIC SISTER NURSES IN THE U.S. CIVIL WAR. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1989. Contributions in Women's Studies, no.107

1371 Marsden, Celine, and Omery, Anna. "Women, Science, and a Women's Science." WOMEN'S STUDIES 21, no.4 (1992): 479-489.

1372 Marshall, Kathryn. IN THE COMBAT ZONE: AN ORAL HISTORY OF AMERICAN WOMEN IN VIETNAM, 1966-1975. Boston: Little, Brown, 1987.

1373 Matejski, Myrtle P. "Ladies' Aid Societies and the Nurses of Lincoln's Army." JOURNAL OF NURSING HISTORY 1, no.2 (1986): 35-51.

1374 McBryde, Brenda. QUIET HEROINES: NURSES OF THE SECOND WORLD WAR. London: Chatto & Windus, 1985.

1375 Melosh, Barbara. "More than `The Physician's Hand': Skill and Authority in Twentieth Century Nursing." In WOMEN AND HEALTH IN AMERICA: HISTORICAL READINGS, ed. by Judith Walzer Leavitt, pp.482-496. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1984.

1376 Melosh, Barbara. THE PHYSICIAN'S HAND: WORK CULTURE AND CONFLICT IN AMERICAN NURSING. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1983.

1377 Miller, Elissa Lane. "Arkansas Nurses, 1895 to 1920: A Profile." ARKANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY 47 (Summer 1988): 154-171.

1378 Moore, Judith. A ZEAL FOR RESPONSIBILITY: THE STRUGGLE FOR PROFESSIONAL NURSING IN VICTORIAN ENGLAND, 1868-1883. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1988. Conflicts between nurses, hospital administrators, and doctors are examined in 19th century Britain.

1379 Mottus, J. E. NEW YORK NIGHTINGALES: THE EMERGENCE OF THE NURSING PROFESSION AT BELLEVUE AND NEW YORK HOSPITAL, 1850-1920. Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press, 1981.

1380 Mulligan, Joan E. "Nursing and Feminism: Caring and Curing." In THE KNOWLEDGE EXPLOSION: GENERATIONS OF FEMINIST SCHOLARSHIP, ed. Cheris Kramarae & Dale Spender, pp.172-180. New York: Teachers College Press, 1992. Reviews the impact of feminism on nursing since the late 1960s.

1381 Nightingale, Florence. CASSANDRA: AN ESSAY BY FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE. New York: Feminist Press, 1979. Written in 1852. This edition features an introduction by Myra Stark, pp.1-23.

1382 Nightingale, Florence, and Seymer, Lucy Ridgely, comp. SELECTED WRITINGS OF FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE. New York: Macmillan, 1954.

1383 Norman, Elizabeth M. "Who and Where Are Nursing's Historians?" NURSING FORUM 20, no.2 (1981): 138-152.

1384 Norman, Elizabeth M. WOMEN AT WAR: THE STORY OF FIFTY MILITARY NURSES WHO SERVED IN VIETNAM. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1990.

1385 NURSING HISTORY REVIEW: OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR THE HISTORY OF NURSING. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1993. New journal edited by Joan E. Lynaugh.

1386 NURSING RESEARCH 36, no.1 (1987); Special issue on the history of nursing.

1387 NURSING RESEARCH 36, no.1 (January/February 1987); special issue on research in nursing history. Includes Joan Lynaugh and Susan Reverby, "Thoughts on the Nature of History;" Patricia O'Brien, "`All a Woman's Life Can Bring': the Domestic Roots of Nursing in Philadelphia, 1830-1885;" Ellen D. Baer, "`A Cooperative Venture' in Pursuit of Professional Status: a Research Journal for Nursing;" Mary Madeline Rogge, "Nursing and Politics: A Forgotten Legacy;" Mary Anderson Hardy, "The American Nurses' Association Influence on Federal Funding for Nursing Education, 1941-1984;" Karen Buhler-Wilkerson and Julie Fairman, "Missing Data: Nurses with their Patients;" Karen Buhler-Wilkerson, "Left Carrying the Bag: Experiments in Visiting Nursing, 1877-1909;" Olga Maranjian Church, "From Custody to Community in Psychiatric Nursing;" Julie A. Fairman, "Sources and References for Research in Nursing History;" Joanne S. Stevenson, "Forging a Research Discipline;" Rozella M. Schlotfeldt, "Defining Nursing: a Historic Controversy;" and Charles Rosenberg, "Clio and Caring: an Agenda for American Historians and Nursing."

1388 NURSING STUDIES INDEX, 1900-1960. New York: Garland, 1984. 4 vols. References to sixty years of nursing literature, indexed by Virginia Henderson and Leo Simmons.

1389 Oderkirk, Wendell W. "Setting the Record Straight: A Recount of Late Nineteenth-Century Training Schools." JOURNAL OF NURSING HISTORY 1, no.1 (1985): 30-37.

1390 Peterson, Susan C., and Jensen, Beverly. "The Red Cross Call to Serve: The Western Response from North Dakota Nurses." WESTERN HISTORICAL QUARTERLY 21 (August 1990): 321-340.

1391 Pokorny, M.E. "An Historical Perspective of Confederate Nursing During the Civil War, 1861-1865." NURSING RESEARCH 41, no.1 (January/February 1992): 28-32.

1392 Reverby, Susan. "`Neither for the Drawing Room Nor for the Kitchen': Private Duty Nursing in Boston, 1873-1920." In WOMEN AND HEALTH IN AMERICA: HISTORICAL READINGS, ed. by Judith Walzer Leavitt, pp.454-466. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1984.

1393 Reverby, Susan. "Nursing and Caring: Lessons from History." HEALTH/PAC BULLETIN 18, no.3 (Fall 1988): 20-23.

1394 Reverby, Susan. ORDERED TO CARE: THE DILEMMA OF AMERICAN NURSING 1850-1945. New York: Cambridge University Pres, 1987.

1395 Reverby, Susan. "The Search for the Hospital Yardstick: Nursing and the Rationalization of Hospital Work." In HEALTH CARE IN AMERICA: ESSAYS IN SOCIAL HISTORY, ed. by Susan Reverby and David Rosner, pp.206-225. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1979. Repr. in SICKNESS AND HEALTH IN AMERICA: READINGS IN THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH, pp.206-216. Ed. by Judith Walzer Leavitt and Ronald L. Numbers. 2nd ed. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985.

1396 Reverby, Susan, ed. THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN NURSING. New York: Garland, 1984. 32 vols. Facsimile reprints, including Virginia Henderson's NURSING STUDIES INDEX.

1397 Robinson, Victor. WHITE CAPS: THE STORY OF NURSING. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1946.

1398 Sabin, Linda E. "The French Revolution: A Forgotten Era in Nursing History." NURSING FORUM 20, no.3 (1981): 224-243.

1399 Sanner, Margaret C. TRENDS AND PROFESSIONAL ADJUSTMENTS IN NURSING. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1962.

1400 Schackel, Sandra K. "`The Tales Those Nurses Told!': Public Health Nurses Among the Pueblo and Navajo Indians." NEW MEXICO HISTORICAL REVIEW 65 (April 1990): 225-250.

1401 Schultz, Jane E. "The Inhospitable Hospital: Gender and Professionalism in Civil War Medicine." SIGNS 17 (Winter 1992): 363-392.

1402 Seigel, Peggy Brase. "She Went to War: Indiana Women Nurses in the Civil War." INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 86 (March 1990): 1-27.

1403 Sellew, Gladys, and Nuesse, C.J. A HISTORY OF NURSING. St. Louis: Mosby, 1955. 3rd ed.

1404 Seymer, Lucy Ridgely. A GENERAL HISTORY OF NURSING. London: Faber & Faber, 1957. 4th ed.

1405 Shryock, Richard H. THE HISTORY OF NURSING AND INTERPRETATION OF THE SOCIAL AND MEDICAL FACTORS INVOLVED. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1959.

1406 Sloan, Patricia E. "Early Black Nursing Schools and Responses of Black Nurses to Their Educational Programs." WESTERN JOURNAL OF BLACK STUDIES 9 (Fall 1985): 158-172.

1407 Smith, Susan L. "White Nurses, Black Midwives, and Public Health in Mississippi, 1920-1950." NURSING HISTORY REVIEW 2 (1994): forthcoming.

1408 Spicker, Stuart F., and Gadow, Sally, eds. NURSING, IMAGES AND IDEALS: OPENING DIALOGUE WITH THE HUMANITIES. New York: Springer, 1980.

1409 Steppe, Hilde. "Nursing in the Third Reich." HISTORY OF NURSING SOCIETY JOURNAL 3, no.4 (1991): 21-37.

1410 Stewart, Isabel M., and Austin, Anne L. A HISTORY OF NURSING, FROM ANCIENT TO MODERN TIMES. New York: Putnam, 1962. 5th ed.

1411 Stinson, Shirley, Johnson, Joy Louise, and Zilm, Glennis. HISTORY OF NURSING BEGINNING BIBLIOGRAPHY: A PROEMIAL LIST WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO CANADIAN SOURCES. Edmonton, Canada: Faculty of Nursing, University of Alberta, 1992.

1412 Strong-Boag, Veronica. "Making a Difference: The History of Canada's Nurses." CANADIAN BULLETIN OF MEDICAL HISTORY/ BULLETIN CANADIEN D'HISTOIRE DE LA MEDECINE 8 (1991): 231-248. Review article on nursing history in Canada.

1413 Summers, Anne. ANGELS AND CITIZENS: BRITISH WOMEN AS MILITARY NURSES. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1988. Documents the formation and reform of military nursing from 1854 to the outset of World War I.

1414 Summers, Anne. "Ministering Angels." HISTORY TODAY 39 (February 1989): 31-37. On mid-nineteenth century nursing reforms in England.

1415 Summers, Anne. "The Mysterious Demise of Sarah Gamp: The Domiciliary Nurse and Her Detractors, c.1830-1860." VICTORIAN STUDIES 32 (Spring 1989): 365-386.

1416 Talberg, Marianne. "Nursing and Medical Care in Finland from the Eighteenth to the Late Nineteenth Century." SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF HISTORY 14, no.4 (1989): 269-284.

1417 Tomes, Nancy. "`Little World of Our Own': The Pennsylvania Hospital Training School for Nurses, 1895-1907." JOURNAL OF THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE AND ALLIED SCIENCES 33 (1978): 507-530. Repr. in WOMEN AND HEALTH IN AMERICA: HISTORICAL READINGS, pp.467-481. Ed. by Judith Walzer Leavitt. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1984.

1418 Veith, S. "The Beginning of Baccalaureate Nursing Education at the University of Kansas: A Midwestern Experience." ANS - ADVANCES IN NURSING SCIENCE 12, no.4 (July 1990): 63-73.

1419 Wagner, David. "The Proletarianization of Nursing in the United States." INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HEALTH SERVICES 10 (1980): 271-290.

1420 Wall, Barbra Mann. "Grace Under Pressure: The Nursing Sisters of the Holy Cross, 1861-1865." NURSING HISTORY REVIEW 1 (1993): pp.71-88.

1421 Wheeler, C.E. "The American Journal of Nursing and the Socialization of a Profession, 1900-1920." ANS - ADVANCES IN NURSING SCIENCE 7, no.2 (January 1985): 20-34.

BIOGRAPHIES AND STUDIES OF INDIVIDUALS

NOTE: NOTABLE AMERICAN WOMEN, edited by Edward T. James et al. (3 vols., Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1971) lists 15 nurses and NOTABLE AMERICAN WOMEN: THE MODERN PERIOD, edited by Barbara Sicherman and Carol Hurd Green (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1980), includes twelve. BLACK WOMEN IN AMERICA: AN HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA, edited by Darlene Clark Hine (Brooklyn: Carlson, 1993), has entries for 19 nurses.

1422 Bacot, Ada W. A CONFEDERATE NURSE: THE DIARY OF ADA W. BACOT, 1860-1863. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1993. Edited by Jean V. Berlin.

1423 Baly, Monica E. FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE AND THE NURSING LEGACY. London: Croom Helm, 1986.

1424 Barton, Clara. THE STORY OF MY CHILDHOOD. New York: Baker & Taylor, 1907. Repr. New York: Arno, 1980.

1425 Bishop, William John, and Goldie, Sue, comps. A BIO-BIBLIOGRAPHY OF FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE. London: Dawson's of Pall Mall, 1962.

1426 Boyd, Nancy. THREE VICTORIAN WOMEN WHO CHANGED THEIR WORLD. New York: Oxford University Press, 1982. Studies of Florence Nightingale, nurse; Josephine Butler, campaigner against the Contagious Disease Acts; and Octavia Hill, social worker.

1427 Bullough, Vern L., Church, Olga Maranjian, and Stein, Alice P. AMERICAN NURSING: A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. New York: Garland, 1988.

1428 Bullough, Vern L., Bullough, Bonnie, and Stanton, Marietta P., eds. FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE AND HER ERA: A COLLECTION OF NEW SCHOLARSHIP. Hamden, CT: Garland, 1990. (Garland reference library of social science, no.629) Nineteen papers on the life of Florence Nightingale and other nursing topics from her era.

1429 Cohen, I. Bernard. "Florence Nightingale." SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 250, no.3 (March 1984): 128-137.

1430 Cohn, Victor. SISTER KENNY: THE WOMAN WHO CHALLENGED THE DOCTORS. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 1975.

1431 Forster, Margaret. SIGNIFICANT SISTERS: THE GRASSROOTS OF ACTIVE FEMINISM. New York: Knopf, 1984. Florence Nightingale, pp.91-129.

1432 Hebert, Raymond G. FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE: SAINT, REFORMER, OR REBEL? Melbourne, FL: Krieger, 1981.

1433 Hine, Darlene Clark. "Mabel K. Staupers and the Integration of Black Nurses into the Armed Forces." In WOMEN AND HEALTH IN AMERICA: HISTORICAL READINGS, ed. by Judith Walzer Leavitt, pp.497-506. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1984.

1434 Hollister, Emily Jane Green, and Smith, Deborah D., ed. THE DIARY OF EMILY JANE GREEN HOLLISTER: HER NURSING EXPERIENCES, 1888-1911. Ann Arbor, MI: Historical Center for the Health Sciences at the University of Michigan, 1991.

1435 Huxley, Elspeth. FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1975.

1436 James, Janet W. "Isabel Hampton and the Professionalization of Nursing in the 1890s." In THE THERAPEUTIC REVOLUTION: ESSAYS IN THE SOCIAL HISTORY OF AMERICAN MEDICINE, ed. by Morris Vogel and Charles Rosenberg, pp.201-244. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1979.

1437 Kaufman, Martin, Hawkins, Joellen Watson, Higgins, Loretta P., and Friedman, Alice Howell. DICTIONARY OF AMERICAN NURSING BIOGRAPHY. New York: Greenwood, 1988.

1438 Lovat, Alice Mary (Weld-Blundell) Fraser. LIFE OF THE VENERABLE LOUISE DE MARILLAC (MADEMOISELLE LE GRAS)... London: Simpkin, Marshall, Hamilton, Kent & Co., 1916. Mlle Le Gras, 1591-1660, founded the Sisters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul.

1439 Marshall, Helen E. MARY ADELAIDE NUTTING: PIONEER OF MODERN NURSING. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1972.

1440 "Mary Eliza Mahoney, First Negro Nurse." JOURNAL OF THE NATIONAL MEDICAL ASSOCIATION 46 (July 1954).

1441 Meredith, S. "Lavina L. Dock: Calling Nurses to Support Women's Rights, 1907-1923." JOURNAL OF NURSING HISTORY 3, no.1 (November 1987): 70-78. Nurse advocate for suffrage and equal rights for women.

1442 Moloney, Tess. "`The Woman Rebel': Feminism and Margaret Sanger in 1914." LILITH 1 (1984): 54-66.

1443 Monteiro, Lois A. "On Separate Roads: Florence Nightingale and Elizabeth Blackwell." SIGNS 9, no.3 (Spring 1984): 520-533. Reprints and comments on letters between Nightingale and Blackwell.

1444 Nightingale, Florence, Vicinus, Martha, and Nergaard, Bea, eds. EVER YOURS, FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE: SELECTED LETTERS. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1989.

1445 Nightingale, Florence, and Rosenberg, Charles E., ed. FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE ON HOSPITAL REFORM. Hamden, CT: Garland, 1988. Reprints her original works on hospitals and lying-in institutions, edited with a new introduction by Charles E. Rosenburg.

1446 Nightingale, Florence, and Goldie, Sue M., ed. "I HAVE DONE MY DUTY": FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE IN THE CRIMEAN WAR, 1854-1858. Manchester, England: Manchester University Press, 1987. Letters written by Nightingale from military hospitals in the Crimea.

1447 Nightingale, Florence. LETTERS FROM EGYPT: A JOURNEY ON THE NILE, 1849-1850. Littleton, CO: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1987.

1448 Poslusny, Susan M. "Feminist Friendships: Isabel Hampton Robb, Lavinia Lloyd Dock and Mary Adelaide Nutting." IMAGE: JOURNAL OF NURSING SCHOLARSHIP 21, no.2 (Summer 1989): 64-68.

1449 Pryor, Elizabeth Brown. CLARA BARTON: PROFESSIONAL ANGEL. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1987. Based on Barton's diaries and other primary sources.

1450 Ropes, Hannah Anderson, and Brumgardt, John R., ed. CIVIL WAR NURSE: THE DIARY AND LETTERS OF HANNAH ROPES. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1980.

1451 Rosenberg, Charles E. "Florence Nightingale on Contagion: The Hospital as Moral Universe." In HEALING AND HISTORY: ESSAYS FOR GEORGE ROSEN, ed. by Charles E. Rosenberg, pp.116-136. New York: Science History, 1979.

1452 Strachey, Lytton. FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE. London: Chatto and Windus, 1938.

1453 Tayloe, Roberta Love. COMBAT NURSE: A JOURNAL OF WORLD WAR II. Santa Barbara, CA; Fithian Press, 1988. About nurses who served in the U.S. Army in Italy and North Africa.

1454 Taylor, F. C., and Cook, G. "Alberta Hunter: A Celebration in Blues (and Licensed Practical Nursing)." JOURNAL OF PRACTICAL NURSING 37, no.1 (1987): 28-31.

1455 Widerquist, Joann G. "`Dearest Friend': The Correspondence of Colleagues Florence Nightingale and Mary Jones." NURSING HISTORY REVIEW 1 (1993): 25-42.

1456 Wilkins, Frances. SIX GREAT NURSES: LOUISE DE MARILLAC, FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE, CLARA BARTON, DOROTHY PATTERSON, EDITH CAVELL, ELIZABETH KENNY. London: Hamilton, 1962.

1457 Woodham-Smith, Cecil. LONELY CRUSADER: THE LIFE OF FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1951.

1458 Woolley, Alma S. "A Hoosier Nurse in France: The World War I Diary of Maude Frances Essig." INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 82 (March 1986): 37-68.

Midwifery (1459-1548)

GENERAL

1459 Asgood, K., Hochstrasser, D.L., and Deuschle, K.W. "Lay Midwifery in Southern Appalachia." ARCHIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH 12 (1966): 759-770.

1460 Benedek, Thomas G. "The Changing Relationship between Midwives and Physicians during the Renaissance." BULLETIN OF THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE 51, no.4 (Winter 1977): 550-564.

1461 Biggs, C. Lesley. "The Case of the Missing Midwives: A History of Midwifery in Ontario from 1795-1900." ONTARIO HISTORY 75 (March 1983): 21-35. Reprinted in DELIVERING MOTHERHOOD: MATERNAL IDEOLOGIES AND PRACTICES IN THE 19TH AND 20TH CENTURIES, ed. by Katherine Arnup, Andree Levesque, and Ruth Roach Pierson (New York: Routledge, 1990): pp.20-35.

1462 Boehme, Gernot. "Midwifery as Science: An Essay on the Relation Between Scientific and Everyday Knowledge." In SOCIETY AND KNOWLEDGE: CONTEMPORARY PERSPECTIVES IN THE SOCIOLOGY OF KNOWLEDGE, ed. by Nico Stehr and Volker Meja, pp.365-385. New Brunswick: Transaction Books, 1984.

1463 Borst, Charlotte G. "The Training and Practice of Midwives: A Wisconsin Study." BULLETIN OF THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE 62, no.4 (1988): 606-627.

1464 Borst, Charlotte G. "Wisconsin's Midwives as Working Women: Immigrant Midwives and the Limits of a Traditional Occupation, 1870-1920." JOURNAL OF AMERICAN ETHNIC HISTORY 8 (Spring 1989): 24-59.

1465 Brack, Datha Clapper. "Displaced: The Midwife by the Male Physician." WOMEN AND HEALTH 1, no.6 (November/December 1976): 18-24. Repr. in BIOLOGICAL WOMAN - THE CONVENIENT MYTH, pp.207-226. Ed. by Ruth Hubbard, Mary Sue Henifin, and Barbara Fried. Cambridge, MA: Schenkman, 1982.

1466 Breckinridge, Mary. "An Adventure in Midwifery: The Nurse-on- Horseback Gets a `Soon Start' ... First Days of the Frontier Nursing Service ... 1926." FRONTIER NURSING SERVICE QUARTERLY BULLETIN 60, no.3 (Winter 1985): 18-25.

1467 Breckinridge, Mary, and Ireland, B. "The Birth of the Frontier Nursing Service -- The First Words, The First Steps." FRONTIER NURSING SERVICE QUARTERLY BULLETIN 62, no.1 (Summer 1986): 3-11.

1468 Breckinridge, Mary. WIDE NEIGHBORHOODS: A STORY OF FRONTIER NURSING SERVICE. New York: Harper, 1952. Repr. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1981.

1469 Brickman, Jane Pacht. "Public Health, Midwives, and Nurses, 1880-1930." In NURSING HISTORY: NEW PERSPECTIVES, NEW POSSIBILITIES, ed. Ellen Condliffe Lagemann. New York: Teachers College Press, 1983.

1470 Campbell, Marie. FOLKS DO GET BORN. New York: Rinehart, 1946; repr. New York: Garland, 1985. Examines practices of black midwives in Georgia.

1471 Cass, Victoria B. "Female Healers in the Ming and the Lodge of Ritual and Ceremony." JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ORIENTAL SOCIETY 106 (January/March 1986): 233-240. Midwives, wet nurses and healers during the Ming dynasty (1368-1644) in China.

1472 Chamberlain, Mary. OLD WIVES' TALES: THEIR HISTORY, REMEDIES, AND SPELLS. London: Virago, 1981.

1473 Cutter, Irving S., and Viets, Henry R. A SHORT HISTORY OF MIDWIFERY. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1964.

1474 DeClercq, Eugene R., and Lacroix, Richard. "The Immigrant Midwives of Lawrence: The Conflict Between Law and Culture in Early Twentieth-Century Massachusetts." BULLETIN OF THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE 59, no.2 (Summer 1985): 232-246.

1475 DeClercq, Eugene R., and Lacroix, Richard. "The Nature and Style of Practice of Immigrant Midwives in Early Twentieth Century Massachusetts." JOURNAL OF SOCIAL HISTORY 19 (Fall 1985): 113-130.

1476 DeClercq, Eugene R. "The Transformation of American Midwifery: 1975-1988." AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH 92, no.5 (1992): 690-694.

1477 Devitt, Neal. "The Statistical Case for the Elimination of the Midwife: Fact versus Prejudice, 1890-1935, Part I." WOMEN AND HEALTH 4, no.1 (Spring 1979): 81-96; Part II: 4, no.2 (Summer 1979): 169-186.

1478 DeVries, Raymond G. "Midwifery and the Problem of Licensure." RESEARCH IN THE SOCIOLOGY OF HEALTH CARE 2 (1982): 77-120.

1479 DeVries, Raymond G. REGULATING BIRTH: MIDWIVES, MEDICINE AND THE LAW. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 1985.

1480 Donegan, Jane B. "`Safe Delivered,' but by Whom? Midwives and Men- midwives in Early America." In WOMEN AND HEALTH IN AMERICA: HISTORICAL READINGS, ed. by Judith Walzer Leavitt, pp.302-317. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1984.

1481 Donegan, Jane B. WOMEN AND MEN MIDWIVES: MEDICINE, MORALITY, AND MISOGYNY IN EARLY AMERICA. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1978.

1482 Donnison, Jean. "Medical Women and Lady Midwives: A Case Study in Medical and Feminist Politics." WOMEN'S STUDIES 3, no.3 (1976): 229-250.

1483 Donnison, Jean. MIDWIVES AND MEDICAL MEN: A HISTORY OF THE STRUGGLE FOR THE CONTROL OF CHILDBIRTH. New Barnet, Herts [England]: Historical Publications, 1988. A history of midwifery and obstetrics in England, 1st ed. issued under the title: MIDWIVES AND MEDICAL MEN: A HISTORY OF INTERPROFESSIONAL RIVALRIES AND WOMEN'S RIGHTS. New York: Schoken, 1977.

1484 Dougherty, Molly C. "Southern Lay Midwives as Ritual Specialists." New York: Plenum, 1978. WOMEN IN RITUAL AND SYMBOLIC ROLES, ed. by Judith Hoch- Smith and Anita Spring, pp.151-164.

1485 Dougherty, Molly C. "Southern Midwifery and Organized Health Care: Systems in Conflict." MEDICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 6 (1982): 113-126.

1486 Ehrenreich, Barbara, and English, Deirdre. WITCHES, MIDWIVES, AND NURSES: A HISTORY OF WOMEN HEALERS. New York: Feminist Press, 1973.

1487 Ferguson, James H. "Mississippi Midwives." JOURNAL OF THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE 5 (1950): 85-95. Provides accounts of black midwives and includes transcripts of their songs.

1488 Forbes, Thomas R. THE MIDWIFE AND THE WITCH. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1966.

1489 Forbes, Thomas R. "Midwifery and Witchcraft." JOURNAL OF THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE 17 (1962): 264-283.

1490 Gardiner, Anne Barbeau. "Elizabeth Cellier in 1688 on Envious Doctors and Heroic Midwives Ancient and Modern." EIGHTEENTH CENTURY LIFE 14, no.1 (1990): 24-34.

1491 Greilsammer, Myriam. "The Midwife, the Priest, and the Physician: The Subjugation of Midwives in the Low Countries at the End of the Middle Ages." JOURNAL OF MEDIEVAL AND RENAISSANCE STUDIES 22, no.2 (Fall 1991): 285-329. Includes midwives' oaths and other primary documents.

1492 Harley, David. "Historians as Demonologists: The Myth of the Midwife- witch." SOCIAL HISTORY OF MEDICINE 3, no.1 (April 1990): 1-26. Shows how historians have been misled by taking literally the rhetoric of the witch- hunters who wrote THE HAMMER OF WITCHES (MALLEUS MALEFICARUM).

1493 Holmes, Linda Janet. "African American Midwives in the South." In THE AMERICAN WAY OF BIRTH, ed. Pamela Eakins, pp.273-291. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1986.

1494 Joint Study Group of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, and International Confederation of Midwives. MATERNITY CARE IN THE WORLD: INTERNATIONAL SURVEY OF MIDWIFERY PRACTICE AND TRAINING. Oxford, England: Pergamon Press, 1966.

1495 Jordan, Brigitte. BIRTH IN FOUR CULTURES. Montreal: Eden Press, 1978. Covers the American hospital, Dutch and Swedish midwifery, Mayan midwifery, and home births in Mexico.

1496 Kloberdanz, Timothy J. "The Daughters of Shiphrah: Folk Healers and Midwives of the Great Plains." GREAT PLAINS QUARTERLY 9 (Winter 1989): 3-12.

1497 Kobrin, Frances E. "The American Midwife Controversy: A Crisis of Professionalization." BULLETIN OF THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE 40 (July/Aug 1966): 350-363. Repr. in WOMEN AND HEALTH IN AMERICA: HISTORICAL READINGS, pp.318-326. Ed. by Judith Walzer Leavitt. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1984. Also repr. in SICKNESS AND HEALTH IN AMERICA: READINGS IN THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH, pp.197-205. Ed. by Judith Walzer Leavitt and Ronald L. Numbers. 2nd ed. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985.

1498 Ladd-Taylor, Molly. "Grannies and Spinsters: Midwife Education under the Sheppard-Towner Act." JOURNAL OF SOCIAL HISTORY 22 (Winter 1988): 255-275.

1499 Laderman, Carol C. WIVES AND MIDWIVES: CHILDBIRTH AND NUTRITION IN RURAL MALAYSIA. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984. Ethnographic and ecological perspectives; blood and dietary analyses; how ecology and beliefs affect childbirth.

1500 Laforce, Helene. "The Different Stages of the Elimination of Midwives in Quebec." In DELIVERING MOTHERHOOD: MATERNAL IDEOLOGIES AND PRACTICES IN THE 19TH AND 20TH CENTURIES, ed. by Katherine Arnup, Andree Levesque, and Ruth Roach Pierson, pp.36-50. New York: Routledge, 1990.

1501 Leap, Nicky, and Hunter, Billie. THE MIDWIFE'S TALE. London: Scarlet Press, 1993.

1502 Lieburg, M.J. van, and Morland, H. "Midwife Regulation, Education and Practice in the Netherlands During the Nineteenth Century." MEDICAL HISTORY 33 (1989): 296-317.

1503 Litoff, Judy Barrett. THE AMERICAN MIDWIFE DEBATE: A SOURCEBOOK ON ITS MODERN ORIGINS. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1986.

1504 Litoff, Judy Barrett. AMERICAN MIDWIVES, 1860 TO THE PRESENT. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1978.

1505 Litoff, Judy Barrett. "The Midwife Throughout History." JOURNAL OF NURSE-MIDWIFERY 27, no.6 (November 1982): 3-11.

1506 Litoff, Judy Barrett. "Midwives and History." In WOMEN, HEALTH, AND MEDICINE IN AMERICA: A HISTORICAL HANDBOOK, ed. by Rima D. Apple, pp.443-458. New York: Garland, 1990.

1507 Malin, Maili, and Hemminki, Elina. "Midwives as Providers of Prenatal Care in Finland -- Past and Present." WOMEN & HEALTH 18, no.4 (1992): 17-34.

1508 Marshall, R.K. "17th Century Midwifery: The Treatment of Miscarriage." NURSING MIRROR 155, no.24 (December 15, 1982): 31-36.

1509 McCool, W.F., and McCool, S.J. "Feminism and Nurse-Midwifery: Historical Overview and Current Issues." JOURNAL OF NURSE-MIDWIFERY 34, no.6 (November 1989): 323-334.

1510 Mongeau, Beatrice, Smith, Harvey L., and Maney, Ann C. "The Granny Midwife: Changing Roles and Functions of a Folk Practitioner." AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SOCIOLOGY 66 (March 1961): 497-505.

1511 Oakley, Ann, and Houd, Susanne. HELPERS IN CHILDBIRTH: MIDWIFERY TODAY. New York: Hemisphere, 1990. Historical as well as descriptive.

1512 Perkins, Wendy. "Midwives Versus Doctors: The Case of Louise Bourgeois." SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 3, no.2 (1988): 135-157.

1513 Perry, D.S. "The Early Midwives of Missouri." JOURNAL OF NURSE- MIDWIFERY 28, no.6 (November 1983): 15-22.

1514 Peters, Edward. THE MAGICIAN, THE WITCH, AND THE LAW. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1978.

1515 Peterson, Karen J. "Technology as a Last Resort: The Work of Lay Midwives." SOCIAL PROBLEMS 30 (1983): 284-297.

1516 Reed, Louis S. MIDWIVES, CHIROPODISTS, AND OPTOMETRISTS: THEIR PLACE IN MEDICAL CARE. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1932.

1517 Robinson, Sharon A. "A Historical Development of Midwifery in the Black Community: 1600-1940." JOURNAL OF NURSE-MIDWIFERY 29 (1984): 247-250.

1518 Rothman, Barbara Katz. "Midwives in Transition: The Structure of a Clinical Revolution." SOCIAL PROBLEMS 30 (1983): 262-71.

1519 "Royal College of Midwives Library: A Select Reading List. A History of Midwifery and the RCM." MIDWIVES CHRONICLE 98, 1169 RCM Suppl. (June 1985): vii-viii.

1520 Sablosky, Ann H. "The Power of the Forceps: A Comparative Analysis of the Midwife -- Historically and Today." WOMEN AND HEALTH 1, no.1 (January/February 1976): 10-13.

1521 Schaffer, Ruth C. "The Health and Social Functions of Black Midwives on the Texas Brazos Bottom, 1920-1985." RURAL SOCIOLOGY 56 (Spring 1991): 89-105.

1522 Schnorrenberg, Barbara Brandon. "Is Childbirth Any Place for a Woman? The Decline of Midwifery in Eighteenth Century England." STUDIES IN EIGHTEENTH CENTURY CULTURE 10 (1981): 393-408.

1523 Scholten, Catherine M. "`On the Importance of the Obstetric Art': Changing Customs of Childbirth in America, 1760-1825." WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 34 (1977): 426-445. Repr. in WOMEN AND HEALTH IN AMERICA: HISTORICAL READINGS, pp.142-154. Ed. by Judith Walzer Leavitt. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1984.

1524 Scholten, Catherine M. CHILDBEARING IN AMERICAN SOCIETY, 1650-1850. New York: New York University Press, 1985.

1525 Shoemaker, M. Theopane. HISTORY OF NURSE-MIDWIFERY IN THE UNITED STATES. Washington: Catholic University of America Press, 1947. Repr. New York: Garland, 1984.

1526 Smith, Susan L. "White Nurses, Black Midwives, and Public Health in Mississippi, 1920-1950." NURSING HISTORY REVIEW 2 (1994): forthcoming.

1527 Sullivan, Deborah A., and Weitz, Rose. LABOR PAINS: MODERN MIDWIVES AND HOME BIRTH. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1988.

1528 Susie, Debra A. IN THE WAY OF OUR GRANDMOTHERS: A CULTURAL VIEW OF TWENTIETH-CENTURY MIDWIFERY IN FLORIDA. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1988. Study of Black lay midwives.

1529 Towler, Jean, and Bramall, Joan. MIDWIVES IN HISTORY AND SOCIETY. London; Dover, NH: Croom Helm, 1986.

1530 Ulrich, Laurel T. "`The Living Mother of a Living Child': Midwifery and Mortality in Post-Revolutionary New England." WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 66 (January 1989): 27-48.

1531 Waller, M.V., and Hong, O.S. "Midwifery Status and Education in Korea: Historical and Governmental Influences." JOURNAL OF NURSE-MIDWIFERY 29, no.5 (September 1984): 333-337.

1532 Wiesner, Merry E. "Early Modern Midwifery: A Case Study." INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF WOMEN'S STUDIES 6 (January/February 1983): 26-43.

1533 Williams, J. Whitridge. "Medical Education and the Midwife Problem in the United States." JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION 58, no.1 (January 6, 1912): 1-7.

BIOGRAPHIES AND STUDIES OF INDIVIDUALS

1534 Armstrong, Penny, and Feldman, Sheryl. A MIDWIFE'S STORY. New York: Ivy Books, 1988. Recollections of a midwife in Amish country.

1535 Bell, Pegge L. "`Making Do' with the Midwife: Arkansas's Mamie O. Hale in the 1940s." NURSING HISTORY REVIEW 1 (1993): 155-170.

1536 Benjamin, Louvenia Taylor, and Holmes, Linda Janet, interviewer. "Louvenia Taylor Benjamin, Southern Lay Midwife: An Interview." SAGE: A SCHOLARLY JOURNAL ON BLACK WOMEN 2, no.2 (1985): 51-54.

1537 Brooks, Juanita. "Mariah Huntsman Leavitt: Midwife of the Desert Frontier." In FORMS UPON THE FRONTIER, ed. Austin Fife, Alta Fife, and Henry H. Glassie, pp.119-131. Logan: Utah State University Press, 1989.

1538 Buss, Fran Leeper. LA PARTERA: STORY OF A MIDWIFE. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1980. Biography of Jesusita Aragon, who became a midwife at fourteen, a community leader, and the only source of medical care in a remote area of New Mexico.

1539 Dye, Nancy Schrom. "Mary Breckinridge, the Frontier Nursing Service and the Introduction of Nurse-Midwifery in the United States." BULLETIN OF THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE 57, no.4 (Winter 1983): 485-507. Repr. in WOMEN AND HEALTH IN AMERICA: HISTORICAL READINGS, pp.327-343. Ed. by Judith Walzer Leavitt. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1984.

1540 Fuhrer, Charlotte. THE MYSTERIES OF MONTREAL: MEMOIRS OF A MIDWIFE. Vancouver, B.C.: University of British Columbia Press, 1984. Originally published in 1881.

1541 Goldman, Emma. LIVING MY LIFE. New York: Knopf, 1931. Best known as an anarchist, Goldman worked as a midwife among the poor in New York City. Repr. New York: Da Capo, 1976 and Irving, CA: Reprint Services, 1991. 2 vol.

1542 Hales, David A. "`There Goes Mathilda': Millard County Midwife and Nurse." UTAH HISTORICAL QUARTERLY 55 (Summer 1987): 278-293.

1543 Kennedy, Joan E. "Jane Soley Hamilton, Midwife." NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL REVIEW 2 (1982): 6-29.

1544 Kursch, Daisy Estes. "Beulah Brinton of Bay View." MILWAUKEE HISTORY 10, no.2 (1987): 38-46. Wisconsin social activist and midwife.

1545 Logan, Onnie Lee as told to Katherine Clark. MOTHER WIT: AN ALABAMA MIDWIFE'S STORY. New York: Dutton, 1989. Autobiography of a Black "granny" midwife, who delivered babies from 1925 to 1984.

1546 Paradis, Roger. "Henriette, La Capuche: The Portrait of a Frontier Midwife." CANADIAN FOLKLORE 3, no.2 (1981): 10-26.

1547 Ulrich, Laurel T. A MIDWIFE'S TALE: THE LIFE OF MARTHA BALLARD, BASED ON HER OWN RECORD OF HER WORK IN HALLOWELL AND AUGUSTA, MAINE, 1785-1812. New York: Knopf, distr. Random House, 1990.

1548 Whitehouse, Eula. "Sophia Hamman, an Early Texas Midwife and Herbalist." FIELD LABORATORY 13 (1945): 70-72.

Medical Research (1549-1600)

Included here are studies on women who have been associated with human physiology, cytology, and other fields of medical research.

GENERAL

1549 Alsop, Gulielma Fell. HISTORY OF THE WOMAN'S MEDICAL COLLEGE, PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA, 1850-1950. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1950. For most of the century, this was the only medical school in which women could be full professors of physiology and chairs of the department.

1550 Appel, Toby A., Cassidy, Marie M., and Tidball, M. Elizabeth. "Women in Physiology." In HISTORY OF THE AMERICAN PHYSIOLOGICAL SOCIETY: THE FIRST CENTURY, 1887-1987, ed. by John R. Brobeck, Orr E. Reynolds, and Toby A. Appel, pp.381-390. Bethesda, MD: American Physiological Society, 1987. The history of women's participation in the APS, emphasizing the progress of the 1970s.

1551 Fenn, Wallace O. HISTORY OF THE AMERICAN PHYSIOLOGICAL SOCIETY: THE THIRD QUARTER CENTURY, 1937-1962. Washington: American Physiological Society, 1963. See pp.65-67.

1552 Howell, William H., and Greene, Charles W. HISTORY OF THE AMERICAN PHYSIOLOGICAL SOCIETY: SEMICENTENNIAL, 1887-1937. Baltimore, MD: American Physiological Society, 1938. See pp.70-71.

1553 Marshall, Louise H. "The Facts of Life." PHYSIOLOGIST 8, no.2 (May 1965): 64-66. Statistics on supply and demand for physiologists, broken down by sex.

1554 Tidball, M. Elizabeth. "Brief History of Task Force on Women in Physiology." PHYSIOLOGIST 23, no.5 (October 1980): 12-13.

1555 Tidball, M. Elizabeth. "Report of the Task Force on Women in Physiology." PHYSIOLOGIST 17, no.2 (May 1974): 135-137.

1556 Tidball, M. Elizabeth. "Women in the Biosciences - A Brief Primer." PHYSIOLOGIST 18, no.1 (February 1975): 31-36.

1557 "Women in Physiology." PHYSIOLOGIST 23, no.6 (December 1980): 25-26.

1558 "Women in Physiology." PHYSIOLOGIST 24, no.3 (June/July 1981): 45-46.

1559 "Women in Physiology." PHYSIOLOGIST 26, no.3 (June 1983): 135-136.

BIOGRAPHIES AND STUDIES OF INDIVIDUALS

NOTE: NOTABLE AMERICAN WOMEN: THE MODERN PERIOD, edited by Barbara Sicherman and Carol Hurd Green (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1980), lists seventeen women under "Medicine--Researchers." WOMEN IN THE SCIENTIFIC SEARCH, edited by Patricia Joan Siegel and Kay Thomas Finley (Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow, 1985), has five "Medical Scientists--Physiologists": Caroline Wormeley Latimer, Ida Henrietta Hyde, Edith Jane Claypole, Anne Moore, and Judith Graham Pool.

1560 Allison, Truett, and Wood, Charles C. "Gasser and Graham and Spinal Cord Electrophysiology." AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY : REGULATORY, INTEGRATIVE, AND COMPARATIVE PHYSIOLOGY 14, no.6 (December 1983): R751-R754. Discusses the work of Helen Tredway Graham.

1561 Bensley, E. H. "Sir William Osler and Mabel Purefoy Fitzgerald." PHYSIOLOGIST 21, no.2 (April 1978): 17-18.

1562 Berg, Raissa L. ACQUIRED TRAITS: MEMORIES OF A GENETICIST FROM THE SOVIET UNION. New York: Viking Penguin, 1990.

1563 Brinkhous, K. M. "Judith Graham Pool, Ph.D. (1919-1975): An Appreciation." THROMBOSIS AND HAEMOSTASIS 35 (April 1976): 269-271.

1564 Brush, Stephen G. "Nettie M. Stevens and the Discovery of Sex Determination by Chromosomes." ISIS 69, no.247 (June 1978): 163-172.

1565 Corner, George W. GEORGE HOYT WHIPPLE AND HIS FRIENDS: THE LIFE STORY OF A NOBEL PRIZE PATHOLOGIST. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1963. Includes information on Frieda S. Robscheit-Robbins, Whipple's chief assistant

1566 Farnes, Patricia. "Women in Medical Science." In WOMEN OF SCIENCE: RIGHTING THE RECORD, ed. by G. Kass-Simon & Patricia Farnes, pp.268-299. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1990.

1567 Fee, Elizabeth, and Rodman, Anne Clark. "Janet Howell Clark: Physiologist and Biophysicist (1889-1969)." PHYSIOLOGIST 28, no.5 (October 1985): 397-400.

1568 Fetterman, George H. "Maud L. Menton (1879-1960)." PERSPECTIVES IN PEDIATRIC PATHOLOGY 1, no.1 (Spring 1984): 5-7.

1569 Goldfeder, Anna. "An Overview of Fifty Years of Cancer Research." CANCER RESEARCH 36, no.1 (January 1976): 1-9. Autobiography.

1570 Goodfield, June. AN IMAGINED WORLD: A STORY OF SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERY. New York: Harper & Row, 1981. An intimate portrait of five years in the life of a cancer researcher.

1571 Guttman, Rita. "Biographical Notice - Caroline tum Suden." PHYSIOLOGIST 23, no.6 (December 1980): 25-26.

1572 Hamburger, Viktor. "Hilde Mangold, Co-Discoverer of the Organizer." JOURNAL OF THE HISTORY OF BIOLOGY 17, no.1 (Spring 1984): 1-11. Mangold researched embryonic differentiation.

1573 Harvey, A. McGehee. "A New School of Anatomy: The Story of Franklin P. Mall, Florence R. Sabin, and John B. MacCallum." JOHNS HOPKINS MEDICAL JOURNAL 136, no.2 (February 1975): 83-84.

1574 Haywood, Charlotte. "A Scientific Heritage." MOUNT HOLYOKE ALUMNI QUARTERLY 43, no.3 (Fall 1959): 122-125. Personal reflections on the history of physiology and biology at Mount Holyoke.

1575 Hyde, Ida H. "Before Women Were Human Beings: Adventures of an American Fellow in German Universities of the '90s." JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF UNIVERSITY WOMEN 31 (1938): 226-236. Autobiographical reminiscences of the 1890s.

1576 Johnson, Elsie Ernest. "Ida Henrietta Hyde: Early Experiments." PHYSIOLOGIST 24, no.6 (December 1981): 10-11.

1577 Kampmeier, R. H. "Ann Stone Minot (1894-1980): Clinical Chemist and Teacher." CLINICAL CHEMISTRY 32 (1986): 1602-1609.

1578 Kampmeier, R. H. "Ann Stone Minot: Vanderbilt Teacher and Clinical Chemist, 1894-1980." NUTRITION HISTORY NOTES 24 (Fall 1985): 1-6.

1579 Kohler, Robert E. "Innovation in Normal Science: Bacterial Physiology." ISIS 76, no.282 (June 1985): 162-181." Treats the career of Marjorie Stephenson.

1580 Kohlstedt, Sally Gregory. "Physiological Lectures for Women: Sara Coates in Ohio, 1850." JOURNAL OF THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE 33, no.1 (January 1978): 75-81.

1581 Kubie, Lawrence S. "Florence Rena Sabin." PERSPECTIVES IN BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE 4 (1961): 306-315.

1582 Levi-Montalcini, Rita. IN PRAISE OF IMPERFECTION: MY LIFE AND WORK. New York: Basic Books, 1988. Autobiography of an Italian-Jewish Holocaust survivor, who became a medical researcher, emigrated to the U.S., and shared the 1986 Nobel prize in medicine. Translated by Luigi Attardi.

1583 Levi-Montalcini, Rita. "Reflections on a Scientific Adventure." In WOMEN SCIENTISTS: THE ROAD TO LIBERATION, ed. by Derek Richter, pp.99-117. London: Macmillan, 1982.

1584 Long, C. N. H. "In Memoriam: Jane A. Russell." ENDOCRINOLOGY 81, no.4 (October 1967): 689-692.

1585 McCoy, Joseph J. THE CANCER LADY: MAUD SLYE AND HER HEREDITARY STUDIES. Nashville: Nelson, 1977.

1586 Meites, Samuel. "Willey Glover Denis (1879-1929), Pioneer Woman of Clinical Chemistry." CLINICAL CHEMISTRY 31 (1985): 774-778.

1587 Ogilvie, Marilyn Bailey, and Choquette, Clifford J. "Nettie Maria Stevens (1861-1912): Her Life and Contributions to Cytogenetics." PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY 125 (1981): 292-311.

1588 Okey, Ruth. "Agnes Fay Morgan (1884-1968): A Biographical Sketch." JOURNAL OF NUTRITION 104, no.9 (September 1974): 1101-1107.

1589 Phelan, Mary Kay. PROBING THE UNKNOWN: THE STORY OF DR. FLORENCE SABIN. New York: Dell, 1976. Reprint of 1969 Crowell edition.

1590 THE PHYSICIANS OF THE MAYO CLINIC AND THE MAYO FOUNDATION. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1937. See brief biographies of Winifred Mayer Ashby (pp.57-57), Julia F. Herrick (pp.611-612), Grace M. Roth (pp.1208-1209), Irene Sandiford (pp.1233-1234).

1591 Root, Eliza H. "Frances Emily White, M.D." WOMAN'S MEDICAL JOURNAL 14, no.5 (May 1904): 97-99.

1592 Roscher, Nina M., and Nguyen, Chinh K. "Helen M. Dyer: A Pioneer in Cancer Research." JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL EDUCATION 63 (1986): 253-255.

1593 Rossiter, Margaret W. "Florence Sabin: Election to the N.A.S." AMERICAN BIOLOGY TEACHER 39, no.9 (November 1977): 484-486, 494.

1594 Schmidt-Nielson, Bodil. "August and Marie Krogh and Respiratory Physiology." JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY: RESPIRATORY, ENVIRONMENTAL, AND EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY 54, no.2 (1984): 293-303. Biographical account by Marie Krogh's daughter, herself a physiologist.

1595 Seibert, Florence B. PEBBLES ON THE HILL OF A SCIENTIST. St. Petersburg, FL: 1968. Autobiography of a biochemist.

1596 Tepperman, Jay. "Jane Anne Russell (Wilhelmi)." PHYSIOLOGIST 10, no.4 (November 1967): 443-444.

1597 A TRIBUTE TO LILIAN WELSH. Baltimore: Goucher College, 1938. 42-page collection includes pieces by physiologists Jessie L. King and Florence Sabin.

1598 Tucker, Gail S. "Ida Henrietta Hyde: The First Woman Member of the Society." PHYSIOLOGIST 24, no.6 (December 1981): 1-9.

1599 Welsh, Lilian. REMINISCENCES OF THIRTY YEARS IN BALTIMORE. Baltimore: Norman, Remington Co., 1925.

1600 Windholz, George. "Three Researchers in Pavlov's Laboratories." NWSA JOURNAL 1 (Spring 1989): 491-496. Nadezhda A. Kashereninova, Nataliia R. Shenger-Krestovnikova, and Mariia K. Petrova.

Pharmacy (1601-1639)

1601 American Pharmaceutical Association Task Force on Women in Pharmacy. WOMEN IN PHARMACY: FINAL REPORT. Washington, DC: The Association, 1981. Includes bibliography.

1602 Austin, Jo Ellen, and Smith, Mickey C. "Women in Hospital Pharmacy -- A Study in Eight States." AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HOSPITAL PHARMACY 28 (1971): 26-36.

1603 Bardell, Eunice Bonow. "America's Only School of Pharmacy for Women." PHARMACY IN HISTORY 26 (1984): 127-133. Louisville School of Pharmacy for Women, founded in 1884.

1604 Bardell, Eunice Bonow. "Women in Early Twentieth Century Pharmacy." PHARMACY IN HISTORY 33, no.3 (1991): 124-130.

1605 Benhamou, Reed. "Verdigris and the Entrepreneuse." TECHNOLOGY AND CULTURE 25 (1984): 171-181. In the Middle Ages women in the south of France grew verdigris, an ingredient of pharmaceuticals and coloring agents.

1606 Berg, Mary J., and Fuller, Janice K., eds. INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM, WOMEN IN PHARMACY: LONDON, ENGLAND, JUNE 21-27, 1987. Wilmington, DE: ICI Americas, 1990.

1607 Conroy, Mary Schaeffer. "Women Pharmacists in Nineteenth- and Early Twentieth-Century Russia." PHARMACY IN HISTORY 29, no.4 (1987): 155-164.

1608 Conroy, Mary Schaeffer. "Women Pharmacists in Russia Before World War I: Women's Emancipation, Feminism, Professionalization, Nationalism and Class Conflict." In WOMEN AND SOCIETY IN RUSSIA AND THE SOVIET UNION, ed. Linda Edmondson, pp.48-76. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992.

1609 Culp, Robert W. "The Education, Career Opportunities, and Status of American Women Pharmacists to 1900, Including a Directory." TRANSACTIONS AND STUDIES OF THE COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS OF PHILADELPHIA 41 (1974): 211-227.

1610 Curran, Frances F., ed. COMPOUNDING WAS MORE FUN: LIFE EXPERIENCES OF WOMEN OF LAMBDA KAPPA SIGMA, THE INTERNATIONAL PHARMACY FRATERNITY, 1913-1938-1988. 1988.

1611 Gallagher, Teresa Catherine. "From Family Helpmeet to Independent Professional: Women in American Pharmacy, 1870-1940." PHARMACY IN HISTORY 31., no.2 (1989): 60-77.

1612 Gombos, A. "Women and Pharmacy - A View From Norway." JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PHARMACY AND THERAPEUTICS 16, no.1 (1991): 1-5.

1613 Griffenhagen, George. "Who Was the First Woman Pharmacist in America?" JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN PHARMACEUTICAL ASSOCIATION 13 (1973): 637.

1614 Henderson, Metta Lou, and Keeney, Tammy Lyn. "Women in Pharmacy Education: The Pioneers." AMERICAN PHARMACY 28, no.5 (May 1988): 24-27.

1615 Henderson, Metta Lou, and Keeney, Tammy Lyn. "Women Pharmacy Faculty." AMERICAN PHARMACY 28 (May 1988): 18-22.

1616 Higby, Gregory J. with Teresa C. Gallagher. "Pharmacists." In WOMEN, HEALTH, IN MEDICINE IN AMERICA: A HISTORICAL HANDBOOK, ed. by Rima D. Apple, pp.497-516. New York: Garland, 1990.

1617 Hoch, J.H., and Hoch, Q. "Mrs. Masters and Her Tuscarora Rice." JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN PHARMACEUTICAL ASSOCIATION 4 (1963): 577-580.

1618 JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN PHARMACEUTICAL ASSOCIATION NS 13, no.11 (November 1973); Special Issue: "Women Pharmacists." CONTENTS: George B. Griffenhagen, "Woman Power;" Kenneth W. Kirk and Richard A. Ohvall, "Women in Pharmacy-Gratification or Discrimination?," and, "Practice Patterns of Women Pharmacists;" Patricia M. Schwirian, "Sex and Age Factors in the Occupational Roles of Ohio's Practicing Pharmacists;" Rosalia H. Tash, W. Michael Dickson and Christopher A. Rodowskas, Jr., "Women in the Professional Work Force;" Robert M. Gray and Herbert L. Gleason, "Acceptance of Female Pharmacists by the Public;" W. Michael Dickson and Christopher A. Rodowskas, Jr., "Women in Pharmacy-Projections for the Future." "Women in Pharmacy in Alaska," "Who Was the First Woman Pharmacist in America?" and "South Carolina Women in Pharmacy."

1619 Kirk, Kenneth W., and Ohvall, Richard. "Sex Differences in Pharmacy Student Career Planning and Aspirations." AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL EDUCATION 39 (February 1975): 37-40.

1620 Kirk, Kenneth W. "Women in Male-Dominated Professions." AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HOSPITAL PHARMACY 39 (1982): 2089-2093.

1621 Kirk, Kenneth W., and Shepard, Marvin D. "Women in Pharmacy-Where Are We Now?" AMERICAN PHARMACY 23, no.2 (February 1983): 19-21.

1622 Kronus, Carol L. "Women in Pharmacy: Trends, Implications, and Research Needs." JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN PHARMACEUTICAL ASSOCIATION 17 (1977): 674.

1623 Lambda Kappa Sigma. LAMBDA KAPPA SIGMA CELEBRATES SEVENTY FIVE YEARS: THE HISTORY OF A FRATERNITY FOR WOMEN IN PHARMACY, 1913-1988. 1988.

1624 Matuszak, Alice Jean. "History of Women in Pharmacy." LKS BLUE AND GOLD TRIANGLE (1986): 4-7.

1625 Michel, Beth Angeline. "The Call for Lady Pharmacists." PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 45, no.2 (February 1912): 149-150.

1626 O'Brien, William P. "Women in Pharmacy." LOUISIANA PHARMACIST (January 1970): 12-13.

1627 Pabis-Braunstein, M. "The First Polish Women Pharmacists." PHARMACY IN HISTORY 31, no.1 (1989): 12-15.

1628 Sanders, Jonathan Edward. "Drugs and Revolution: Moscow Pharmacists in the First Russian Revolution." RUSSIAN REVIEW 44, no.4 (1985): 351-377. Russian women found careers in pharmacy an opportunity to escape traditional roles.

1629 Shellard, E.J. "Some Early Women Research Workers in British Pharmacy, 1886-1912." PHARMACEUTICAL HISTORIAN 12, no.2 (1982): 2-3.

1630 Shepherd, Marvin D., and Proctor, Kurt A. "Women and Pharmacy Ownership." AMERICAN PHARMACY 28, no.5 (May 1988): 28-36.

1631 Sonnedecker, Glenn. "Women as Pharmacy Students in 19th-Century America." In DIE SCHELENZ-STIFTUNG II 1954 BIS 1972, ed. H. H gel and W.-H. Hein, pp.135-141. Stuttgart: Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft, 1973.

1632 Steib, Ernst W., Coulas, Gail C., and Ferguson, Joyce A. "Women in Ontario Pharmacy, 1867-1927. In Commemoration of the Centenary of the First Admission of Women to the University of Toronto, 1984-85." PHARMACY IN HISTORY 28 (1986): 125-134.

1633 Stieb, E.W., Coulas, Gail C., and Ferguson, Joyce A. "Women in Ontario Pharmacy, 1867-1927." In DESPITE THE ODDS: ESSAYS ON CANADIAN WOMEN AND SCIENCE, ed. by Marianne Gosztonyi Ainley, pp.121-133. Montreal: Vehicule Press, 1990.

1634 Wakeman, Nellie A. "Women in Pharmacy." AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL EDUCATION 1 (1937): 146-150.

1635 Wallace, Emma Gary. "Women in Pharmacy." PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 45 (1912) Began in 1912 as monthly installments on the history of women as healers, from mythology and Biblical texts to extensive career histories and quotes from women pharmacists of the late 1800's and early 1900's. In vol.46 (1913), the column continued as news and information about and for women pharmacists and included many profiles of women then in the field.

1636 Ward, Patricia Spain. "Hygeia's Sisters: A History of Women in Pharmacy." CADUCEUS: A MUSEUM QUARTERLY FOR THE HEALTH SCIENCES 4, no.3/4 (Autumn/Winter 1988): 1-57.

1637 Wisconsin Pharmaceutical Association. Women's Auxiliary. THE PATH WE HAVE TROD, 1892-1952: A HISTORY OF WOMEN'S AUXILARY OF THE WISCONSIN PHARMACEUTICAL ASSOCIATION. Milwaukee: The Auxilary, 1952.

1638 Wolfgang, Alan P., and Kirk, Kenneth W. ABSTRACTS OF ARTICLES WRITTEN ABOUT WOMEN IN PHARMACY. Washington, DC: American Pharmaceutical Association, 1981.

1639 "Women in Pharmacy." MEYER BROTHERS DRUGGIST During the 1890's, the editor invited readers to contribute to the column "Women in Pharmacy," which included opinions on the presence of women in the profession, biographies of women pharmacists, and news briefs on women in pharmacy and medicine. The column appears particularly often in volumes 13 & 14 (1892-93). Title of the periodical varies: MEYER DRUGGIST, DRUGGIST, ST. LOUIS DRUG MARKET.

Other Health Professions (1640-1678)

This section includes material on women in public health, health administration, dental hygiene, occupational therapy, medical technology, rehabilitation, chiropractic, homeopathy, and family planning.

GENERAL

1640 Ballweg, R. "The Impact of Women on the PA Profession." JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PHYSICAN ASSISTANTS 5, no.9 (October 1992): 689-694.

1641 Barker, J.T. "Women as Leaders in the Field of Rehabilitation." JOURNAL OF REHABILITATION 48, no.1 (January-March 1982): 9-18,68-70.

1642 Barlow, William, and Powell, David O. "A Case for Medical Coeducation in the 1870s." JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL WOMEN'S ASSOCIATION 35 (1980): 285-8. Gender issues in homeopathy education.

1643 Colman, W. "The Curriculum Directors: Influencing Occupational Therapy Education, 1948-1964." AMERICAN JOURNAL OF OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY 44, no.4 (April 1990): 357-362. The curriculum directors were a group of women influential in the development of occupational therapy in the 1950s.

1644 Dempsey-Polan, L. "Women: Once and Future Leaders in Health Administration." HOSPITAL & HEALTH SERVICES ADMINISTRATION 33, no.1 (Spring 1988): 89-98. Includes an historical view of women in health services leadership positions.

1645 Dunn, S. "How Women Have Changed EMS-- and Vice Versa." EMERGENCY MEDICAL SERVICES 19, no.8 (August 1990): 13, 15-16.

1646 Fee, Elizabeth, and Greene, Barbara. "Science and Social Reform: Women in Public Health." JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH POLICY 10 (1989): 161-177.

1647 Fee, Elizabeth, and Korstad, Robert R. "Women Health Workers: Past and Present." AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH 82 (February 1992): 165-166.

1648 Frank, G. "Opening Feminist Histories of Occupational Therapy." AMERICAN JOURNAL OF OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY 46, no.11 (November 1992): 989-999.

1649 Gromala, Theresa. "Women in Chiropractic: Exploring a Tradition of Equity in Healing." CHIROPRACTIC HISTORY 3, no.1 (1983): 59-63.

1650 Hamilton, W. Alexander, and Hamilton, Penny R. "Sex and the Dental Practice: A Reinterpretation of the History of Dental Hygienists." BULLETIN OF THE HISTORY OF DENTISTRY 28 (October 1980): 64-68.

1651 Hamlin, R.B. "Embracing Our Past, Informing Our Future: A Feminist Re-vision of Health Care." AMERICAN JOURNAL OF OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY 46, no.11 (November 1992): 1028-1035. Discusses the history of occupational therapy from a feminist perspective.

1652 Jones, Helen. "Women Health Workers: The Case of the First Women Factory Inspectors in Britain." SOCIAL HISTORY OF MEDICINE 1, no.2 (August 1988): 165-182.

1653 Litterst, T.A. "Occupational Therapy: The Role of Ideology in the Development of a Profession for Women." AMERICAN JOURNAL OF OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY 46, no.1 (January 1992): 20-25.

1654 Loomis, B. "The Henry B. Favill School of Occupations and Eleanor Clarke Slagle." AMERICAN JOURNAL OF OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY 46, no.1 (January 1992): 34-37. An occupational therapy program in existence from 1915-1920.

1655 Low, J.F. "The Reconstruction Aides." AMERICAN JOURNAL OF OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY 46, no.1 (January 1992): 38-43. Civilian women who served in World War I had an influential role in the development of occupational therapy.

1656 McIntyre, E. "Dental Hygiene: The Consequences of a Feminized Profession." PROBE 23, no.4 (Winter 1989): 186-189.

1657 Motley, Wilma. "The Movement for Independent Practice of Dental Hygienists: From Evolution to Revolution." BULLETIN OF THE HISTORY OF DENTISTRY 36 (1988): 108-19.

1658 Ostergard, D.R., Gunning, J.E., and Marshall, J.R. "Training and Function of a Women's Health-Care Specialist, a Physician's Assistant, or Nurse Practitioner in Obstetrics and Gynecology." AMERICAN JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY 121, no.8 (April 15, 1975): 1029-1037. Includes brief discussion of historical development of women's health care specialists.

1658a Peloquin, S.M. "Occupational Therapy Service: Individual and Collective Understandings of the Founders." AMERICAN JOURNAL OF OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY 45, no.4 (April 1991): 352-360. Part I. Part II: 45, no.8 (August 1991): 733-744. Discusses personal narratives of the founders of the National Society for the Promotion of Occupational Therapy in early occupational therapy literature. Women included: Susan Elizabeth Tracy, Eleanor Clarke Slagle, and Susan Cox Johnson.

1659 Thorngate, Alice A. THAT FAR HORIZON: THE MEDICAL TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM AT THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN-MADISON, 1925-1975. Madison, WI: A-R Editions, 1983.

BIOGRAPHIES AND STUDIES OF INDIVIDUALS

1660 Chesler, Ellen. WOMAN OF VALOR: MARGARET SANGER AND THE BIRTH CONTROL MOVEMENT IN AMERICA. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1992.

1661 Coigney, Virginia. MARGARET SANGER: REBEL WITH A CAUSE. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1969.

1662 Curthoys, Ann. "Eugenics, Feminism and Birth Control: The Case of Marion Piddington." HECATE 15, no.1 (1989): 73-89. A sex educator and proponent of birth control, eugenics and "celibate motherhood" (artifical insemination).

1663 Douglas, Emily Taft. MARGARET SANGER: PIONEER OF THE FUTURE. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1970.

1664 Edwards, Margot, and Waldorf, Mary. RECLAIMING BIRTH: HISTORY AND HEROINES OF AMERICAN CHILDBIRTH REFORM. Freedom, CA: Crossing Press, 1984.

1665 Fitzpatrick, Ellen F., ed. KATHARINE BEMENT DAVIS, EARLY TWENTIETH- CENTURY AMERICAN WOMEN, AND THE STUDY OF SEX BEHAVIOR: AN ANTHOLOGY. New York: Garland, 1987.

1666 Gray, Madeline. MARGARET SANGER: A BIOGRAPHY OF THE CHAMPION OF BIRTH CONTROL. New York: R. Marek, 1979.

1667 Hall, Ruth. PASSIONATE CRUSADER: THE LIFE OF MARIE STOPES. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1977.

1668 Jones, Greta. "Marie Stopes in Ireland: The Mother's Clinic in Belfast." THE JOURNAL OF THE SOCIAL HISTORY OF MEDICINE 5, no.2 (August 1992): 255-278.

1669 Jones, J.L. "Early Occupational Therapy in Wisconsin: Elizabeth Upham Davis and Milwaukee-Downer College." AMERICAN JOURNAL OF OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY 42, no.8 (August 1988): 527-533.

1670 Kennedy, David M. BIRTH CONTROL IN AMERICA: THE CAREER OF MARGARET SANGER. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1970. Emphasizes Sanger's public career rather than her personal life, and the birth control movement between 1912 and World War II.

1671 Love, Rosaleen. "`Alice in Eugenics-Land': Feminism and Eugenics in the Scientific Careers of Alice Lee and Ethel Elderton." ANNALS OF SCIENCE 36 (1979): 145-158.

1672 Masel-Walters, Lynne. "For the Poor Mute Mothers?: Margaret Sanger and `The Woman Rebel'." JOURNALISM HISTORY 11 (Spring/Summer 1984): 3-4+.

1673 Moloney, Tess. "`The Woman Rebel': Feminism and Margaret Sanger in 1914." LILITH 1 (1984): 54-66.

1674 Moore, Gloria, and Moore, Ronald. MARGARET SANGER AND THE BIRTH CONTROL MOVEMENT: A BIBLIOGRAPHY, 1911-1984. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow, 1986. Over 1,300 citations, mostly with annotations.

1675 Perry, J.W. "The 1991 Mary E. Switzer Lecture: Racing Ahead of Her Time -- The Legacy of Mary E. Switzer." JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH 21, no.1 (Winter 1992): 11-21. Rehabilitation specialist.

1676 Plasky, Marvin. "Advertising Abortion During the 1830s and 1840s: Madame Restell Builds a Business." JOURNALISM HISTORY 13, no.2 (1986): 49-55.

1677 Rose, June. MARIE STOPES AND THE SEXUAL REVOLUTION. Boston, MA: Faber and Faber, 1992.

1678 Sanger, Margaret. MARGARET SANGER: AN AUTOBIOGRAPHY. New York: Norton, 1938; repr. New York: Dover, 1971.

Domestic Healing and Other Lay Practices (1679-1719)

Here are listed works on women healers, health reformers, charismatics, chiropractors, and purveyors of patent remedies.

GENERAL

1679 Allured, Janet L. "Women's Healing Art: Domestic Medicine in the Turn-of-the-Century Ozarks." GATEWAY HERITAGE 12 (Spring 1992): 20-31.

1680 Butler, Jonathon M. "Witchcraft, Healing, and Historian's Crazes." JOURNAL OF SOCIAL HISTORY 18 (Fall 1984): 111-118.

1681 Davies, Celia. "The Health Visitor as Mother's Friend: A Woman's Place in Public Health, 1900-1914." SOCIAL HISTORY OF MEDICINE 1, no.1 (April 1988): 39-59.

1682 Fink, Leon, and Greenberg, Brian. UPHEAVAL IN THE QUIET ZONE: A HISTORY OF HOSPITAL WORKERS' UNION, LOCAL 1199. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1989.

1683 Gartrell, Ellen G. "Women Healers and Domestic Remedies in 18th Century America: The Recipe Book of Elizabeth Coates Paschall." NEW YORK STATE JOURNAL OF MEDICINE 87 (1987): 23-29.

1684 Hughes, Muriel Joy. WOMEN HEALERS IN MEDIEVAL LIFE AND LITERATURE. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 1943. Repr. New York: Books for Libraries Press, 1968.

1685 Jaskoski, Helen. "`My Heart Will Go Out': Healing Songs of Native American Women." INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF WOMEN'S STUDIES 4 (1981): 118-34.

1686 Kloberdanz, Timothy J. "The Daughters of Shiphrah: Folk Healers and Midwives of the Great Plains." GREAT PLAINS QUARTERLY 9 (Winter 1989): 3-12.

1687 Koss-Chioino, Joan. WOMEN AS HEALERS, WOMEN AS PATIENTS: MENTAL HEALTH CARE AND TRADITIONAL HEALING IN PUERTO RICO. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1991.

1688 McClain, Carol Shepherd. WOMEN AS HEALERS: CROSS-CULTURAL PERSPECTIVES. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1989.

1689 Minkowski, William L. "Women Healers of the Middle Ages: Selected Aspects of Their History." AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH 82, iss.2 (February 1992): 288-295.

1690 Morantz, Regina Markell. "Making Women Modern: Middle-Class Women and Health Reform in 19th-Century America." JOURNAL OF SOCIAL HISTORY 10 (1977): 490-507. Repr. in WOMEN AND HEALTH IN AMERICA: HISTORICAL READINGS, pp.346-358. Ed. by Judith Walzer Leavitt. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1984.

1691 Morantz, Regina Markell. "Nineteenth Century Health Reform and Women: A Program of Self-Help." In MEDICINE WITHOUT DOCTORS: HOME HEALTH CARE IN AMERICAN HISTORY, ed. by Guenter B. Risse, Ronald L. Numbers, and Judith Walzer Leavitt, pp.73-93. New York: Science History Publications/USA, 1977.

1692 Peterson, Susan C. "Adapting to Fill a Need: The Presentation Sisters and Health Care, 1901-1961." SOUTH DAKOTA HISTORY 17 (Spring 1987): 1-22.

1693 Quiroga, Virginia A. Metaxas. "Female Lay Managers and Scientific Pediatrics at Nursery and Child's Hospital, 1854-1910." BULLETIN OF THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE 60 (Summer 1986): 194-208. On women members of Boards of Trustees.

1694 Riddett, Lyn. "Sisters, Wives, and Mothers: Settler Women as Healers and Preservers of Health in the N.T. During the 1930s." HECATE 15, no.2 (1989): 7-22.

1695 Sacks, Karen. CARING BY THE HOUR: WOMEN, WORK AND ORGANIZING AT DUKE MEDICAL CENTER. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1988. The relationships among class, gender, and race of hospital workers.

1696 Salazar, Sandra A. "Chicanas as Healers." In LA CHICANA: BUILDING FOR THE FUTURE, AN ACTION PLAN FOR THE 80S, pp.107-119. Oakland, CA: National Hispanic University, 1981.

1697 Sawyer, Ronald C. "Strangely Handled in All Her Lyms': Witchcraft and Healing in Jacobean England." JOURNAL OF SOCIAL HISTORY 22 (Spring 1989): 461-485.

1698 Schilz, Thomas, and Schilz, Jodye Lynn Dickson. "Amazons, Witches and `Country Wives': Plains Indian Women in Historical Perspective." ANNALS OF WYOMING 59, no.1 (1987): 48-56.

1699 Sharp, Sharon A. "Folk Medicine Practices: Women as Keepers and Carriers of Knowledge." WOMEN'S STUDIES INTERNATIONAL FORUM 9, no.3 (1986): 243-249. On midwives, herbalists and spiritual healers in the Ozarks, Appalachia, and the South.

1700 Vrettos, Athena. "Curative Domains: Women, Healing and History in Black Women's Narratives." WOMEN'S STUDIES 16, nos. 3/4 (1989): 455-473.

BIOGRAPHIES AND STUDIES OF INDIVIDUALS

1701 Blake, John B. "Mary Gove Nichols, Prophetess of Health." AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY PROCEEDINGS 106 (1962): 219-234. Repr. in WOMEN AND HEALTH IN AMERICA: HISTORICAL READINGS, pp.359-375. Ed. by Judith Walzer Leavitt. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1984.

1702 Butler, Jonathan M., and Schoepflin, Rennie B. "Charismatic Women and Health: Mary Baker Eddy, Ellen G. White, and Aimee Semple McPherson." In WOMEN, HEALTH, AND MEDICINE IN AMERICA: A HISTORICAL HANDBOOK, ed. by Rima D. Apple, pp.337-365. New York: Garland, 1990.

1703 Cooter, Roger. "Dichotomy and Denial: Mesmerism, Medicine and Harriet Martineau." In SCIENCE AND SENSIBILITY: GENDER AND SCIENTIFIC ENQUIRY, 1780-1945, ed. by Marina Benjamin, pp.144-173. Cambridge, MA: Basil Blackwell, 1991.

1704 Davis, Dona L. "George Beard and Lydia Pinkham: Gender, Class, and Nerves in Late 19th Century America." HEALTH CARE FOR WOMEN INTERNATIONAL 10, 2/3 (1989): 93-114. Discusses the feminization of nervous disorders.

1705 Flanagan, Sabina. HILDEGARD OF BINGEN, 1098-1179: A VISIONARY LIFE. New York: Routledge, 1989. 1706 Halsband, Robert. "Lady Mary Wortley Montague and Inoculation." JOURNAL OF THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE 8 (1953): 390-405. British public health reformer, 1689-1762.

1707 Himelhoch, Myra Samuels, and Shaffer, Arthur H. "Elizabeth Packard: Nineteenth Century Crusader for the Rights of Mental Patients." JOURNAL OF AMERICAN STUDIES 13 (1979): 343-375.

1708 Jackson, Donald Dale. "If Women Needed a Quick Pick-Me-Up, Lydia Provided One." SMITHSONIAN 15 (July 1984): 107-119. On Lydia Pinkham.

1709 Keller, Allen. SCANDALOUS LADY: THE LIFE AND TIMES OF MADAME RESTELL, NEW YORK'S MOST NOTORIOUS ABORTIONIST. New York: Atheneum, 1981.

1710 Maxwell, Margaret F. "Cordelia Adams Crawford of the Tonto Basin." JOURNAL OF ARIZONA HISTORY 26, no.4 (1985): 415-428. Pioneer woman with reputation as a healer among whites and Apaches.

1711 McLoughlin, William G. "Aimee Semple McPherson: `Your Sister in the King's Glad Service.'" JOURNAL OF POPULAR CULTURE 1 (1967): 193-217.

1712 Miller, Genevieve. "Putting Lady Mary [Montague] in Her Place: A Discussion of Historical Causation." BULLETIN OF THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE 55 (1981): 2-16.

1713 Numbers, Ronald L., and Schoepflin, Rennie B. "Ministries of Healing: Mary Baker Eddy, Ellen G. White, and the Religion of Health." In WOMEN AND HEALTH IN AMERICA: HISTORICAL READINGS, ed. by Judith Walzer Leavitt, pp.376-389. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1984.

1714 Numbers, Ronald L. PROPHETESS OF HEALTH: ELLEN G. WHITE AND THE ORIGIN OF SEVENTH-DAY ADVENTIST HEALTH REFORM. 1992. White was a founder of the Seventh-Day Adventist Church and a health reformer interested in vegetarianism, hydropathy, and the building of sanitariums. This is a revised and enlarged edition of PROPHETESS OF HEALTH: A STUDY OF ELLEN G. WHITE (1976), with a new psychological profile co-authored by Janet S. Numbers, and an introduction by Jonathan M Butler.

1715 Stage, Sarah. FEMALE COMPLAINTS: LYDIA PINKHAM AND THE BUSINESS OF WOMEN'S MEDICINE. New York: Norton, 1979.

1716 Stepsis, M. Ursula, and Liptak, Dolores, eds. PIONEER HEALERS: THE HISTORY OF WOMEN RELIGIOUS IN AMERICAN HEALTH CARE. New York: Crossroad, 1989.

1717 Strehlow, Wighard, and Hertzka, Gottfried. HILDEGARD OF BINGEN'S MEDICINE. Santa Fe, NM: Bear & Co., 1987. Biography of St. Hildegard (1098-1179).

1718 Strohl, E. Lee. "The Fascinating Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, 1689-1792." ARCHIVES OF SURGERY 89 (1964): 554-558. Public health innovator, advocate of smallpox inoculation.

1719 Washburn, Robert Collyer. THE LIFE AND TIMES OF LYDIA E. PINKHAM. New York: Putnam, 1931. Repr. New York: Arno, 1976.

Gynecology & Traditional Practice of Obstetrics (1720-1815)

This section covers the history of women as patients of gynecologists and obstetricians, the history of those professions, and biographies of prominent male practitioners. How menstruation, menopause, and female illnesses were treated and surgery performed on women are also addressed. For additional citations on birth control and women's experiences in childbirth, see the next section, REPRODUCTION.

1720 Abbott, Devon Irene. "Medicine for the Rosebuds: Health Care at the Cherokee Female Seminary, 1876-1909." AMERICAN INDIAN CULTURE AND RESEARCH JOURNAL 12 (1988): 59-71.

1721 Antler, Joyce, and Fox, Daniel M. "The Movement Toward a Safe Maternity: Physician Accountablility in New York City, 1915-1940." BULLETIN OF THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE 50, no.4 (Winter 1976): 569-595. Repr. in SICKNESS AND HEALTH IN AMERICA, pp.490-506. Ed. by Judith Walzer Leavitt & Ronald L. Numbers. 2nd ed. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985.

1722 Arney, William R. POWER AND THE PROFESSION OF OBSTETRICS. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1983.

1723 Axelsen, Diana E. "Women as Victims of Medical Experimentation: J. Marion Sims' Surgery on Slave Women, 1845-1850." SAGE 2, no.2 (Fall 1985): 10-13.

1724 Barker-Benfield, Ben. "Sexual Surgery in Late-Nineteenth-Century America." INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HEALTH SERVICES 5, no.2 (1975): 279-298.

1725 Beardsley, Edward H. "Race as a Factor in Health." New York: Garland, 1990. WOMEN, HEALTH, AND MEDICINE IN AMERICA: A HISTORICAL HANDBOOK, ed. by Rima D. Apple, pp.121-140.

1726 Bell, Susan E. "Changing Ideas: the Medicalization of Menopause." SOCIAL SCIENCE AND MEDICINE 24 (1987): 535-42.

1727 Borst, Charlotte G. "The Professionalization of Obstetrics: Childbirth Becomes A Medical Specialty." In WOMEN, HEALTH, AND MEDICINE IN AMERICA: A HISTORICAL HANDBOOK, ed. by Rima D. Apple, pp.197-216. New York: Garland, 1990.

1728 Bullough, Vern L. "Female Physiology, Technology, and Women's Liberation." In DYNAMOS AND VIRGINS REVISITED: WOMEN AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE IN HISTORY, ed. by Martha Moore Trescott, pp.236-251. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow, 1979.

1729 Bullough, Vern L. "Technology and Female Sexuality and Physiology: Some Implications." JOURNAL OF SEX RESEARCH 16 (1980): 59-71.

1730 Bullough, Vern L., and Voght, Martha. "Women, Menstruation, and Nineteenth Century Medicine." BULLETIN OF THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE 47, no.1 (January/February 1973): 66-82. Repr. in WOMEN AND HEALTH IN AMERICA: HISTORICAL READINGS, pp.28-37. Ed. by Judith Walzer Leavitt. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1984. Also repr. in SEX, SOCIETY, AND HISTORY, a collection of pieces by Vern L. Bullough. New York: Science History Publications, 1976.

1731 Cianfrani, Theodore. A SHORT HISTORY OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY. Springfield, IL: Thomas, 1960.

1732 Corea, Gena. THE HIDDEN MALPRACTICE: HOW AMERICAN MEDICINE TREATS WOMEN AS PATIENTS AND PROFESSIONALS. New York: Morrow, 1977.

1733 Dally, Ann. WOMEN UNDER THE KNIFE: A HISTORY OF SURGERY. New York: Routledge, 1992. Traces the development of surgery through experiments on women.

1734 Delancy, Janice, Lupton, Mary Jane, and Toth, Emily. THE CURSE: A CULTURAL HISTORY OF MENSTRUATION. New York: New American Library, 1976. Rev. ed. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1988.

1735 Dorsey, Carolyn A. "Despite Poor Health: Olivia Davidson Washington's Story." SAGE 2, no.2 (Fall 1985): 69-72. Olivia Davidson Washington, Booker T. Washington's second wife, died of tuberculosis in 1889. A short history of her illness is accompanied by a letter and her hospital record.

1736 Drachman, Virginia G. "Gynecological Instruments and Surgical Decisions at a Hospital in Late Nineteenth-Century America." JOURNAL OF AMERICAN CULTURE 3 (Winter 1980): 660-672.

1737 Drachman, Virginia G. "The Loomis Trial: Social Mores and Obstetrics in the Mid-Nineteenth Century." In HEALTH CARE IN AMERICA: ESSAYS IN SOCIAL HISTORY, ed. by Susan Reverby & David Rosner, pp.67-83. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1979. Repr. in WOMEN AND HEALTH IN AMERICA: HISTORICAL READINGS, pp.166-174. Ed. by Judith Walzer Leavitt. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1984.

1738 Duden, Barbara. "History Beneath the Skin." MICHIGAN QUARTERLY REVIEW 30 (Winter 1991): 174-190.

1739 Duden, Barbara, and Dunlap, Thomas, trans. THE WOMAN BENEATH THE SKIN: A DOCTOR'S PATIENTS IN EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY GERMANY. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1991. From the diary of Johannes Pelargius Storch of Eisenach, Germany.

1740 Eccles, Audrey. OBSTETRICS AND GYNAECOLOGY IN TUDOR AND STUART ENGLAND. Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 1982.

1741 Findley, Palmer. PRIESTS OF LUCINA: THE STORY OF OBSTETRICS. Boston: Little, Brown, 1939.

1742 Formanek, Ruth, ed. THE MEANINGS OF MENOPAUSE: HISTORICAL, MEDICAL, AND CLINICAL PERSPECTIVES. Hillsdale, NJ: Analytic Press, 1990. Includes "Continuity and Change and `the Change of Life': Premodern Views of the Menopause," by Ruth Formanek, and contributions by Ursula K. LeGuin, Susan E. Bell, Helena Harris, and others.

1743 French, Valerie. "Midwives and Maternity Care in the Greco-Roman World." HELIOS 13, no.2 (Fall 1986): 69-84. In special issue, "Rescuing Creusa: New Methodological Approaches to Women in Antiquity."

1744 Gelbart, Nina. "Mme du Coudray's Manual for Midwives: The Politics of Enlightenment Obstetrics." PROCEEDINGS OF THE ANNUAL MEETING OF THE WESTERN SOCIETY FOR FRENCH HISTORY 16 (1989): 389-396.

1745 Gibbons, Russell W. "Forgotten Parameters of General Practice: The Chiropractic Obstetrician." CHIROPRACTIC HISTORY 2, no.1 (1982): 27-33.

1746 Gortvay, Gyorgy, and Zoltan, Imre. SEMMELWEIS: HIS LIFE AND WORK. Budapest: Akademiai Kiado, 1968.

1747 Green, Monica. "Women's Medical Practice and Health Care in Medieval Europe." SIGNS 14, no.2 (Winter 1989): 434-473. Repr. in SISTERS AND WORKERS IN THE MIDDLE AGES. Ed. by J. Bennet et al. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989.

1748 Haller, John S. "Trends in American Gynecology, 1800-1910: A Short History." NEW YORK STATE JOURNAL OF MEDICINE 89 (1989): 278-282.

1749 Hansen, Bert. "Medical Education in New York City in 1866-1867: A Student's Notebook of Professor Charles A. Budd's Lectures on Obstetrics at New York University." NEW YORK STATE JOURNAL OF MEDICINE 85 (1985): 488-97, 548-59.

1750 Hanson, Ann Ellis. "Continuity and Change: Three Case Studies in Hippocratic Gynecological Therapy and Theory." In WOMEN'S HISTORY AND ANCIENT HISTORY, ed. Sarah B. Pomeroy, pp.73-110. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1991.

1751 Harris, Seale. WOMAN'S SURGEON: THE STORY OF J. MARION SIMS. New York: Macmillan, 1950.

1752 Harsin, Jill. "Syphilis, Wives, and Physicians: Medical Ethics and the Family in Late Nineteenth-Century France." FRENCH HISTORICAL STUDIES 16, no.1 (1989): 72-95.

1753 Hurwitz, B., and Richardson, R. "Inspector General James Barry, M.D.: Putting the Woman in Her Place." BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL 298 (1989): 299-305.

1754 Ineson, A. "Women's Work and Women's Health in the Munitions Industry in World War I." SOCIETY FOR THE SOCIAL HISTORY OF MEDICINE BULLETIN no.36 (1985): 44-47.

1755 James, Barbara. "Ten Years of Women's Health, 1982-1992." FEMINIST REVIEW 41 (Summer 1992): 37-51.

1756 Jameson, Edwin Milton. GYNECOLOGY AND OBSTETRICS. New York: Hoeber, 1936.

1757 Johnstone, Robert William. WILLIAM SMELLIE: THE MASTER OF BRITISH MIDWIFERY. Edinburgh: Livingston, 1952.

1758 Kelly, Emerson C. "Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis." MEDICAL CLASSICS 5, no.5 (January 1941): 341-347. Short bibliography of works by and about Semmelweis. Followed by complete translation of THE ETIOLOGY, THE CONCEPT, AND THE PROPHYLAXIS OF CHILDBIRTH FEVER, pp.350-773. See also Murphy, below.

1759 King, Helen. "Sacrificial Blood: The Role of Amnion in Ancient Gynecology." HELIOS 13, no.2 (1986): 117-126.

1760 Leavitt, Judith Walzer. "The Growth of Medical Authority: Technology and Morals in Turn-of-the-Century Obstetrics." MEDICAL ANTHROPOLOGY QUARTERLY 1, no.3 (1987): 230-255.

1761 Leavitt, Judith Walzer. "Joseph B. DeLee and the Practice of Preventive Obstetrics." AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH 78, no.10 (1988): 1353-1359.

1762 Longo, Lawrence D. "Electrotherapy in Gynecology: The American Experience." BULLETIN OF THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE 60, no.3 (Fall 1986): 343-366.

1763 Longo, Lawrence D. "The Rise and Fall of Battey's Operation: A Fashion in Surgery." BULLETIN OF THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE 53, no.2 (Summer 1979): 244-267. Bilateral ovariotomy for neurosis, menstrual disorders, etc. Repr. in WOMEN AND HEALTH IN AMERICA: HISTORICAL READINGS, pp.270-284. Ed. by Judith Walzer Leavitt. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1984.

1764 Maines, Rachel. "Socially Camouflaged Technologies: The Case of the Electromagnetic Vibrator." IEEE TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE MAGAZINE 8, no.2 (June 1989): 3-11.

1765 McGregor, Deborah Kuhn. "Female Disorders and 19th-Century Medicine: The Case of Vesico-Vaginal Fistula." CADUCEUS: A MUSEUM QUARTERLY FOR THE HEALTH SCIENCES 3, no.1 (1987): 1-31.

1766 McGregor, Deborah Kuhn. SEXUAL SURGERY AND THE ORIGINS OF GYNECOLOGY: J. MARION SIMS, HIS HOSPITAL, AND HIS PATIENTS. New York: Garland, 1990. Biography of the "father of gynecology."

1767 Mitchinson, Wendy. "Gynecological Operations on Insane Women: London, Ontario, 1895-1901." JOURNAL OF SOCIAL HISTORY 15 (Spring 1982): 467-484.

1768 Mitchinson, Wendy. "Gynecological Operations on the Insane." ARCHIVARIA 10 (1980): 125-144.

1769 Mitchinson, Wendy. "Historical Attitudes Toward Women and Childbirth." ATLANTIS 4, no.2, part 2 (Spring 1979): 13-34. Focus on Canada.

1770 Mitchinson, Wendy. "A Medical Debate in Nineteenth Century English Canada: Ovariotomies." HISTOIRE SOCIALE/SOCIAL HISTORY 17 (May 1984): 133-147.

1771 Mitchinson, Wendy. THE NATURE OF THEIR BODIES: WOMEN AND THEIR DOCTORS IN VICTORIAN CANADA. Toronto; Buffalo, NY: University of Toronto Press, 1991.

1772 Morantz, Regina Markell, and Zschoche, Sue. "Professionalism, Feminism, and Gender Roles: A Comparative Study of Nineteenth-Century Medical Therapeutics." JOURNAL OF AMERICAN HISTORY 67, no.3 (December 1980): 568-588.

1773 Moscucci, Ornella. THE SCIENCE OF WOMAN: GYNAECOLOGY AND GENDER IN ENGLAND, 1800-1929. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990. Embraces women in science, the scientific construction of gender, and the interplay of race, class, and culture with the concept of nature itself.

1774 Munro Kerr, J.M., Johnstone, R.W., and Phillips, Miles H. HISTORICAL REVIEW OF BRITISH OBSTETRICS AND GYNAECOLOGY, 1800-1950. Edinburgh: E. & S. Livingstone, 1954.

1775 Murphy, Frank P. "Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis (1818-1865): An Annotated Bibliography." BULLETIN OF THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE 20, no.5 (December 1946): 653-707. See also Kelly, above.

1776 Ojanuga, Durrenda. "The Medical Ethics of the `Father of Gynaecology,' Dr. J. Marion Sims." JOURNAL OF MEDICAL ETHICS 19 (March 1993): 28-31. Sims used female slaves as research subjects.

1777 Poovey, Mary. "`Scenes of an Indelicate Character': The Medical `Treatment' of Victorian Women." REPRESENTATIONS 14 (Spring 1986): 137-168. On the use of anesthesia. Repr. in THE MAKING OF THE MODERN BODY: SEXUALITY AND SOCIETY IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. Ed. by Catherine Gallagher and Thomas Laqueur. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987.

1778 Ricci, James V. THE DEVELOPMENT OF GYNAECOLOGICAL SURGERY AND INSTRUMENTS: FROM THE HIPPOCRATIC AGE TO THE ANTISEPTIC PERIOD. Philadelphia: Blakiston, 1949.

1779 Ricci, James V. GENEALOGY OF GYNAECOLOGY: HISTORY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF GYNAECOLOGY THROUGHOUT THE AGES. Philadelphia: Blakiston, 1950. 2nd ed.

1780 Rittenhouse, C. Amanda. THE EMERGENCE OF PREMENSTRUAL SYNDROME: THE SOCIAL HISTORY OF A WOMEN'S HEALTH "PROBLEM". 1989.

1781 Rowland, Beryl. MEDIEVAL WOMAN'S GUIDE TO HEALTH: THE FIRST ENGLISH GYNAECOLOGICAL HANDBOOK. Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 1981.

1782 Roy, Judith M. "Surgical Gynecology." In WOMEN, HEALTH, AND MEDICINE IN AMERICA: A HISTORICAL HANDBOOK, ed. by Rima D. Apple, pp.173-195. New York: Garland, 1990.

1783 Sanders-Goebel, Pamela. "Crisis and Controversy: Historical Patterns in Breast Cancer Surgery." CANADIAN BULLETIN OF MEDICAL HISTORY/ BULLETIN CANADIEN D'HISTOIRE DE LA MEDECINE 8 (1991): 77-90.

1784 Savage, Gail. "`The Wilful Communication of a Loathsome Disease': Marital Conflict and Venereal Disease in Victorian England." VICTORIAN STUDIES 34 (1990): 35-54.

1785 Savage, Wendy. "The Management of Obstetric Pain." In THE HISTORY OF THE MANAGEMENT OF PAIN, FROM EARLY PRINCIPLES TO PRESENT PRACTICE, ed. Ronald D. Mann. Carnforth, England: Parthenon, 1988.

1786 Schaffner, William, et al. "Maternal Mortality in Michigan: An Epidemiological Analysis, 1950-1971." AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH 67, no.9 (September 1977): 821-829.

1787 Scull, Andrew T., and Favreau, Diane. "`A Chance to Cut is a Chance to Cure': Sexual Surgery for Psychosis in Three Nineteenth Century Societies." RESEARCH IN LAW, DEVIANCE AND SOCIAL CONTROL 8 (1986): 3-39.

1788 Scull, Andrew T., and Favreau, Diane. "The Clitoridectomy Craze." SOCIAL RESEARCH 53, no.2 (1986): 243-260. On 19th century British gynecologist Isaac Baker Brown who believed that clitoridectomy cured hysteria and nervous complaints.

1789 Scully, Diana. MEN WHO CONTROL WOMEN'S HEALTH: THE MISEDUCATION OF OBSTETRICIAN-GYNECOLOGISTS. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1980. Chapter II, "Baby Catchers and Uterus Snatchers," reviews the history of ob/gyn in the United States.

1790 Semmelweis, Ignac Fulop; trans. and ed. by K. Codell Carter. THE ETIOLOGY, CONCEPT, AND PROPHYLAXIS OF CHILDBED FEVER. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1983. Originally published in 1861.

1791 Shapiro, Sam, Schlesinger, Edward R., and Nesbitt, Robert E.L., Jr. INFANT, PERINATAL, MATERNAL, AND CHILDHOOD MORTALITY IN THE UNITED STATES. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1968.

1792 Sheehan, Elizabeth. "Victorian Clitoridectomy: Isaac Baker Brown and His Harmless Operative Procedure." FEMINIST ISSUES 5, no.1 (Spring 1985): 39-53.

1793 Shepherd, John. LAWSON TAIT: REBELLIOUS SURGEON. Lawrence, KS: Coronado Press, 1980. Biography of a leading nineteenth-century gynecologist.

1794 Shorter, Edward. WOMEN'S BODIES: A SOCIAL HISTORY OF WOMEN'S ENCOUNTER WITH HEALTH, ILL-HEALTH, AND MEDICINE. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 1991. Repr., originally published as A HISTORY OF WOMEN'S BODIES. New York: Basic Books, 1982.

1795 Shorter, Edward. "Women's Diseases Before 1900." In NEW DIRECTIONS IN PSYCHOHISTORY, ed. by Mel Albin, with the assistance of Robert J. Devlin and Gerald Heegan, pp.183-208. Lexington, MA: Heath, 1980.

1796 Siddel, A. Clair. "Bloodletting in American Obstetric Practice, 1800-1945." BULLETIN OF THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE 54 (Spring 1980): 101-110.

1797 Sims, James Marion. THE STORY OF MY LIFE. New York: Appleton, 1884; New York: Da Capo, 1968.

1798 Sinclair, William J. SEMMELWEIS: HIS LIFE AND DOCTRINE. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1909. Biographer Sinclair was Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Manchester.

1799 Slaughter, Frank G. IMMORTAL MAGYAR: SEMMELWEIS, CONQUEROR OF CHILDBED FEVER. New York: Henry Schuman, 1950.

1800 Smart, Judith. "Feminists, Labour Women, and Venereal Disease in Early Twentieth Century Melbourne." AUSTRALIAN FEMINIST STUDIES 15 (Autumn 1992): 25-40.

1801 Smith, Hilda. "Gynecology and Ideology in Seventeenth-Century England." In LIBERATING WOMEN'S HISTORY, ed. by Berenice A. Carroll, pp.97-114. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1976.

1802 Smith-Rosenberg, Carroll. "Puberty to Menopause: The Cycle of Femininity in Nineteenth Century America." FEMINIST STUDIES 1, no.3/4 (Winter/Spring 1973): 58-72. Repr. in CLIO'S CONSCIOUSNESS RAISED, pp.23-37. Ed. by Mary Hartman and Lois Banner. New York: Harper & Row, 1974. Also repr. in DISORDERLY CONDUCT: VISIONS OF GENDER IN VICTORIAN AMERICA, pp.182-196. By Carroll Smith-Rosenberg. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.

1803 Soranus, of Ephesus; ed. by Miriam F. Drabkin and Israel E. Drabkin. CAELIUS AURELIANUS GYNAECIA: FRAGMENTS OF A LATIN VERSION OF SORANUS' GYNAECIA FROM A THIRTEENTH CENTURY MANUSCRIPT. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1951.

1804 Speert, Harold. ICONOGRAPHICA GYNIATRICA: A PICTORIAL HISTORY OF GYNECOLOGY AND OBSTETRICS. Philadelphia: Davis, 1973.

1805 Speert, Harold. OBSTETRIC AND GYNECOLOGIC MILESTONES. New York: Macmillan, 1958.

1806 Speert, Harold. OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY IN AMERICA: A HISTORY. Chicago: American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 1980. Illustrations; bibliography

1807 Stage, Sarah. FEMALE COMPLAINTS: LYDIA PINKHAM AND THE BUSINESS OF WOMEN'S MEDICINE. New York: Norton, 1979.

1808 Summey, Pamela S., and Hurst, Marsha. "Ob/Gyn on the Rise: The Evolution of Professional Ideology in the Twentieth Century." Part I: WOMEN AND HEALTH 11, no.1 (Spring 1986): 133-146; Part II: WOMEN AND HEALTH 11, no.2 (Summer 1986): 103-122.

1809 Thoms, Herbert. CLASSICAL CONTRIBUTIONS TO OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY. Springfield, IL: Thomas, 1935.

1810 Thoms, Herbert. OUR OBSTETRIC HERITAGE: THE STORY OF A SAFE CHILDBIRTH. Hamden, CT: Shoestring, 1960.

1811 Vertinsky, Patricia A. "God, Science and the Market Place: The Bases for Exercise Prescriptions for Females in Nineteenth Century North America." CANADIAN JOURNAL OF THE HISTORY OF SPORT 17, no.1 (1986): 38-44.

1812 Vertinsky, Patricia A. "Of No Use Without Health: Late Nineteenth Century Medical Prescriptions for Female Exercise Through the Life Span." WOMEN & HEALTH 14, no.1 (1988): 89-115.

1813 "William Smellie (1697-1763) -- Intuitive Teacher of Obstetrics." JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION 187, no.2 (January 11, 1964): 146-147.

1814 Williams, J. Whitridge. "A Criticism of Certain Tendencies in American Obstetrics." NEW YORK STATE JOURNAL OF MEDICINE 22, no.11 (November 1922): 493-499. States opposition to prophylactic forceps intervention.

1815 Williams, Perry. "The Laws of Health: Women, Medicine and Sanitary Reform, 1850-1890." In SCIENCE AND SENSIBILITY: GENDER AND SCIENTIFIC ENQUIRY, 1780-1945, ed. by Marina Benjamin, pp.60-88. Cambridge, MA: Basil Blackwell, 1991.

Reproduction (1816-2005)

The citations here cover the history of women's reproductive health and childbearing, focusing especially on women's own experiences, and the history of birth control measures and the birth control movement. DES treatment and its menacing aftermath and involuntary sterilization are other topics covered. For specifically technological aspects of reproduction, see the section REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGY.

1816 Acevedo, Zoila. "Abortion in Early America." WOMEN AND HEALTH 4 (1979): 159-167.

1817 Anderton, Douglas L., and Bean, Lee L. "Birth Spacing and Fertility Limitation: A Behavioral Analysis of a Nineteenth Century Frontier Population." DEMOGRAPHY 22 (1985): 169-183.

1818 Antler, Joyce, and Fox, Daniel M. "The Movement Toward a Safe Maternity: Physician Accountablility in New York City, 1915-1940." BULLETIN OF THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE 50, no.4 (Winter 1976): 569-595. Repr. in SICKNESS AND HEALTH IN AMERICA, pp.490-506. Ed. by Judith Walzer Leavitt & Ronald L. Numbers. 2nd ed. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985.

1819 Apfel, Roberta J., and Fisher, Susan M. TO DO NO HARM: DES AND THE DILEMMA OF MODERN MEDICINE. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1984.

1820 Arms, Suzanne. IMMACULATE DECEPTION: A NEW LOOK AT WOMEN AND CHILDBIRTH IN AMERICA. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1975.

1821 Atkinson, Colin B., and Stoneman, William P. "`These Griping Greeffes and Pinching Pange': Attitudes to Childbirth in Thomas Bentley's THE MONUMENT OF MATRONES (1582)." SIXTEENTH CENTURY JOURNAL 21 (Summer 1990): 193-204.

1822 Backhouse, Constance B. "The Celebrated Abortion Trial of Dr. Emily Stower, Toronto, 1879." CANADIAN BULLETIN OF HISTORY/ BULLETIN CANADIEN D'HISTOIRE DE LA MEDECINE 8 (1991): 159-187. "...one of the first doctors to be tried for attempting to procure an abortion in nineteenth-century Canada..."

1823 Banks, Joseph Ambrose, and Banks, Olive. FEMINISM AND FAMILY PLANNING IN VICTORIAN ENGLAND. New York: Schocken Books, 1964.

1824 Barkai, Ron. "A Medieval Hebrew Treatise on Obstetrics." MEDICAL HISTORY 33 (January 1989): 96-119.

1825 Bean, Lee L., Mineau, Geraldine P., and Anderton, Douglas L. FERTILITY CHANGE ON THE AMERICAN FRONTIER: ADAPTATION AND INNOVATION. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990.

1826 Bell, Susan E. "A New Model of Medical Technology Development: A Case Study of DES." RESEARCH IN THE SOCIOLOGY OF HEALTH CARE 4 (1986): 1-32.

1827 Bichler, Joyce. DES DAUGHTERS: THE JOYCE BICHLER STORY. New York: Avon, 1981.

1828 Biller, Peter A. "Birth-Control in the West in the Thirteenth and Early Fourteenth Centuries." PAST & PRESENT no.94 (February 1982): 3-26.

1829 Biller, Peter A. "Childbirth in the Middle Ages." HISTORY TODAY 36 (August 1986): 42-49.

1830 Bishop, Mary F. "The Early Birth Controllers of B.C." B.C. STUDIES 61 (Spring 1984): 64-84. British Columbia.

1831 Blumenfeld-Kosinski, Renate. NOT OF WOMAN BORN: REPRESENTATION OF CAESAREAN BIRTH IN MEDIEVAL AND RENAISSANCE CULTURE. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1990.

1832 Bock, Gisela. "Racism and Sexism in Nazi Germany: Motherhood, Compulsory Sterilization, and the State." SIGNS 8 (Spring 1983): 400-421.

1833 Bogdan, Janet C. "Care or Cure? Childbirth Practices in 19th-Century America." FEMINIST STUDIES 4 (1978): 92-99.

1834 Bogdan, Janet C. "Childbirth in America, 1650-1990." In WOMEN, HEALTH, AND MEDICINE IN AMERICA: A HISTORICAL HANDBOOK, ed. by Rima D. Apple, pp.101-120. New York: Garland, 1990.

1835 Bogdan, Janet C. "Losing Birth: The Erosion of Women's Control Over and Knowledge About Birth, 1650-1900." In CHANGING EDUCATION: WOMEN AS RADICAL AND CONSERVATORS, ed. by Joyce Antler and Sari Knopp Biklen, pp.83-101. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1990.

1836 Borell, Merriley. "Biologists and the Promotion of Birth Control Research, 1918-1938." JOURNAL OF THE HISTORY OF BIOLOGY 20, no.1 (Spring 1987): 51-87.

1837 Borst, Charlotte G. "The Professionalization of Obstetrics: Childbirth Becomes A Medical Specialty." In WOMEN, HEALTH, AND MEDICINE IN AMERICA: A HISTORICAL HANDBOOK, ed. by Rima D. Apple, pp.197-216. New York: Garland, 1990.

1838 Brookes, Barbara. ABORTION IN ENGLAND, 1900-1967. New York: Croom Helm, 1988.

1839 Cates, Willard, Jr. "Abortion Attitudes of Black Women." WOMEN AND HEALTH 2, no.3 (November-December 1979): 3-9.

1840 Chandrasekhar, S. "A DIRTY, FILTHY BOOK": THE WRITINGS OF CHARLES KNOWLTON AND ANNIE BESANT ON REPRODUCTIVE PHYSIOLOGY AND BIRTH CONTROL AND AN ACCOUNT OF THE BRADLAUGH-BESANT TRIAL. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1981. Includes the Bradlaugh-Besant edition of Knowlton's FRUITS OF PHILOSOPHY, two of Besant's pamphlets on birth control, introductory essay, bibliography.

1841 (deleted)

1842 Clarke, Adele E. "Controversy and the Development of Reproductive Sciences." SOCIAL PROBLEMS 37 (February 1990): 18-37.

1843 Cosslett, Tess. "Grantly Dick Read and Sheila Kitzinger: Towards a Women-Centered Story of Childbirth." JOURNAL OF GENDER STUDIES 1 (1991): 29-43. Analyzes Read's NATURAL CHILDBIRTH (1933) and Kitzinger's THE EXPERIENCE OF CHILDBIRTH (1962).

1844 Council on Scientific Affairs, American Medical Association. "Induced Termination of Pregnancy Before and After Roe v. Wade: Trends in Mortality and Morbidity of Women." JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION 268 (1992): 3231-3239.

1845 Crawford, Patricia. "The Construction and Experience of Maternity in Seventeenth-Century England." In WOMEN AS MOTHERS IN PRE-INDUSTRIAL ENGLAND: ESSAYS IN MEMORY OF DOROTHY McLAREN, ed. Valerie Fildes, pp.3-38. New York: Routledge, 1990.

1846 Cvornyek, Robert L., and Cvornyek, Dorothy L. "`I Know Something Awful Is Going to Happen': Abortion in Early Twentieth Century Alabama." SOUTHERN STUDIES 24 (Summer 1985): 229-232.

1847 Davey, Claire. "Birth Control in Britain During the Interwar Years: Evidence from the Stopes Correspondence." JOURNAL OF FAMILY HISTORY 13, no.3 (July 1988): 329-346.

1848 Davis, Nanette J. FROM CRIME TO CHOICE: THE TRANSFORMATION OF ABORTION IN AMERICA. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1985.

1849 Dayton, Cornelia Hughes. "Taking the Trade: Abortion and Gender Relations in an Eighteenth-Century New England Village." WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 48 (January 1991): 19-49.

1850 Delacy, Margaret. "Puerperal Fever in Eighteenth-Century Britain." BULLETIN OF THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE 63 (Winter 1989): 521-556.

1851 DelCastillo, Adelaida R. "Sterilization: An Overview." In MEXICAN WOMEN IN THE UNITED STATES: STRUGGLES PAST AND PRESENT, ed. by Magdalena Mora and Adelaide R. DelCastillo. Los Angeles: UCLA Chicano Studies Resources Center, 1980.

1852 Devitt, Neal. "The Transition From Home to Hospital Birth in the United States, 1930-1960." BIRTH AND FAMILY JOURNAL 1, no.4 (Summer 1977): 45-58.

1853 Djerassi, Carl. THE POLITICS OF CONTRACEPTION. New York: Norton, 1979.

1854 Dobbie, B.M. Willmott. "An Attempt to Estimate the True Rate of Maternal Mortality, Sixteenth to Eighteenth Centuries." MEDICAL HISTORY 26 (January 1982): 79-89.

1855 Dodd, Dianne. "Women's Involvement in the Canadian Birth Control Movement of the 1930s: The Hamilton Clinic." In DELIVERING MOTHERHOOD: MATERNAL IDEOLOGIES AND PRACTICES IN THE 19TH AND 20TH CENTURIES, ed. by Katherine Arnup, Andree Levesque, and Ruth Roach Pierson, pp.150-172. New York: Routledge, 1990.

1856 Drucker, Dan. ABORTION DECISIONS OF THE SUPREME COURT, 1973 THROUGH 1989: A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW WITH HISTORICAL COMMENTARY. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1990.

1857 Dundes, Lauren. "The Evolution of Maternal Birthing Position." AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH 77 (May 1987): 636-641.

1858 Dutton, Diana B. "DES and the Elusive Goal of Drug Safety." In WORSE THAN THE DISEASE: PITFALLS OF MEDICAL PROGRESS, pp.31-90. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

1859 Dye, Nancy Schrom. "History of Childbirth in America." SIGNS 6, no.1 (Autumn 1980): 97-108. Review essay.

1860 Dye, Nancy Schrom. "Modern Obstetrics and Working-Class Women: The New York Midwifery Dispensary, 1890-1920." JOURNAL OF SOCIAL HISTORY 20 (Spring 1987): 549-564.

1861 Eagan, Andrea Boroff. "200 Years of Childbirth." PARENTS 60 (December 1985): 174+.

1862 Edwards, Margot, and Waldorf, Mary. RECLAIMING BIRTH: HISTORY AND HEROINES OF AMERICAN CHILDBIRTH REFORM. Freedom, CA: Crossing Press, 1984.

1863 Fenichell, Stephen, and Charfoos, Lawrence S. DAUGHTERS AT RISK: A PERSONAL D.E.S. HISTORY. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1981.

1864 Fildes, Valerie, ed. WOMEN AS MOTHERS IN PRE-INDUSTRIAL ENGLAND: ESSAYS IN MEMORY OF DOROTHY MCLAREN. New York: Routledge, 1990.

1865 Fitzpatrick, Ellen F. "Childbirth and an Unwed Mother in Seventeenth- Century New England." SIGNS 8 (1983): 744-749. Commentary on and text of a seventeenth-century document.

1866 Fox, Enid. "Powers of Life and Death: Aspects of Maternal Welfare in England and Wales Between the Wars." MEDICAL HISTORY 35 (1991): 328-352.

1867 Frankel, Barbara. CHILDBIRTH IN THE GHETTO: FOLK BELIEFS OF NEGRO WOMEN IN A NORTH PHILADELPHIA HOSPITAL WARD. San Francisco: R & E Research Associates, 1977.

1868 French, Valerie. "Midwives and Maternity Care in the Greco-Roman World." HELIOS 13, no.2 (Fall 1986): 69-84. In special issue, "Rescuing Creusa: New Methodological Approaches to Women in Antiquity."

1869 Fried, Marlene Gerber, ed. FROM ABORTION TO REPRODUCTIVE FREEDOM: TRANSFORMING A MOVEMENT. Boston: South End Press, 1990.

1870 Fuchs, Rachel G. POOR AND PREGNANT IN PARIS: STRATEGIES FOR SURVIVAL IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1992.

1871 Fuchs, Rachel G., and Knepper, Paul E. "Women in the Paris Maternity Hospital: Public Policy in the Nineteenth Century." SOCIAL SCIENCE HISTORY 13, no.2 (1989): 187-209.

1872 Furth, Charlotte. "Concepts of Pregnancy, Childbirth and Infancy in Ch'ing Dynasty China." JOURNAL OF ASIAN STUDIES 46 (February 1987): 7-37.

1873 Gelis, Jacques. HISTORY OF CHILDBIRTH: FERTILITY, PREGNANCY, AND BIRTH IN EARLY MODERN EUROPE. Boston, MA: Northeastern University Press, 1991.

1874 Gillam, Richard, and Bernstein, Barton J. "Doing Harm: The DES Tragedy and Modern American Medicine." PUBLIC HISTORIAN 9 (1987): 57-82.

1875 Gordon, Linda. "The Long Struggle for Reproductive Rights." RADICAL AMERICA 15, nos.1/2 (1981): 75-88.

1876 Gordon, Linda. "The Politics of Birth Control, 1920-1940: The Impact of Professionals." INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HEALTH SERVICES 5, no.2 (1975): 253-277.

1877 Gordon, Linda. "Voluntary Motherhood: The Beginnings of Feminist Birth Control Ideas in the United States." FEMINIST STUDIES 1, no.3/4 (Winter/Spring 1973): 5-22. Repr. in WOMEN AND HEALTH IN AMERICA: HISTORICAL READINGS, pp.104-116. Ed. by Judith Walzer Leavitt. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1984. Also repr. in CLIO'S CONSCIOUSNESS RAISED: NEW PERSPECTIVES ON THE HISTORY OF WOMEN, pp.54-71. Ed. by Mary S. Hartman and Lois Banner. New York: Harper & Row, 1974.

1878 Gordon, Linda. "Who is Frightened of Reproductive Freedom for Women and Why? Some Historical Answers." FRONTIERS: A JOURNAL OF WOMEN'S STUDIES 9, no.1 (1986): 23-26.

1879 Gordon, Linda. "Why Nineteenth-Century Feminists Did Not Support `Birth Control' and Twentieth-Century Feminists Do." In RETHINKING THE FAMILY, ed. by Barrie Thorne with Marilyn Yalom, pp.40-53. New York: Longman, 1982.

1880 Gordon, Linda. WOMAN'S BODY, WOMAN'S RIGHT: A SOCIAL HISTORY OF BIRTH CONTROL IN AMERICA. New York: Grossman, 1976; New York: Penguin, 1990. Rev. and updated ed.

1881 Green, Dorothy, and Murdock, Mary-Elizabeth, eds. THE MARGARET SANGER CENTENNIAL CONFERENCE, NOVEMBER 13 & 14, 1979. Northampton, MA: The Sophia Smith Collection, Smith College, 1982. Includes transcripts of presentations and discussions by Linda Gordon, James Reed, and Elizabeth Fee, plus summaries of other panels, on "the relationship between the history of the birth control movement and the issues surrounding the controversies concerning contemporary reproductive rights," with special attention paid to the role of Margaret Sanger.

1882 Green, Shirley. THE CURIOUS HISTORY OF CONTRACEPTION. London: Ebury Press, 1971.

1883 Greep, Roy O., and Koblinsky, Marjorie A. FRONTIERS IN REPRODUCTION AND FERTILITY CONTROL. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1977. Thirty-nine essays, plus eighteen historical summary charts.

1884 Greep, Roy O., Koblinsky, Marjorie A., and Jaffee, Frederick S. REPRODUCTION AND HUMAN WELFARE: A CHALLENGE TO RESEARCH: A REVIEW OF THE REPRODUCTIVE SCIENCES AND CONTRACEPTIVE DEVELOPMENT. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1976.

1885 Harding, Wendy. "Medieval Women's Unwritten Discourse in Motherhood: A Reading of Two Fifteenth-Century Texts." WOMEN'S STUDIES 21, no.2 (1992): 197-209.

1886 Harper, John Paull. "Be Fruitful and Multiply: Origins of Legal Restrictions on Planned Parenthood in Nineteenth-Century America." In WOMEN IN AMERICA: A HISTORY, ed. Carol R. Berkin and Mary Beth Norton, pp.245-269. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1979.

1887 Henderson, Andrea. "Doll Machines and Butcher-Shop Meat: Models of Childbirth in the Early Stages of Industrial Capitalism." GENDERS 12 (1991): 100-119.

1888 Hiddinga, Anja. "Obstetrical Research in the Netherlands in the Nineteenth Century." MEDICAL HISTORY 31 (July 1987): 281-305.

1889 Himes, Norman. MEDICAL HISTORY OF CONTRACEPTION. Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins, 1936; repr. New York: Schocken Books, 1970.

1890 Hoffert, Sylvia D. PRIVATE MATTERS: AMERICAN ATTITUDES TOWARD CHILDBEARING AND INFANT NURTURE IN THE URBAN NORTH, 1800-1860. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1988.

1891 Holmes, Helen B., Hoskins, Betty B., and Gross, Michael, eds. BIRTH CONTROL AND CONTROLLING BIRTH: WOMEN-CENTERED PERSPECTIVES. Clifton, NJ: Humana, 1980.

1892 Jarrell, R.H. "Native American Women and Forced Sterilization, 1973-1976." CADUCEUS 8, no.3 (Winter 1992): 45-58.

1893 Joffe, Carole. "Portraits of Three `Physicians of Conscience': Abortion Before Legalization in the United States." AMERICAN SEXUAL POLITICS: SEX, GENDER, AND RACE SINCE THE CIVIL WAR, ed. by John C. Fout & Maura Shaw Tantillo. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993.

1894 Jordan, Brigitte. BIRTH IN FOUR CULTURES. Montreal: Eden Press, 1978. Covers the American hospital, Dutch and Swedish midwifery, Mayan midwifery, and home births in Mexico.

1895 Katz, Esther. "The History of Birth Control in the United States." In HISTORY OF MEDICINE, ed. Rebecca Greene. New York: Haworth Press, 1988. Also published as TRENDS IN HISTORY 4, no.2-3 (1988): 81-101.

1896 Keown, John. ABORTION, DOCTORS AND THE LAW: SOME ASPECTS OF THE LEGAL REGULATION OF ABORTION IN ENGLAND FROM 1863-1982. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

1897 Kevles, Daniel J. IN THE NAME OF EUGENICS: GENETICS AND THE USES OF HUMAN HEREDITY. New York: Knopf, 1985.

1898 King, Charles R. "The New York Maternal Mortality Study: A Conflict of Professionalization." BULLETIN OF THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE 65 (1991): 476-502.

1899 King, Charles R. "The Woman's Experience of Childbirth on the Western Frontier." JOURNAL OF THE WEST 29, no.1 (1990): 76-84. Frontier women created their own support systems for pregnancy and childbirth.

1900 Laderman, Carol C. WIVES AND MIDWIVES: CHILDBIRTH AND NUTRITION IN RURAL MALAYSIA. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984. Ethnographic and ecological perspectives; blood and dietary analyses; how ecology and beliefs affect childbirth.

1901 Larson, Edward J. "Belated Progress: The Enactment of Eugenic Legislation in Georgia." JOURNAL OF THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE AND ALLIED SCIENCES 46 (1991): 44-64.

1902 Leavitt, Judith Walzer. "Birthing and Anesthesia: The Debate over Twilight Sleep." SIGNS 6, no.1 (Autumn 1980): 147-164. Repr. in WOMEN AND HEALTH IN AMERICA: HISTORICAL READINGS, pp.175-184. Ed. by Judith Walzer Leavitt. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1984.

1903 Leavitt, Judith Walzer. BROUGHT TO BED: CHILDBEARING IN AMERICA, 1750-1950. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.

1904 Leavitt, Judith Walzer. "The Growth of Medical Authority: Technology and Morals in Turn-of-the-Century Obstetrics." MEDICAL ANTHROPOLOGY QUARTERLY 1, no.3 (1987): 230-255.

1905 Leavitt, Judith Walzer. "The Medicalization of Childbirth in the Twentieth Century." TRANSACTIONS AND STUDIES OF THE COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS OF PHILADELPHIA Series 5, 11 (1989): 299-319.

1906 Leavitt, Judith Walzer. "`Science' Enters the Birthing Room: Obstetrics in America Since the Eighteenth Century." JOURNAL OF AMERICAN HISTORY 70, no.2 (September 1983): 281-304. Repr. in SICKNESS AND HEALTH IN AMERICA: READINGS IN THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH, pp.81-97. Ed. by Judith Walzer Leavitt & Ronald L. Numbers. 2nd ed. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985.

1907 Leavitt, Judith Walzer. "Under the Shadow of Maternity: American Women's Responses to Death and Debility Fears in Nineteenth-Century Childbirth." FEMINIST STUDIES 12 (Spring 1986): 129-154.

1908 Levesque, Andree. "Deviants Anonymous: Single Mothers at the Hospital de la Misericorde in Montreal, 1929-1939." In DELIVERING MOTHERHOOD: MATERNAL IDEOLOGIES AND PRACTICES IN THE 19TH AND 20TH CENTURIES, ed. by Katherine Arnup, Andree Levesque, and Ruth Roach Pierson, pp.108-125. New York: Routledge, 1990.

1909 Lewis, Jan, and Lockridge, Kenneth A. "`Sally Has Been Sick': Pregnancy and Family Limitation Among Virginia Gentry Women, 1780-1830." JOURNAL OF SOCIAL HISTORY 22 (Fall 1988): 5-20.

1910 Lewis, Jane. "The Ideology and Politics of Birth Control in Inter-war England." WOMEN'S STUDIES 2, no.1 (1979): 33-48.

1911 Lewis, Judith Schneid. IN THE FAMILY WAY: CHILDBEARING IN THE BRITISH ARISTOCRACY, 1760-1860. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1986.

1912 Lockwood, Rose Ann. "Birth, Illness, and Death in 18th-Century New England." JOURNAL OF SOCIAL HISTORY 12 (Fall 1978): 111-128.

1913 Logue, Barbara J. "The Case for Birth Control Before 1850: Nantucket Reexamined." JOURNAL OF INTERDISCIPLINARY HISTORY 15 (Winter 1985): 371-391.

1914 MacPike, Loralee. "The New Woman, Childbearing, and the Reconstruction of Gender, 1880-1900." NWSA JOURNAL 1 (Spring 1989): 368-397.

1915 Marshall, R.K. "17th Century Midwifery: The Treatment of Miscarriage." NURSING MIRROR 155, no.24 (December 15, 1982): 31-36.

1916 Martin, Emily. THE WOMAN IN THE BODY: A CULTURAL ANALYSIS OF REPRODUCTION. Boston: Beacon, 1987. See section two, "Science as a Cultural System." Martin, an anthropologist, compares medical metaphors for menstruation, childbirth, and menopause to women's own description of these events.

1917 Mathews, Joan J., and Zadak, Kathleen. "The Alternative Birth Movement in the United States: History and Current Status." WOMEN & HEALTH 17 (1991): 39-57.

1918 Mathews, Joan J., and Zadak, Kathleen. "The Alternative Birth Movement in the United States: History and Current Status." WOMEN & HEALTH 17, no.1 (1991): 39-56.

1919 McFalls, Joseph A., and Masnick, George S. "Birth Control and the Fertility of the U.S. Black Population, 1880 to 1980." JOURNAL OF FAMILY HISTORY 6 (1981): 89-106.

1920 McGregor, Deborah Kuhn. "`Childbirth-Travells' and `Spiritual Estates': Anne Hutchinson and Colonial Boston, 1634-1638." CADUCEUS 5, no.4 (1989): 1-33.

1921 McIntosh, Karyl. "Folk Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Pediatrics in Utica, New York." NEW YORK FOLKLORE 4 (1978): 49-59.

1922 McLaren, Angus, and McLaren, Arlene Tigar. THE BEDROOM AND THE STATE: THE CHANGING PRACTICES AND POLITICS OF CONTRACEPTION AND ABORTION IN CANADA, 1880-1980. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1986.

1923 McLaren, Angus. BIRTH CONTROL IN NINETEENTH CENTURY ENGLAND: A SOCIAL AND INTELLECTUAL HISTORY. New York: Holmes & Meier, 1978.

1924 McLaren, Angus, and McLaren, Arlene Tigar. "Discoveries and Dissimulations: The Impact of Abortion Deaths on Maternal Mortality in British Columbia." In DELIVERING MOTHERHOOD: MATERNAL IDEOLOGIES AND PRACTICES IN THE 19TH AND 20TH CENTURIES, ed. by Katherine Arnup, Andree Levesque, and Ruth Roach Pierson, pp.126-149. New York: Routledge, 1990.

1925 McLaren, Angus. A HISTORY OF CONTRACEPTION: FROM ANTIQUITY TO THE PRESENT DAY. Cambridge, MA: Basil Blackwell, 1990.

1926 McLaren, Angus. "`Keep Your Seats and Face Facts': Western Canadian Women's Discussion of Birth Control in the 1920s." CANADIAN BULLETIN OF MEDICAL HISTORY/ BULLETIN CANADIEN D'HISTOIRE DE LA MEDECINE 8 (1991): 189-201.

1927 McLaren, Angus. SEXUALITY AND SOCIAL ORDER: THE DEBATE OVER THE FERTILITY OF WOMEN AND WORKERS IN FRANCE, 1770-1920. New York: Holmes & Meier, 1983.

1928 McMillen, Sally G. MOTHERHOOD IN THE OLD SOUTH: PREGNANCY, CHILDBIRTH, AND INFANT REARING. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press, 1990.

1929 Melcher, Mary. "Women's Matters: Birth Control, Prenatal Care, and Childbirth in Rural Montana, 1910-1940." MONTANA, THE MAGAZINE OF WESTERN HISTORY 41, no.2 (Spring 1991): 47-56.

1930 Miller, Lawrence G. "Pain, Parturition, and the Profession: Twilight Sleep in America." In HEALTH CARE IN AMERICA: ESSAYS IN SOCIAL HISTORY, ed. by Susan Reverby & David Rosner, pp.19-44. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1979.

1931 Milligan, B. Carol. "Nursing Care and Beliefs of Expectant Navajo Women (Part 1)." AMERICAN INDIAN QUARTERLY 8, no.2 (1984): 83-101.

1932 Mitford, Jessica. THE AMERICAN WAY OF BIRTH. New York: Dutton/William Abrams, 1992.

1933 Mohr, James C. ABORTION IN AMERICA: THE ORIGINS AND EVOLUTION OF NATIONAL POLICY, 1800-1900. New York: Oxford University Press, 1978.

1934 Mohr, James C. "Patterns of Abortion and the Response of American Physicians, 1790-1930." In WOMEN AND HEALTH IN AMERICA: HISTORICAL READINGS, ed. by Judith Walzer Leavitt, pp.117-123. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1984.

1935 Morton, Marian J. AND SIN NO MORE: SOCIAL POLICY AND UNWED MOTHERS IN CLEVELAND, 1855-1990. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 1993.

1936 Murphy, John M. "`To Create a Race of Thoroughbreds': Margaret Sanger and `The Birth Control Review.'" WOMEN'S STUDIES IN COMMUNICATION 13 (1990): 23-45.

1937 Murphy-Lawless, Jo. "The Silencing of Women in Childbirth or Let's Hear It From Bartholomew and the Boys." WOMEN'S STUDIES INTERNATIONAL FORUM 11, no.4 (1988): 293-298.

1938 Nelson, Margaret K. "Working-Class Women, Middle-Class Women, and Models of Childbirth." SOCIAL PROBLEMS 30 (1983): 284-297.

1939 Neuman, R. "Working Class Birth Control in Wilhelmine Germany." COMPARATIVE STUDIES IN SOCIETY AND HISTORY 20 (1978): 408-428.

1940 Nicoll, Christine E., and Weisbord, Robert G. "The Early Years of the Rhode Island Birth Control League." RHODE ISLAND HISTORY 45 (November 1986): 111-125.

1941 Oakley, Ann. THE CAPTURED WOMB: A HISTORY OF THE MEDICAL CARE OF PREGNANT WOMEN. New York: B. Blackwell, 1984.

1942 Oppenheimer, Jo. "Childbirth in Ontario: The Transition from Home to Hospital in the Early Twentieth Century." In DELIVERING MOTHERHOOD: MATERNAL IDEOLOGIES AND PRACTICES IN THE 19TH AND 20TH CENTURIES, ed. by Katherine Arnup, Andree Levesque, and Ruth Roach Pierson, pp.51-74. New York: Routledge, 1990.

1943 Pereira-Pennisi, D. "Childbirth as Depicted in Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century Fiction in Britain." HISTORY OF NURSING BULLETIN 2, no.1 (1988): 8-16.

1944 Petchesky, Rosalind. "Antiabortion, Antifeminism, and the Rise of the New Right." FEMINIST STUDIES 7 (1981): 206-246.

1945 Poirier, Suzanne. "Women's Reproductive Health." In WOMEN, HEALTH, AND MEDICINE IN AMERICA: A HISTORICAL HANDBOOK, ed. by Rima D. Apple, pp.217-245. New York: Garland, 1990.

1946 Pollock, Linda A. "Embarking on a Rough Passage: The Experience of Pregnancy in Early-Modern Society." In WOMEN AS MOTHERS IN PRE-INDUSTRIAL ENGLAND: ESSAYS IN MEMORY OF DOROTHY MCLAREN, ed. Valerie Fildes, pp.39-67. New York: Routledge, 1990.

1947 Porges, Robert F. "The Response of the New York Obstetrical Society to the Report by the New York Academy of Medicine on Maternal Mortality, 1933-1934." AMERICAN JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY 152 (July 15, 1985): 642-649.

1948 Potts, Malcolm, Diggory, Peter, and Peel, John. ABORTION. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1977. Covers historical, sociological, clinical, demographic, and ethical aspects.

1949 Potts, Malcolm, and Wood, Clive, eds. NEW CONCEPTS IN CONTRACEPTION: A GUIDE TO DEVELOPMENTS IN FAMILY PLANNING. Baltimore, MD: University Park Press, 1972. Models for progress: United Kingdom, 1919-1959, and People's Republic of China, 1957-1971, etc.

1950 Powers, Marla N. "Menstruation and Reproduction: An Oglala Case." SIGNS 6 (1980): 54-65.

1951 Quiroga, Virginia A. Metaxas. POOR MOTHERS AND BABIES: A SOCIAL HISTORY OF CHILDBIRTH AND CHILD CARE INSTITUTIONS IN NINETEENTH-CENTURY NEW YORK CITY. New York: Garland, 1989.

1952 Radcliffe, Walter. MILESTONES IN MIDWIFERY. Bristol, England: Wright, 1967.

1953 Ramirez de Arellano, Annette B., and Seipp, Conrad. COLONIALISM, CATHOLICISM, AND CONTRACEPTION: A HISTORY OF BIRTH CONTROL IN PUERTO RICO. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1983.

1954 Ramusack, Barbara N. "Embattled Advocates: The Debate over Birth Control in India, 1920-1940." JOURNAL OF WOMEN'S HISTORY 1 (Fall 1989): 34-64.

1955 Ray, Joyce M. "American Physicians and Birth Control, 1936-1947." JOURNAL OF SOCIAL HISTORY 18 (Spring 1985): 399-411.

1956 Reagan, Leslie J. "`About to Meet Her Maker': Women, Doctors, Dying Declarations, and the State's Investigation of Abortion, Chicago, 1867-1940." JOURNAL OF AMERICAN HISTORY 77 (March 1991): 1240-1264.

1957 Reed, James. THE BIRTH CONTROL MOVEMENT AND AMERICAN SOCIETY: FROM PRIVATE VICE TO PUBLIC VIRTUE. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1983.

1958 Reed, James. "Doctors, Birth Control, and Social Values, 1830-1970." In THERAPEUTIC REVOLUTION: ESSAYS IN THE SOCIAL HISTORY OF HUMAN MEDICINE, ed. by Morris J. Vogel & Charles E. Rosenberg, pp.109-134. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1979. Repr. in WOMAN AND HEALTH IN AMERICA: HISTORICAL READINGS, pp.124-139. Ed. by Judith Walzer Leavitt. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1984.

1959 Reed, James. FROM PRIVATE VICE TO PUBLIC VIRTUE: THE BIRTH CONTROL MOVEMENT AND AMERICAN SOCIETY SINCE 1830. New York: Basic Books, 1978. Repr. as THE BIRTH CONTROL MOVEMENT IN AMERICAN SOCIETY. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1983.

1960 Reed, James. "Public Policy on Human Reproduction and the Historian." JOURNAL OF SOCIAL HISTORY 18 (Spring 1985): 383-398.

1961 Reilly, Philip R. "Involuntary Sterilization in the United States: A Surgical Solution." QUARTERLY REVIEW OF BIOLOGY 62 (1987): 153-170.

1962 Reilly, Philip R. THE SURGICAL SOLUTION: A HISTORY OF INVOLUNTARY STERILIZATION IN THE UNITED STATES. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1991.

1963 Reynolds, Sian. "Who Wanted the Crutches? Working Mothers and the Birth-rate in France, 1900-1950." CONTINUITY AND CHANGE: A JOURNAL OF SOCIAL STRUCTURE, LAW, AND DEMOGRAPHY IN PAST SOCIETIES 5 (1990). In the special issue: LAW AND SOCIAL POLICY: RESPONSES TO FERTILITY DECLINE IN EUROPE, 1900-1950.

1964 Riddle, John M. CONTRACEPTION AND ABORTION FROM THE ANCIENT WORLD TO THE RENAISSANCE. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1992.

1965 Riddle, John M. "Oral Contraceptives and Early-Term Abortifacients During Classical Antiquity and the Middle Ages." PAST & PRESENT 132 (August 1991): 3-32.

1966 Robertson, William H. AN ILLUSTRATED HISTORY OF CONTRACEPTION: A CONCISE ACCOUNT OF THE QUEST FOR FERTILITY CONTROL. Carnforth, England: Parthenon, 1990.

1967 Rodrique, Jessie M. "The Black Community and the Birth Control Movement." In PASSION AND POWER: SEXUALITY IN HISTORY, ed. Kathy Peiss and Christina Simmons. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1989.

1968 Rose, June. MARIE STOPES AND THE SEXUAL REVOLUTION. Boston, MA: Faber and Faber, 1992.

1969 Ross, Loretta J. "African-American Women and Abortion: A Neglected History." JOURNAL OF HEALTH CARE FOR THE POOR AND UNDERSERVED 3 (1992): 274-284.

1970 Rothman, Barbara Katz. IN LABOR: WOMEN AND POWER IN THE BIRTHPLACE. New York: Norton, 1982. 1984 Penguin ed. published as GIVING BIRTH: ALTERNATIVES IN CHILDBIRTH.

1971 Sakokwenonkas. "Pregnancies and the Mohawk Tradition." CANADIAN WOMAN STUDIES/ LES CAHIERS DE LA FEMME 10, nos.2/3 (Summer/Fall 1989): 115-116.

1972 Sandelowski, Margarete. "Failures of Volition: Female Agency and Infertility in Historical Perspectives." SIGNS 15 (Spring 1990): 475-499.

1973 Sandelowski, Margarete. PAIN, PLEASURE AND AMERICAN CHILDBIRTH: FROM THE TWILIGHT SLEEP TO THE READ METHOD, 1914-1960. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1984.

1974 Sauer, R. "Attitudes Toward Abortion in America, 1800-1973." POPULATION STUDIES 28, no.1 (March 1974): 53-67.

1975 Savage, Wendy. "The Management of Obstetric Pain." In THE HISTORY OF THE MANAGEMENT OF PAIN, FROM EARLY PRINCIPLES TO PRESENT PRACTICE, ed. Ronald D. Mann. Carnforth, England: Parthenon, 1988.

1976 Scholten, Catherine M. "`On the Importance of the Obstetric Art': Changing Customs of Childbirth in America, 1760-1825." WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY 34 (1977): 426-445. Repr. in WOMEN AND HEALTH IN AMERICA: HISTORICAL READINGS, pp.142-154. Ed. by Judith Walzer Leavitt. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1984.

1977 Scholten, Catherine M. CHILDBEARING IN AMERICAN SOCIETY, 1650-1850. New York: New York University Press, 1985.

1978 Seaman, Barbara, and Seaman, Gideon. WOMEN AND THE CRISIS IN SEX HORMONES. New York: Rawson Associates, 1977. Effects of hormone therapy; history and economics; marketing; lack of research on male contraceptives.

1979 Seligman, Stanley A. "The Lesser Pestilence: Non-Epidemic Puerperal Fever." MEDICAL HISTORY 35 (1991): 89-102.

1980 Shearer, Madeline H. "Maternity Patients' Movements in the United States 1820-1985." In EFFECTIVE CARE IN PREGNANCY AND CHILDBIRTH, ed. Iain Calmers, et al., pp.110-130. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.

1981 Silberman, Sara Lee. "Pioneering in Family-Centered Maternity and Infant Care: Edith B. Jackson and the Yale Rooming-In Research Project." BULLETIN OF THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE 64 (Summer 1990): 262-287.

1982 Smith-Rosenberg, Carroll. "The Abortion Movement and the AMA, 1850-1880." In DISORDERLY CONDUCT: VISIONS OF GENDER IN VICTORIAN AMERICA, pp.217-244. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.

1983 Soloway, Richard A. DEMOGRAPHY AND DEGENERATION: EUGENICS AND THE DECLINING BIRTHRATE IN TWENTIETH-CENTURY BRITAIN. North Carolina, 1990.

1984 Spensky, Martine. "Producers of Legitimacy: Homes for Unmarried Mothers in the 1950s." In REGULATING WOMANHOOD: HISTORICAL ESSAYS ON MARRIAGE, MOTHERHOOD AND SEXUALITY, ed. by Carol Smart, pp.100-118. New York: Routledge, 1992.

1985 Stowe, Steven M. "Obstetrics and the Work of Doctoring in the Mid- Nineteenth-Century American South." BULLETIN OF THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE 64 (Winter 1990): 540-566.

1986 Strong-Boag, Veronica, and McPherson, Kathryn. "The Confinement of Women: Childbirth and Hospitalization in Vancouver, 1919-1939." In DELIVERING MOTHERHOOD: MATERNAL IDEOLOGIES AND PRACTICES IN THE 19TH AND 20TH CENTURIES.

Alternative Health Systems (2006-2013)

Listed here are works on homeopathy, hydropathy, and other alternative health movements.

2006 Barlow, William, and Powell, David O. "A Case for Medical Coeducation in the 1870s." JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL WOMEN'S ASSOCIATION 35 (1980): 285-8. Gender issues in homeopathy education.

2007 Becker, Carl B. "Religious Healing in 19th Century `New Religions': The Cases of Tenrikyo and Christian Science." RELIGION 20 (July 1990): 199-216.

2008 Cayleff, Susan E. "Gender, Ideology and the Water-Cure Movement." In OTHER HEALERS: UNORTHODOX MEDICINE IN AMERICA, ed. Norman Gevitz, pp.82-98. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1988.

2009 Cayleff, Susan E. "Self-Help and the Patent Medicine Business." In WOMEN, HEALTH, AND MEDICINE IN AMERICA: A HISTORICAL HANDBOOK, ed. by Rima D. Apple, pp.311-336. New York: Garland, 1990.

2010 Cayleff, Susan E. WASH AND BE HEALED: THE WATER-CURE MOVEMENT AND WOMEN'S HEALTH. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1987.

2011 Donegan, Jane B. "HYDROPATHIC HIGHWAY TO HEALTH": WOMEN AND WATER- CURE IN ANTEBELLUM AMERICA. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1986.

2012 Mathews, Joan J., and Zadak, Kathleen. "The Alternative Birth Movement in the United States: History and Current Status." WOMEN & HEALTH 17, no.1 (1991): 39-56.

2013 Rogers, Naomi. "Women and Sectarian Medicine." In WOMEN, HEALTH, AND MEDICINE IN AMERICA: A HISTORICAL HANDBOOK, ed. by Rima D. Apple, pp.281-310. New York: Garland, 1990.

Other Health Issues (2014-2092)

This section collects citations on historical aspects of a variety of additional topics, such as body image, fitness and exercise, occupational health hazards, prostitution and health, the ideology of motherhood, and the nineteenth century health reform movement.

2014 Alpern, S. "Eating Disorders Among Women: An Historical Review of the Literature from a Women's History Perspective." AGRICULTURE AND HUMAN VALUES 7, no.3/4 (Summer/Autumn 1990): 47-55.

2015 Antler, Joyce. "Medical Women and Social Reform -- A History of the New York Infirmary for Women and Children." WOMEN & HEALTH 1, no.4 (July/August 1976): 11-15.

2016 Apple, Rima. MOTHERS AND MEDICINE: A SOCIAL HISTORY OF INFANT FEEDING, 1890-1950. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1987.

2017 Arnup, Katherine, Levesque, Andree, and Pierson, Ruth Roach, eds. DELIVERING MOTHERHOOD: MATERNAL IDEOLOGIES AND PRACTICES IN THE 19TH AND 20TH CENTURIES. New York: Routledge, 1990.

2018 Atkinson, Clarissa W. THE OLDEST VOCATION: CHRISTIAN MOTHERHOOD IN THE MIDDLE AGES. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1991. Especially chapter 2: "Physiological Motherhood," which provides a summary of medical and scientific theories of maternity.

2019 Atwater, Edward C. "Of Grandes Dames, Surgeons, and Hospitals: Batavia, New York, 1900-1940." JOURNAL OF THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE AND ALLIED SCIENCES 45 (July 1990): 414-451.

2020 Bale, Anthony. "Hope in Another Direction: Compensation for Work- Related Illness Among Women, 1900-1960." WOMEN & HEALTH 15 (1989): 99-115.

2021 Bale, Anthony. "Women's Toxic Experience." In WOMEN, HEALTH, AND MEDICINE IN AMERICA: A HISTORICAL HANDBOOK, ed. by Rima D. Apple, pp.411-439. New York: Garland, 1990.

2022 Banner, Lois W. AMERICAN BEAUTY. New York: Knopf, 1982. Examines health effects of beauty standards.

2023 Beardsley, Edward H. "Race as a Factor in Health." In WOMEN, HEALTH, AND MEDICINE IN AMERICA: A HISTORICAL HANDBOOK, ed. by Rima D. Apple, pp.121-140. New York: Garland, 1990.

2024 La Berge, Ann F. "Mothers and Infants, Nurses and Nursing: Alfred Donne and the Medicalization of Child-Care in Nineteenth-Century France." JOURNAL OF THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE AND ALLIED SCIENCES 46 (January 1991): 20-43.

2025 Brumberg, Joan Jacobs. FASTING GIRLS: THE EMERGENCE OF ANOREXIA NERVOSA AS A MODERN DISEASE. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1988.

2026 Buckley, Suzanne, and McGinnis, Janice Dickin. "Venereal Disease and Public Health Reform in Canada." CANADIAN HISTORICAL REVIEW 63 (September 1982): 337-354.

2027 Burnham, John C. "Medical Inspection of Prostitutes in America in the Nineteenth Century: The St. Louis Experiment and Its Sequel." BULLETIN OF THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE 45, no.3 (1971): 203-218.

2028 Clark, Claudia. "Physicians, Reformers and Occupational Disease: The Discovery of Radium Poisoning." WOMEN & HEALTH 12, no.2 (1987): 147-167.

2029 Clift, Elayne. "Goodbye to White Male Privilege: Women Challenge Health Care Research." ON THE ISSUES 21 (Winter 1991): 7-9.

2030 Conner, Susan P. "Politics, Prostitution, and the Pox in Revolutionary Paris, 1789-1799." WESTERN SOCIETY FOR FRENCH HISTORY 14 (November 1986): 183+.

2031 Deacon, Desley. "Taylorism in the Home: The Medical Profession, the Infant Welfare Movement and the Deskilling of Women." AUSTRALIAN AND NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF SOCIOLOGY 21, no.2 (1985): 161-173.

2032 Duden, Barbara. "History Beneath the Skin." MICHIGAN QUARTERLY REVIEW 30 (Winter 1991): 174-190.

2033 Dye, Nancy Schrom, and Smith, Daniel Blake. "Mother Love and Infant Death, 1750-1920." JOURNAL OF AMERICAN HISTORY 73 (1986): 329-53.

2034 Ferguson, Earline Rae. "The Woman's Improvement Club of Indianapolis: Black Women Pioneers in Tuberculosis Work, 1903-1938." INDIANA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 84, no.3 (1988): 237-261.

2035 Fildes, Valerie A. BREASTS, BOTTLES AND BABIES: A HISTORY OF INFANT FEEDING. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1986.

2036 Fildes, Valerie A. WET NURSING FROM ANTIQUITY TO THE PRESENT. Oxford, England: Basil Blackwell, 1988.

2037 Forster, Elborg. "From the Patient's Point of View: Illness and Health in the Letters of Liselotte von der Pfalz (1652-1722)." BULLETIN OF THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE 60 (1986): 297-320.

2038 Golden, Janet. "From Wet Nurse Directory to Milk Bank: The Delivery of Human Milk in Boston, 1909-1927." BULLETIN OF THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE 62 (1988): 589-605.

2039 Golden, Janet. "`Trouble in the Nursery': Physicians, Families and Wet Nurses at the End of the Nineteenth Century." In TO TOIL THE LIVELONG DAY: AMERICAN WOMEN AT WORK, 1790-1980, ed. by Carol Groneman and Mary Beth Norton, pp.125-137. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1987.

2040 Gordon, Bonnie. PHOSSY-JAW AND THE FRENCH MATCH WORKERS: OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND WOMEN IN THE THIRD REPUBLIC. New York: Garland, 1989.

2041 Gorham, Deborah, and Andrews, Florence Kellner. "The La Leche League: A Feminist Perspective." In DELIVERING MOTHERHOOD: MATERNAL IDEOLOGIES AND PRACTICES IN THE 19TH AND 20TH CENTURIES, ed. by Katherine Arnup, Andree Levesque, and Ruth Roach Pierson, pp.238-269. New York: Routledge, 1990.

2042 Gosling, F.G. "Dial Painters Project: Argonne National Laboratory's Documentation of Radium Hazards to Workers." LABOR'S HERITAGE 4, no.2 (Summer 1992): 64-77. Most of the workers were women and teenage girls.

2043 Harrison, Barbara. "`Some of Them Gets Lead Poisoned': Occupational Lead Exposure in Women, 1880-1914." SOCIAL HISTORY OF MEDICINE 2 (1989): 171-195.

2044 Heifetz, Ruth. "Women, Lead and Reproductive Hazards: Defining a New Risk." In DYING FOR WORK: WORKERS' SAFETY AND HEALTH IN TWENTIETH-CENTURY AMERICA, ed. by David Rosner and Gerald Markowitz, pp.160-176. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1987.

2045 Hoffer, Peter C., and Hull, N.E.H. MURDERING MOTHERS: INFANTICIDE IN ENGLAND AND NEW ENGLAND, 1558-1803. New York: New York University Press, 1981.

2046 Howe, H. "An Historical Review of Women, Smoking and Advertising." HEALTH EDUCATION 15, no.3 (May/June 1984): 3-9.

2047 Jalland, Pat, and Hooper, John, eds. WOMEN FROM BIRTH TO DEATH: THE FEMALE LIFE CYCLE IN BRITAIN, 1830-1914. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press International, 1986.

2048 Jones, Kathleen W. "Sentiment and Science: The Late Nineteenth Century Pediatrician as Mother's Advisor." JOURNAL OF SOCIAL HISTORY 17 (Fall 1983): 79-96.

2049 Kolata, Gina. "Wet-nursing Boom in England Explored (Research by Valerie Fildes)." SCIENCE 235 (February 1987): 745-747.

2050 Ladd-Taylor, Molly. RAISING A BABY THE GOVERNMENT WAY: MOTHERS' LETTERS TO THE CHILDREN'S BUREAU, 1915-1932. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1986.

2051 Ladd-Taylor, Molly. "Women's Health and Public Policy." In WOMEN, HEALTH, AND MEDICINE IN AMERICA: A HISTORICAL HANDBOOK, ed. by Rima D. Apple, pp.391-410. New York: Garland, 1990.

2052 Leavitt, Judith Walzer. "`Typhoid Mary' Strikes Back: Bacteriological Theory and Practice in Early Twentieth-Century Public Health." ISIS 83, no.4 (Dec. 1, 1992): 608-629.

2053 Leavitt, Judith Walzer, ed. WOMEN AND HEALTH IN AMERICA: HISTORICAL READINGS. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1984. Essays provide comprehensive overview of women as patients and practitioners. Very useful bibliography of secondary sources.

2054 Lewis, Jane. "`Motherhood Issues' in the Late Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries." In DELIVERING MOTHERHOOD: MATERNAL IDEOLOGIES AND PRACTICES IN THE 19TH AND 20TH CENTURIES, ed. by Katherine Arnup, Andree Levesque, & Ruth Roach Pierson, pp.1-19. New York: Routledge, 1990.

2055 Long, Diana E. "Moving Reprints: A Historian Looks at Sex Research Publications of the 1930s." JOURNAL OF THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE AND ALLIED SCIENCES 45 (1990): 452-468.

2056 Loudon, Irvine. "On Maternal and Infant Mortality 1900-1960." SOCIAL HISTORY OF MEDICINE 4 (1991): 29-73.

2057 Lynaugh, Joan E. "Institutionalizing Women's Health Care in Nineteenth- and Twentieth-Century America." In WOMEN, HEALTH, AND MEDICINE IN AMERICA: A HISTORICAL HANDBOOK, ed. by Rima D. Apple, pp.247-269. New York: Garland, 1990.

2058 Marieskind, Helen. "The Women's Health Movement." INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HEALTH SERVICES 5 (1975): 217-223.

2059 Marks, Lara. "`Dear Old Mother Levy's': The Jewish Maternity Home and Sick Room Help Society 1895-1939." SOCIAL HISTORY OF MEDICINE 3 (April 1990): 61-88. See also reply by Enid Fox in SOCIAL HISTORY OF MEDICINE 4, pp.117-122.

2060 Mitchell, Barbara J. "When the Wheels Began to Turn (Women and Cycling)." WOMEN'S SPORT & FITNESS 9 (March 1987): 14+

2061 Morantz, Regina Markell. "Making Women Modern: Middle-Class Women and Health Reform in 19th-Century America." JOURNAL OF SOCIAL HISTORY 10 (1977): 490-507. Repr. in WOMEN AND HEALTH IN AMERICA: HISTORICAL READINGS, pp.346-358. Ed. by Judith Walzer Leavitt. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1984.

2062 Morantz, Regina Markell. "Nineteenth Century Health Reform and Women: A Program of Self-Help." In MEDICINE WITHOUT DOCTORS: HOME HEALTH CARE IN AMERICAN HISTORY, ed. by Guenter B. Risse, Ronald L. Numbers, and Judith Walzer Leavitt, pp.73-93. New York: Science History Publications/USA, 1977.

2063 Nugent, Angela. "The Power to Define a New Disease: Epidemiological Politics and Radium Poisoning." In DYING FOR WORK: WORKERS' SAFETY AND HEALTH IN TWENTIETH-CENTURY AMERICA, ed. by David Rosner and Gerald Markowitz, pp.177-191. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1987.

2064 Numbers, Ronald L. PROPHETESS OF HEALTH: ELLEN G. WHITE AND THE ORIGIN OF SEVENTH-DAY ADVENTIST HEALTH REFORM. 1992. White was a founder of the Seventh-Day Adventist Church and a health reformer interested in vegetarianism, hydropathy, and the building of sanitariums. This is a revised and enlarged edition of PROPHETESS OF HEALTH: A STUDY OF ELLEN G. WHITE (1976), with a new psychological profile co-authored by Janet S. Numbers, and an introduction by Jonathan M Butler.

2065 Olasky, Marvin N. THE PRESS AND ABORTION, 1838-1988. Hillsdale, NJ: L. Erlbaum, 1988.

2066 Oudshoorn, Nelly. "On Measuring Sex Hormones: The Role of Biological Assays in Sexualizing Chemical Substances." BULLETIN OF THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE 64 (1990): 243-261. How endocrinologists during the 1920s and 1930s defined substances as male or female.

2067 Pauly, Philip J. "The Struggle for Ignorance About Alcohol: American Physiologists, Wilbur Olin Atwater, and the Woman's Christian Temperance Union." BULLETIN OF THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE 64 (1990): 366-392.

2068 Peterson, David. "Wife Beating: An American Tradition." JOURNAL OF INTERDISCIPLINARY HISTORY 23 (1992): 97-118.

2069 Punnett, Laura. "Women-Controlled Medicine -- Theory and Practice in Nineteenth Century Boston." WOMEN & HEALTH 1, no.4 (July/August 1976): 3-11.

2070 Retherford, Robert D. CHANGING SEX DIFFERENTIAL IN MORTALITY. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1975.

2071 Ruzek, Sheryl Burt. THE WOMEN'S HEALTH MOVEMENT: FEMINIST ALTERNATIVES TO MEDICAL CONTROL. New York: Praeger, 1978.

2072 Schwartz, Hillel. NEVER SATISFIED: A CULTURAL HISTORY OF DIETS, FANTASY, AND FAT. New York: Free Press, 1986.

2073 Seid, Roberta Pollack. NEVER TOO THIN: A HISTORY OF AMERICAN WOMEN'S OBSESSION WITH WEIGHT LOSS. New York: Prentice Hall Press, 1988.

2074 Sharpe, William D. "The New Jersey Radium Dial Painters: A Classic Case in Occupational Carcinogenesis." BULLETIN OF THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE 52 (1978): 560-70.

2075 Shorter, Edward. "The First Great Increase in Anorexia Nervosa." JOURNAL OF SOCIAL HISTORY 21, no.1 (1987): 69-96. Reportage increased throughout the 19th century and peaked around 1900.

2076 Silverstein, Brett. "Daughters of Ambition: High Incidence of Eating Disorders in Great Women of History." PSYCHOLOGY TODAY 25 (March/April 1992): 11.

2077 Smart, Carol, ed. REGULATING WOMANHOOD: HISTORICAL ESSAYS ON MARRIAGE, MOTHERHOOD AND SEXUALITY. New York: Routledge, 1992.

2078 Steen, M. "Historical Perspectives on Women and Mental Illness and Prevention of Depression in Women, Using a Feminist Framework." ISSUES IN MENTAL HEALTH NURSING 12, no.4 (October-December 1991): 359-374.

2079 Stovall, Mary E. "`To Be, to Do, and to Suffer': Responses to Illness and Death in the Nineteenth-Century Central South." JOURNAL OF MISSISSIPPI HISTORY 52 (May 1990): 95-110.

2080 Treckel, Paula A. "Breastfeeding and Maternal Sexuality in Colonial America." JOURNAL OF INTERDISCIPLINARY HISTORY 29 (1989): 25-52.

2081 Van Horn, Susan Householder. WOMEN, WORK, AND FERTILITY, 1900-1986. New York: New York University Press, 1988.

2082 Verbrugge, Lois M. "Pathways of Health and Death." In WOMEN, HEALTH, AND MEDICINE IN AMERICA: A HISTORICAL HANDBOOK, ed. by Rima D. Apple, pp.41-79. New York: Garland, 1990.

2083 Verbrugge, Martha H. ABLE-BODIED WOMANHOOD: PERSONAL HEALTH AND SOCIAL CHANGE IN NINETEENTH-CENTURY BOSTON. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988. Case study of health reform in Boston between 1830 and 1900. Examines three institutions that popularized physiology and exercise among middle-class women: The Ladies' Physiological Institute, Wellesley College, and the Boston Normal School of Gymnastics.

2084 Verbrugge, Martha H. "Knowledge and Power: Health and Physical Education for Women in America." In WOMEN, HEALTH, AND MEDICINE IN AMERICA: A HISTORICAL HANDBOOK, ed. by Rima D. Apple, pp.369-390. New York: Garland, 1990.

2085 Verbrugge, Martha H. "The Social Meaning of Personal Health: The Ladies' Physiological Institute of Boston and Vicinity in the 1850's." In HEALTH CARE IN AMERICA: ESSAYS IN SOCIAL HISTORY, ed. by Susan Reverby and David Rosner, pp.45-66. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1979. Covers 19th-century popular self-education in physiology and hygiene.

2086 Vertinsky, Patricia A. THE ETERNALLY WOUNDED WOMAN: WOMEN, DOCTORS, AND EXERCISE IN THE LATE NINETEENTH CENTURY. Manchester, UK; New York: Manchester University Press; distr. St. Martin's Press, 1990.

2087 Vertinsky, Patricia A. "Feminist Charlotte Perkins Gilman's Pursuit of Health and Physical Fitness as a Strategy for Emancipation." JOURNAL OF SPORT HISTORY 16, no.1 (1989): 5-26.

2088 Vertinsky, Patricia A. "God, Science and the Market Place: The Bases for Exercise Prescriptions for Females in Nineteenth Century North America." CANADIAN JOURNAL OF THE HISTORY OF SPORT 17, no.1 (1986): 38-44.

2089 Vertinsky, Patricia A. "Of No Use Without Health: Late Nineteenth Century Medical Prescriptions for Female Exercise Through the Life Span." WOMEN & HEALTH 14, no.1 (1988): 89-115.

2090 Webster, Charles, ed. BIOLOGY, MEDICINE, AND SOCIETY, 1840-1940. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981. See Brian Harrison's "Women's Health and the Women's Movement in Britain 1840-1940," Carol Dyhouse's "Working-class Mothers and Infant Mortality in England 1895-1940," and other papers.

2091 Weiss, Nancy Pottishman. "The Mother-Child Dyad Revisited: Perceptions of Mothers and Children in the Twentieth Century Child-Rearing Manuals." JOURNAL OF SOCIAL ISSUES 34, no.2 (Spring 1978): 29-45.

2092 Williams, Perry. "The Laws of Health: Women, Medicine and Sanitary Reform, 1850-1890." In SCIENCE AND SENSIBILITY: GENDER AND SCIENTIFIC ENQUIRY, 1780-1945, ed. by Marina Benjamin, pp.60-88. Cambridge, MA: Basil Blackwell, 1991.

Home Economics -- Domestic Science

Home Economics - Domestic Science (2093-2218)

Home economics covers both the influence of science and technology on women's work in the home (particularly the introduction of "labor-saving devices") and the development of the discipline of Home Economics (known alternatively as Domestic Science, Family Resources, Consumer Sciences, and other names). The home economics movement attempted to apply scientific principles and discoveries to domestic labor. Because the home economics movement shares some roots with the ecology movement, additional relevant works may be found in the section NATURAL, BIOLOGICAL, AND LIFE SCIENCES. Some material on nutrition is cited in the CHEMISTRY section.

This section is divided into three subsections:
Reference (2093-2095)
General (2096-2194)
Biographies and Studies of Individuals (2195-2218)

REFERENCE

2093 Glazer-Malbin, Nona. "Housework." SIGNS 1, no.4 (Summer 1976): 905-922. Review essay.

2094 Huls, Mary Ellen. UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT DOCUMENTS ON WOMEN 1800-1990: A COMPREHENSIVE BIBLIOGRAPHY. VOLUME I: SOCIAL ISSUES. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1993. Chapter seven "Homemaking and Home Economics Education" (pp.130-144) is a selected annotated bibliography of government publications on home economics issued during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

2095 JOURNAL OF WOMEN'S HISTORY GUIDE TO PERIODICAL LITERATURE, Gayle V. Fischer, comp. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1992. See bibliographies in the sections headed "Material and Popular Culture" (especially "Crafts/Quilts/Embroidery," "Fashion/Textiles/Beauty Culture," "Food," "Science and Technology") and "Work" (especially "Housework," "Crafts, Trades, and Home-Based Work") for citations relevant to home economics and domestic science.

GENERAL

2096 Anderson, Edna Page, East, Marjorie, and Thomson, Joan, eds. DEFINITIVE THEMES IN HOME ECONOMICS AND THEIR IMPACT ON FAMILIES, 1909-1984. Washington, DC: American Home Economics Association, 1987.

2097 Andrews, William D., and Andrews, Deborah C. "Technology and the Housewife in 19th Century America." WOMEN'S STUDIES 2, no.3 (1974): 309-328.

2098 Arnold, Eleanor. VOICES OF AMERICAN HOMEMAKERS. Rushville, IN: National Extension Homemakers Council, 1986. Household technology is one of the topics discussed.

2099 Arnold, Eleanor, ed. BUGGIES AND BAD TIMES: MEMORIES OF HOOSIER HOMEMAKERS. Indianapolis: Indiana Extension Homemakers Association, 1985.

2100 Arnold, Eleanor, ed. PARTY LINES, PUMPS AND PRIVIES: MEMORIES OF HOOSIER HOMEMAKERS. Indianapolis: Indiana Extension Homemakers Association, 1984.

2101 Attar, Dena. "Now You See It, Now You Don't: The History of Home Economics - A Study in Gender." In POLICIES FOR THE CURRICULUM, ed. by Bob Moon, et al., pp.131-146. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1989.

2102 Attar, Dena. WASTING GIRLS' TIME: THE HISTORY AND POLITICS OF HOME ECONOMICS. London: Virago, 1990.

2103 Bailey, Lena, and Davis, Beulah Sellers, eds. SEVENTY SIGNIFICANT LEADERS IN HOME ECONOMICS TEACHER EDUCATION. Washington: American Home Economics Association, 1982.

2104 Baldwin, E.E. "The Home Economics Movement: A `New' Integrative Paradigm." JOURNAL OF HOME ECONOMICS 83, no.4 (Winter 1991): 42-49.

2105 Baldwin, Keturah E. THE AHEA SAGA, A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE AMERICAN HOME ECONOMICS ASSOCIATION AND A GLIMPSE AT THE GRASS ROOTS FROM WHICH IT GREW. Washington, DC: American Home Economics Association, 1949.

2106 Barber, Mary L., ed. HISTORY OF THE AMERICAN DIETETIC ASSOCIATION, 1917-1959. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1959.

2107 Beaudry, M. DOMESTIC PURSUITS: HISTORICAL ARCHAEOLOGY OF AMERICAN HOUSEHOLDS. St. Louis, MO: CRC, 1993.

2108 Berch, Bettina. "Scientific Management in the Home: The Empress's New Clothes." JOURNAL OF AMERICAN CULTURE 3 (Fall 1980): 440-445.

2109 Berk, Sarah Fenstermaker. WOMEN AND HOUSEHOLD LABOR. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, 1980.

2110 Betters, Paul Vernon. THE BUREAU OF HOME ECONOMICS; ITS HISTORY, ACTIVITIES AND ORGANIZATION. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 1930; repr. New York, AMS Press, 1974.

2111 Blackwelder, Julia Kirk. "Mop and Typewriter: Women's Work in Early Twentieth-Century Atlanta." ATLANTA HISTORY JOURNAL (Fall 1983): 21-30.

2112 Boris, Eileen. "Homework and Women's Rights: The Case of the Vermont Knitters 1980-1985." SIGNS 13 (Autumn 1987): 98-120.

2113 Bose, Christine E., Bereano, Philip L., and Malloy, Mary. "Household Technology and the Social Construction of Housework." TECHNOLOGY AND CULTURE 25, no.1 (January 1984): 53-90.

2114 Bose, Christine E. "Technology and Changes in the Division of Labor in the American Home." WOMEN'S STUDIES INTERNATIONAL QUARTERLY 2, no.3 (1979): 295-304.

2115 Boydston, Jeanne. HOME AND WORK: HOUSEWORK, WAGES, AND THE IDEOLOGY OF LABOR IN THE EARLY REPUBLIC. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.

2116 Brown, Marjorie M. PHILOSOPHICAL STUDIES OF HOME ECONOMICS IN THE UNITED STATES: OUR PRACTICAL-INTELLECTUAL HERITAGE. East Lansing, MI: College of Human Ecology, Michigan State University, 1985. 2 vol.

2117 Burton, June K., and Johnson, Mary. "The Contents of Humanistic Manuals of Home Economics and Sex During the Napoleonic Era." CONSORTIUM ON REVOLUTIONARY EUROPE 1750-1850: Proceedings 1983: 681-696. Instructional manuals for French women on household management, childrearing, health, sex, and care of livestock provide insights into views of womanhood and the family during the Napoleonic era.

2118 Bushman, Richard L., and Bushman, Claudia L. "The Early History of Cleanliness in America." JOURNAL OF AMERICAN HISTORY 74 (March 1988): 1213-1238.

2119 Cahn, Susan. INDUSTRY OF DEVOTION: THE TRANSFORMATION OF WOMEN'S WORK IN ENGLAND, 1500-1660. New York: Columbia University Press, 1987.

2120 Carrell, Kimberly W. "The Industrial Revolution Comes to the Home: Kitchen Design Reform and Middle-Class Women." JOURNAL OF AMERICAN CULTURE (Fall 1979): 488-499.

2121 Carroll, William K., and Warburton, Rennie. "Feminism, Class Consciousness and Household-Work Linkages Among Registered Nurses in Victoria." LABOR/LE TRAVAIL 24 (Fall 1989): 131-146.

2122 Cebotarev, E. A. "Women's Contribution to Agricultural Science and Technology." RESOURCES FOR FEMINIST RESEARCH/DOCUMENTATION SUR LA RECHERCHE FEMINISTE 15, no.3 (November 1986): 43-45.

2123 Chaudhuri, Nupur. "Good Homemakers Make Good Neighbors." KANSAS QUARTERLY 18, no.3 (1986): 53-63.

2124 Cowan, Ruth Schwartz. "A Case Study of Technology and Social Change: The Washing Machine and the Working Wife." In CLIO'S CONSCIOUSNESS RAISED: NEW PERSPECTIVES ON THE HISTORY OF WOMEN, ed. by Mary Hartmann and Lois Banner, 245-253. New York: Harper & Row, 1974.

2125 Cowan, Ruth Schwartz. "The `Industrial Revolution' in the Home: Household Technology and Social Change in the Twentieth Century." TECHNOLOGY AND CULTURE 17, no.1 (January 1976): 1-23. Repr. in DYNAMOS AND VIRGINS REVISITED: WOMEN AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE IN HISTORY, ed. by Martha Moore Trescott, pp.205-232. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow, 1979.

2126 Cowan, Ruth Schwartz. "Less Work for Mother?" AMERICAN HERITAGE OF INVENTION AND TECHNOLOGY 2, no.3 (1987): 57-64.

2127 Cowan, Ruth Schwartz. MORE WORK FOR MOTHER: THE IRONIES OF HOUSEHOLD TECHNOLOGY FROM THE OPEN HEARTH TO THE MICROWAVE. New York: Basic Books, 1983. Includes excellent bibliography.

2128 Cowan, Ruth Schwartz. "Two Washes in the Morning and a Bridge Party at Night: The American Housewife Between the Wars." WOMEN'S STUDIES 3, no.2 (1976): 147-172.

2129 Cowan, Ruth Schwartz. "Women and Technology in American Life." In TECHNOLOGY AT THE TURNING POINT, ed. by William B. Pickett, pp.23-33. San Francisco: San Francisco Press, 1977.

2130 Craig, Hazel Thompson. THE HISTORY OF HOME ECONOMICS. New York: Practical Home Economics, 1945. Ed. by Blanche M. Stover.

2131 Dare, Salle. "Consuming Science: Food Preparation and Women's Role." RESOURCES FOR FEMINIST RESEARCH/DOCUMENTATION SUR LA RECHERCHE FEMINISTE 15, no.3 (November 1986): 53-56.

2132 Davidson, Caroline. A WOMAN'S WORK IS NEVER DONE: A HISTORY OF HOUSEWORK IN THE BRITISH ISLES, 1650-1950. London: Chatto & Windus, 1982.

2133 Dickie, Ruth S. "Women and Cooperative Home Economics Extension." In UNIVERSITY WOMEN, ed. by Marian J. Swoboda and Audrey J. Roberts, vol.2, pp. 89-100. Madison, WI: Office of Women, University of Wisconsin System, 1980.

2134 Donham, S. Agnes. THE EASTERN MASSACHUSETTS HOME ECONOMICS ASSOCIATION, FORMERLY THE NEW ENGLAND HOME ECONOMICS ASSOCIATION, THE FIRST FORTY-THREE YEARS, 1909-1952. Boston: Eastern Massachusetts Home Economics Association, 1954. Has interesting introduction describing the growth of the home economics movement in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

2135 Douglas, Diane M. "The Machine in the Parlor: A Dialectical Analysis of the Sewing Machine." JOURNAL OF AMERICAN CULTURE 5 (Spring 1982): 20-29.

2136 Du Vall, Nell. DOMESTIC TECHNOLOGY: A CHRONOLOGY OF DEVELOPMENTS. Boston, MA: G.K. Hall, 1988.

2137 Dudden, Faye E. SERVING WOMEN: HOUSEHOLD SERVICE IN NINETEENTH- CENTURY AMERICA. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 1983. See especially the section on "New Conveniences and Higher Standards," pp.126-147.

2138 Dye, Marie, ed. HOME ECONOMICS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO, 1892-1956. Chicago: Home Economics Alumni Association, 1972.

2139 East, Marjorie. HOME ECONOMICS: PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE. Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 1980.

2140 Ehrenreich, Barbara, and English, Deirdre. FOR HER OWN GOOD: 150 YEARS OF THE EXPERTS' ADVICE TO WOMEN. New York: Doubleday, 1979. See especially chapter 2, "Witches, Healers, and Gentlemen Doctors," chapter 3, "Science and the Ascent of the Experts," and chapter 4, "The Sexual Politics of Sickness."

2141 Foster, Thomas. "History, Critical Theory, and Women's Social Practices: `Women's Time' and Housekeeping." SIGNS 14 (Autumn 1988): 73-99.

2142 Fox, Bonnie J. "Selling the Mechanized Household: 70 Years of Ads in LADIES HOME JOURNAL." GENDER & SOCIETY 4 (March 1990): 25-40.

Franklin, Linda Campbell. THE OFFICIAL FROM HEARTH TO COOK STOVE: AN AMERICAN DOMESTIC HISTORY OF GADGETS AND UTENSILS MADE OR USED IN AMERICA FROM 1700 TO 1930. Orlando: House of Collectibles, 1985. 3rd ed. Rev. ed. of FROM HEARTH TO COOK STOVE (2nd ed., 1978). Historical dictionary of kitchen equipment.

2143 Garrett, Elisabeth Donaghy. AT HOME: THE AMERICAN FAMILY, 1750-1870. New York: H.N. Abrams, 1990.

2144 Giedion, Siegfried. MECHANIZATION TAKES COMMAND: A CONTRIBUTION TO ANONYMOUS HISTORY. New York: Oxford University Press, 1948. See esp. pp.512-627, "Mechanization Encounters the Household."

2145 Gilman, Amy. "`Cogs to the Wheels': The Ideology of Women's Work in Mid-Nineteenth-Century Fiction." SCIENCE AND SOCIETY 47 (Summer 1983): 178-204.

2146 Green, Harvey. THE LIGHT OF THE HOME: AN INTIMATE VIEW OF THE LIVES OF WOMEN IN VICTORIAN AMERICA. New York: Pantheon, 1983.

2147 Green, Nancy. "Remembering Lucy Flower Tech: Black Students in an All-Girl School." CHICAGO HISTORY 14, no.3 (1985): 46-57.

2148 Hayden, Dolores. THE GRAND DOMESTIC REVOLUTION: A HISTORY OF FEMINIST DESIGNS FOR AMERICAN HOMES, NEIGHBORHOODS, AND CITIES. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1981.

2149 Hayden, Dolores. REDESIGNING THE AMERICAN DREAM: THE FUTURE OF HOUSING, WORK, AND FAMILY LIFE. New York: Norton, 1984. Despite title, significant historical content, especially in part I, "The Evolution of American Housing," pp.3-59.

2150 Hayden, Dolores. "Two Utopian Feminists and Their Campaigns for Kitchenless Houses." SIGNS 4 (Winter 1978): 274-290.

2151 Hobbs, Margaret, and Pierson, Ruth Roach. "A Kitchen That Wastes No Steps: Gender, Class and the Home Improvement Plan, 1936-1940." HISTOIRE SOCIALE/SOCIAL HISTORY 21 (May 1988): 9-38.

2152 Hoffschwelle, Mary S. "The Science of Domesticity: Home Economics at George Peabody College for Teachers, 1914-1939." THE JOURNAL OF SOUTHERN HISTORY 57, no.4 (November 1991): 659-680.

2153 Hoy, Suellen M. "Municipal Housekeeping: The Role of Women in Improving Urban Sanitation Practices, 1880-1917." In POLLUTION AND REFORM IN AMERICAN CITIES 1870-1930, ed. by Martin V. Melosi, pp.173-198. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1980.

2154 See insert above, at Franklin.

2155 Jensen, Joan M. "Buttermaking and Economic Development in Mid- Atlantic America from 1750 to 1850." SIGNS 13 (Summer 1988): 813-829.

2156 Jensen, Joan M. "Cloth, Butter and Boarders: Women's Household Production for the Market." THE REVIEW OF RADICAL POLITICAL ECONOMICS 12 (Summer 1980): 14-24.

2157 Katzman, David M. SEVEN DAYS A WEEK: WOMEN AND DOMESTIC SERVICE IN INDUSTRIALIZING AMERICA. New York: Oxford University Press, 1978.

2158 Kleinberg, Susan J. "Technology and Women's Work: The Lives of Working Class Women in Pittsburgh, 1870-1900." LABOR HISTORY 17, no.1 (Winter 1976): 58-72. Repr. in DYNAMOS AND VIRGINS REVISITED: WOMEN AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE, ed. by Martha Moore Trescott, pp.185-204. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow, 1979.

2159 Kleinegger, Christine. "Out of the Barns and Into the Kitchens: Transformations in Farm Women's Work in the First Half of the 20th Century." In WOMEN, WORK AND TECHNOLOGY: TRANSFORMATIONS, ed. Barbara Drygulski Wright et al. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1987.

2160 Lopate, Carol. "Ironies of the Home Economics Movement." EDCENTRIC no.31/32 (November 1974): 40-42, 56.

2161 MacKenzie, Donald, and Wajcman, Judy. THE SOCIAL SHAPING OF TECHNOLOGY: HOW THE REFRIGERATOR GOT ITS HUM. Philadelphia: Open University Press, 1985. Section on "Domestic Technology," pp.173-222, includes Ruth Schwartz Cowan's "The Industrial Revolution in the Home" and "How the Refrigerator Got Its Hum," and Moyra Doorly's "A Woman's Place: Dolores Hayden on the `Grand Domestic Revolution'."

2162 Matthews, Glenna. "JUST A HOUSEWIFE": THE RISE AND FALL OF DOMESTICITY IN AMERICA. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.

2163 McBride, Theresa M. THE DOMESTIC REVOLUTION: THE MODERNIZATION OF HOUSEHOLD SERVICE IN ENGLAND AND FRANCE, 1820-1920. London: Croom Helm, 1976.

2164 Motz, Marilyn Ferris, and Browne, Pat, eds. MAKING THE AMERICAN HOME: MIDDLE-CLASS WOMEN & DOMESTIC MATERIAL CULTURE, 1840-1940. Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 1988. Includes essays on domestic arts and consumption.

2165 Nerad, Maresi. "Gender Stratification in Higher Education: The Department of Home Economics at the University of California, Berkeley 1916-1962." WOMEN'S STUDIES INTERNATIONAL FORUM 10, no.2 (1987): 157-164.

2166 Nolan, Mary. "`Housework Made Easy': The Taylorized Housewife in Weimar Germany's Rationalized Economy." FEMINIST STUDIES 16 (Fall 1990): 549-578.

2167 Oakley, Ann. WOMAN'S WORK: THE HOUSEWIFE, PAST AND PRESENT. New York: Pantheon, 1974.

2168 Ogburn, William F., and Umkoff, Meyer Francis. TECHNOLOGY AND THE CHANGING FAMILY. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1955.

2169 Ogden, Annegret S. THE GREAT AMERICAN HOUSEWIFE: FROM HELPMATE TO WAGE EARNER, 1776-1986. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1986. See chapter 5, "From Scientist to Consumer, 1900-1950," pp.135-170.

2170 Palmer, Phyllis. DOMESTICITY AND DIRT: HOUSEWIVES AND DOMESTIC SERVANTS IN THE UNITED STATES, 1920-1945. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1990. Describes the cultural ideals for housewifery and domestic labor during this period.

2171 Primeau, L.A. "A Woman's Place: Unpaid Work in the Home." AMERICAN JOURNAL OF OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY 46, no.11 (November 1992): 981-988. Summary of feminist theory and research on household work, including historical dimensions.

2172 Pundt, Helen. AHEA, A HISTORY OF EXCELLENCE. Washington, DC: American Home Economics Association, 1980.

2173 Ravetz, Alison. "Modern Technology and an Ancient Occupation: Housework in Present Day Society." TECHNOLOGY AND CULTURE 6, no.2 (Spring 1965): 256-260.

2174 Ravetz, Alison. "The Victorian Coal Kitchen and Its Reformers." VICTORIAN STUDIES 11, no.4 (1968): 435-460.

2175 Robinson, John P. "Household Technology and Housework." In WOMEN AND HOUSEHOLD LABOR, ed. by Sarah Berk Fenstermaker, pp.53-67. Beverly Hills: Sage, 1980.

2176 Rothschild, Joan. "Technology, Housework, and Women's Liberation: A Theoretical Analysis." In MACHINA EX DEA: FEMINIST PERSPECTIVES ON TECHNOLOGY, ed. by Joan Rothschild, pp.79-93. New York: Pergamon, 1983.

2177 Rothschild, Joan. "Technology, `Women's Work,' and the Social Control of Women." In WOMEN, POWER, AND POLITICAL SYSTEMS, ed. by Margherita Rendel, pp.160-183. New York: St. Martin's, 1981. Explains how reproductive and household technologies have enhanced the power of patriarchy and capitalism.

2178 Rury, John L. "Vocationalism for Home and Work: Women's Education in the United States, 1880-1930." In THE SOCIAL HISTORY OF AMERICAN EDUCATION, ed. by B.E. McClellan and W.J. Reese, pp.233-256. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1988.

2179 Russell, Loris S. HANDY THINGS TO HAVE AROUND THE HOUSE. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 1979. Discussion of 19th-century household technology.

2180 Saidak, Patricia. "Home Economics as an Academic Science." RESOURCES FOR FEMINIST RESEARCH/DOCUMENTATION SUR LA RECHERCHE FEMINISTE 15, no.3 (November 1986): 49-51.

2181 Seymour, John. FORGOTTEN HOUSEHOLD ARTS: A PORTRAIT OF THE WAY WE ONCE LIVED. New York: Knopf, 1987.

2182 Shapiro, Laura. PERFECTION SALAD: WOMEN AND COOKING AT THE TURN OF THE CENTURY. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1986.

2183 Stone, May N. "The Plumbing Paradox: American Attitudes toward Late Nineteenth-Century Domestic Sanitary Arrangements." WINTERTHUR PORTFOLIO 14 (Autumn 1979): 283-310.

2184 Strasser, Susan. "An Enlarged Human Existence? Technology and Household Work in 19th-Century America." In WOMEN AND HOUSEHOLD LABOR, ed. by Sarah Berk Fenstermaker, pp.29-51. Beverly Hills: Sage, 1980.

2185 Strasser, Susan. NEVER DONE: A HISTORY OF AMERICAN HOUSEWORK. New York: Pantheon, 1982. Illustrated. Excellent bibliography.

2186 Thompson, Patricia J. "Home Economics: Feminism in a Hestian Voice." In THE KNOWLEDGE EXPLOSION: GENERATIONS OF FEMINIST SCHOLARSHIP, ed. Cheris Kramarae & Dale Spender, pp.270-280. New York: Teachers College Press, 1992. Reviews impact of feminism on home economics since the late 1960s.

2187 Thomson, Ross. "Learning by Selling and Invention: The Case of the Sewing Machine." JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC HISTORY 47 (June 1987): 433-446.

2188 Thrall, Charles. "The Conservative Use of Modern Household Technology." TECHNOLOGY AND CULTURE 23, no.2 (April 1982): 175-194.

2189 Vanek, Joan. "Household Technology and Social Status: Rising Standards of Living and Status and Residence Differences." TECHNOLOGY AND CULTURE 19, no.3 (July 1978): 361-375.

2190 Warren, Charline J. AN OFFICIAL HISTORY OF NATIONAL EXTENSION HOMEMAKERS COUNCIL, INC., 1930-1990. Burlington, KY: National Extension Homemakers Council, 1991.

2191 WE ARE TOMORROW'S PAST: HISTORY OF THE CANADIAN HOME ECONOMICS ASSOCIATION. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Home Economics Association, 1989.

2192 Weigley, Emma S. "It Might Have Been Euthenics: The Lake Placid Conference and the Home Economics Movement." AMERICAN QUARTERLY 26, no.1 (March 1974): 79-96.

2193 Wright, Gwendolyn. MORALISM AND THE MODEL HOME: DOMESTIC ARCHITECTURE AND CULTURAL CONFLICT IN CHICAGO, 1873-1913. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980.

2194 Yarwood, Doreen. FIVE HUNDRED YEARS OF TECHNOLOGY IN THE HOME. London: B.T. Batsford, 1983.

BIOGRAPHIES AND STUDIES OF INDIVIDUALS

NOTE: Together, NOTABLE AMERICAN WOMEN and NOTABLE AMERICAN WOMEN: THE MODERN PERIOD provide biographies of thirty women active in the home economics movement. The entries under "Home Economists" include references to biographical articles and pamphlets additional to those cited below. WOMEN IN PARTICULAR: AN INDEX TO AMERICAN WOMEN, by Kali Herman (Phoenix: Oryx, 1984) points to further biographical information on 92 women in the "Domestic Science and Home Economics" index.

2195 Bane, Lita. THE STORY OF ISABEL BEVIER. Peoria, IL: Charles A. Bennett, 1955.

2196 Bing, Franklin C. "Lydia Jane Roberts - A Biographical Sketch." JOURNAL OF NUTRITION 93, no.1 (September 1967): 1-13. Roberts was a nutritionist and home economics educator.

2197 Clark, Ava Milan, and Munford, J. Kenneth. ADVENTURES OF A HOME ECONOMIST. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Press, 1969. Clark was one of the leaders in the home economics movement in the first half of the 20th century.

2198 Cowan, Ruth Schwartz. "Ellen Swallow Richards: Technology and Women." In TECHNOLOGY IN AMERICA: A HISTORY OF INDIVIDUALS AND IDEAS, ed. Carroll W. Pursell, Jr. 1st ed. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1981. 2nd ed. 1990. pp.142-150.

2199 Cravens, Hamilton. "Establishing the Science of Nutrition at the USDA: Ellen Swallow Richards and Her Allies." AGRICULTURAL HISTORY 64, no.2 (Spring 1990): 122-133. In thematic issue on the history of the United States Department of Agriculture.

2200 Crowley, Terry A. "Madonnas Before Magdalenes: Adelaide Hoodless and the Making of the Canadian Gibson Girl." CANADIAN HISTORICAL REVIEW 67, no.4 (1986): 520-547. Assesses career of a Canadian advocate of home economics education.

2201 DeZwart, M.L. "Proving Its Worth: Jessie McLenaghen and Home Economics in British Columbia." CANADIAN HOME ECONOMICS JOURNAL 41, no.3 (Summer 1991): 134-139.

2202 Eagles, Juanita Archibald, Pye, Orien Florence, and Taylor, Clara Mae. MARY SWARTZ ROSE, 1874-1941, PIONEER IN NUTRITION. New York: Teachers College Press, 1979.

2203 East, Marjorie. CAROLYN HUNT: PHILOSOPHER FOR HOME ECONOMICS. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University, Division of Occupational and Vocational Studies, 1982.

2204 Ewan, Gail. "Agnes Higgins, Nutritionist, 1911-1985, and the Montreal Diet Dispensary." RESOURCES FOR FEMINIST RESEARCH v.15, no.3 (1986): 48-49.

2205 Hayden, Dolores. "Charlotte Perkins Gilman and the Kitchenless House." RADICAL HISTORY REVIEW 21 (Fall 1979): 225-247.

2206 HOME ECONOMISTS: PORTRAITS AND BRIEF BIOGRAPHIES OF THE MEN AND WOMEN PROMINENT IN THE HOME ECONOMICS MOVEMENT IN THE UNITED STATES. Baltimore: American Home Economics Association, 1929.

2207 Huddleson, Mary P. "Sarah Tyson Rorer -- Pioneer in Applied Nutrition." JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN DIETETIC ASSOCIAITON 26 (1950): 321-324. Repr. in ESSAYS ON HISTORY OF NUTRITION AND DIETETICS, pp.280-283. Ed. by Adelia M. Beeuwkes, E. Neige Todhunter, and Emma Seifrit Weigley. Chicago: American Dietetic Association, 1967.

2208 Hunt, Caroline L. THE LIFE OF ELLEN H. RICHARDS. Boston: Whitcomb & Barrows, 1912. This biography of Richards (1842-1911) is a useful guide to the early home economics movement. Repr. Washinton: American Home Economics Association, 1958.

2209 MacDonald, Cheryl. ADELAIDE HOODLESS: DOMESTIC CRUSADER. Toronto: Dundurn, 1986. Biography of advocate of home economics education.

2210 MacDonald, Cheryl. "The Angel in the House: Adelaide Hoodless, Domestic Science Crusader." BEAVER 66, no.4 (1986): 22-29. Proponent of domestic science in Canadian schools.

2211 Martin, Jane Roland. "Beecher's Homemakers." In RECLAIMING A CONVERSATION, by Jane Roland Martin, pp.103-138. On the works of Catharine Beecher (1800-1878), health reformer. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1985.

2212 Robinson, Lisa Mae. "Regulating What We Eat: Mary Engle Pennington and the Food Research Laboratory." AGRICULTURAL HISTORY 64 (Spring 1990): 143-153.

2213 Rosen, George. "Ellen H. Richards (1824-1911): Sanitary Chemist and Pioneer of Professional Equality for Women in Health Sciences." AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH 64 (1974): 312-323.

2214 Sklar, Kathryn Kish. CATHARINE BEECHER: A STUDY IN AMERICAN DOMESTICITY. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1973. Documents Beecher's involvement in 19th-century health reform movements. Bibliography.

2215 Talbot, Marion. MORE THAN LORE. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1936. Reminiscences.

2216 Weigley, Emma S. SARAH TYSON RORER: THE NATION'S INSTRUCTRESS IN DIETETICS AND COOKERY. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1977.

2217 Williams, Harold I. "Icie Gertrude Macy Hoobler (1892-1984): A Biographical Sketch." JOURNAL OF NUTRITION 114, no.8 (August 1984): 1351-1362.

2218 Yost, Edna. FRANK AND LILLIAN GILBRETH: PARTNERS FOR LIFE. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1949. Lillian Gilbreth was an industrial psychologist and a household efficiency expert who applied scientific management techniques to domestic tasks.

Technology

Technology: Reference (2219-2223)

2219 Bindocci, Cynthia Gay. WOMEN AND TECHNOLOGY: AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY. New York: Garland, 1993. Contains both historical and contemporary citations on the relationship of women to agriculture and food technology, architecture, clerical work, communications, energy/ecology, engineering/inventing, health, household work, industrial work, labor organization, military/war, reproduction, transportation, development, and general work issues.

2220 "Current Bibliography in the History of Technology." Published annually in the April issue of TECHNOLOGY AND CULTURE.

2221 JOURNAL OF WOMEN'S HISTORY GUIDE TO PERIODICAL LITERATURE, comp. Gayle V. Fischer. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1992. See bibliographies in the section headed "Work" (especially "Factory," pp.476-480).

2222 McGaw, Judith A. "Women and the History of American Technology." SIGNS 7, no.4 (Summer 1982): 798-828. Repr. in SEX AND SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY, pp.47-77. Ed. by Sandra Harding and Jean F. O'Barr. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987. (Review essay.)

2223 Mohanty, Gail Fowler. "Industrialization and Production of Textiles in the United States: A Bibliography." MATERIAL HISTORY BULLETIN [Canada] 31 (Spring 1990): 33-38.

Technology: General (2224-2296)

This section lists material on the contributions of women inventors and on the effects of technology on women and society.

2224 Amram, Fred M. "Invention as Problem-Solving: Special Contributions of Female Inventors." BULLETIN OF SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND SOCIETY 7 (1987): 967-971.

2225 Amram, Fred M. "Women's Contributions to the History of Technology." TECHNIKAT RT NETI SZEMLE 15 (1985): 67-84.

2226 Archambault, JoAllyn. "Women: Inventing the Wheel." San Diego, CA: San Diego State University Women's Studies Department, 1981. Discusses the inventions of American Indian Women.

2227 Armitage, Sue. "History of Women and Technology." In WOMEN AND TECHNOLOGY: DECIDING WHAT'S APPROPRIATE, ed. Judy Smith, pp.17-19. Proceedings of a conference on women and technology, April 27-29, 1979. Missoula, MT: Women's Resource Center, 1979.

2228 Baker, Elizabeth Faulkner. TECHNOLOGY AND WOMEN'S WORK. New York: Columbia University Press, 1964.

2229 Bourque, Susan C., and Warren, Kay B. "Technology, Gender, and Development." DAEDALUS 116 (Fall 1987): 173-198.

2230 Brody, J. "Patterns of Patents: Early British Inventions by Women." In WOMEN IN SCIENCE: OPTIONS AND ACCESS, ed. by E. Vamos, pp.1-12. Budapest, Hungary: National Museum of Science and Technology, 1987.

2231 Bullough, Vern L. "Female Physiology, Technology, and Women's Liberation." In DYNAMOS AND VIRGINS REVISITED: WOMEN AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE IN HISTORY, ed. by Martha Moore Trescott, pp.236-251. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow, 1979.

2232 Bullough, Vern L. "Merchandising the Sanitary Napkin: Lillian Gilbreth's 1927 Survey." SIGNS 10, no.3 (Spring 1985): 615-627.

2233 Bullough, Vern L. "Technology and Female Sexuality and Physiology: Some Implications." JOURNAL OF SEX RESEARCH 16 (1980): 59-71.

2234 Burnell, Barbara S. TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE AND WOMEN'S WORK EXPERIENCE: ALTERNATIVE METHODOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES. Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey, 1993.

2235 Cahn, Susan. INDUSTRY OF DEVOTION: THE TRANSFORMATION OF WOMEN'S WORK IN ENGLAND, 1500-1660. New York: Columbia University Press, 1987.

2236 Cohen, Marjorie. WOMEN'S WORK, MARKETS AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN NINETEENTH-CENTURY ONTARIO. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1988.

2237 CONNEXIONS 15 (Winter 1985): Special Issue on "Changing Technology," with reports from sixteen countries.

2238 Cowan, Ruth Schwartz. "From Virginia Dare to Virginia Slims: Women and Technology in American Life." TECHNOLOGY AND CULTURE 20, no.1 (January 1979); 51-63. Also in DYNAMOS AND VIRGINS REVISITED: WOMEN AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE IN HISTORY, ed. by Martha Moore Trescott, pp.30-44. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow, 1979.

2239 Davidson, Marilyn J., and Cooper, Cary L., eds. WOMEN AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY. New York: Wiley, 1987.

2240 Dodd, Dianne. "Women in Advertising: The Role of Canadian Women in the Promotion of Domestic Electrical Technology in the Interwar Period." In DESPITE THE ODDS: ESSAYS ON CANADIAN WOMEN AND SCIENCE, ed. by Marianne Gosztonyi Ainley, pp.134-151. Montreal: Vehicule Press; Buffalo, NY: U.S. distributor, University of Toronto Press, 1990.

2241 Faulkner, Wendy, and Arnold, Erik, eds. SMOTHERED BY INVENTION: TECHNOLOGY IN WOMEN'S LIVES. London: Pluto, 1985.

2242 Gage, Matilda Joslyn. WOMAN AS INVENTOR: ISSUED UNDER THE AUSPICES OF THE NEW YORK STATE WOMAN SUFFRAGE ASSOCIATION. Fayetteville, NY: F.A. Darling Printer, 1870.

2243 Hacker, Barton C., and Hacker, Sally L. "Military Institutions and the Labor Process: Non-Economic Sources of Technological Change, Women's Subordination, and the Organization of Work." TECHNOLOGY AND CULTURE 28 (1987): 743-775.

2244 Hacker, Sally L. PLEASURE, POWER, AND TECHNOLOGY: SOME TALES OF GENDER, ENGINEERING, AND THE COOPERATIVE WORKPLACE. Boston: Unwin Hyman, 1989. While generally dealing with contemporary issues, contains historical background information.

2245 Hinton, Leanne. "Oral Traditions and the Advent of Electric Power." In TECHNOLOGY AND WOMEN'S VOICES: KEEPING IN TOUCH, ed. Cheris Kramarae. New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1988.

2246 Hochwald, Eve. "Studying Technological Discrimination: Some Feminist Questions." FEMINIST ISSUES 5, no.1 (Spring 1985): 39-64. Overview of the new scholarship on the impact of technology on women's work.

2247 Hynes, H. Patricia, ed. RECONSTRUCTING BABYLON: ESSAYS ON WOMEN AND TECHNOLOGY. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1991. Essays on the impact of twentieth century technologies on women's health.

2248 Irvin, Helen Deiss. "The Machine in Utopia: Shaker Women and Technology." WOMEN'S STUDIES INTERNATIONAL QUARTERLY 4, no.3 (1981): 313-319. Covers the invention and use of technological devices by Shaker women, both in domestic work and commercial enterprises.

2249 Ives, Patricia Carter. CREATIVITY AND INVENTIONS: THE GENIUS OF AFRO- AMERICANS AND WOMEN IN THE UNITED STATES AND THE PATENTS. Arlington, VA: Research Unlimited, 1987.

2250 James, Portia P. THE REAL MCCOY: AFRICAN-AMERICAN INVENTION AND INNOVATION, 1619-1930. Washington, DC: Anacostia Museum of the Smithsonian Institution/Smithsonian Institution Press, 1989. Includes women inventors such as Julia Hammonds who patented a device to hold yarn while knitting.

2251 Jellison, Katherine. "Women and Technology on the Great Plains, 1910-1940." GREAT PLAINS QUARTERLY 8 (Summer 1988): 145-157.

2252 Kowaleski, Maryanne, and Bennett, Judith M. "Crafts, Guilds, and Women in the Middle Ages: Fifty Years After Marian K. Dale." SIGNS 14 (Winter 1989): 474-501.

2253 Kramarae, Cheris, ed. TECHNOLOGY AND WOMEN'S VOICES: KEEPING IN TOUCH. Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1988.

2254 Kronenfeld, Jennie Jacobs. "Feminist Movements and Change in Sex Roles: The Influence of Technology." SOCIOLOGICAL FOCUS 19 (January 1986): 47-60.

2255 Macdonald, Anne L. FEMININE INGENUITY: WOMEN AND INVENTION IN AMERICA. New York: Ballantine Books, 1992.

2256 Maines, Rachel. "Socially Camouflaged Technologies: The Case of the Electromagnetic Vibrator." IEEE TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE MAGAZINE 8, no.2 (June 1989): 3-11.

2257 Marvin, Carolyn. WHEN OLD TECHNOLOGIES WERE NEW: THINKING ABOUT ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION IN THE LATE NINETEENTH CENTURY. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.

2258 McDaniel, Susan A., Cummins, Helene, and Beauchamp, Rachelle Sender. "Mothers of Invention? Meshing the Roles of Inventor, Mother, and Worker." WOMEN STUDIES INTERNATIONAL FORUM 11 (1988): 1-12.

2259 McGaw, Judith A. "No Passive Victims, No Separate Spheres: A Feminist Perspective on Technology's History." In IN CONTEXT, ed. by S.H. Cutcliffe and R.C. Post, pp.172-91. Cranbury, NJ: Lehigh University Press; Associated University Presses, 1989.

2260 Merritt, Deborah J. "Hypatia in the Patent Office: Women Inventors and the Law, 1865-1900." THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF LEGAL HISTORY 35, no.3 (July 1991): 235-306.

2261 Ong, Aihwa. "Disassembling Gender in the Electronics Age." FEMINIST STUDIES 13 (Fall 1987): 609-626. Review essay of six books on technology & gender.

2262 Pederson, Diana, and Phemister, Martha. "Women and Photography in Ontario, 1839-1929: A Case Study of the Interaction of Gender and Technology." In DESPITE THE ODDS: ESSAYS ON CANADIAN WOMEN AND SCIENCE, ed. by Marianne Gosztonyi Ainley, pp.88-111. Montreal: Vehicule Press, 1990.

2263 Phillips, K. "United States Patent and Trademark Office Study Finds More Inventions Credited to Women." SCIENTIST 4, no.20 (1990): 24.

2264 Pursell, Carroll W., Jr. "Toys, Technology and Sex Roles in America, 1920-1940." In DYNAMOS AND VIRGINS REVISITED: WOMEN AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE IN HISTORY, ed. by Martha Moore Trescott, pp.252-267. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow, 1979.

2265 Pursell, Carroll W., Jr. "Women Inventors in America." TECHNOLOGY AND CULTURE 22, no.3 (July 1981): 545-549. Covers 18th and 19th centuries.

2266 Rakow, Lana F. GENDER ON THE LINE: WOMEN, THE TELEPHONE, AND COMMUNITY LIFE. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1992.

2267 Rakow, Lana F. "Women and the Telephone: The Gendering of a Communications Technology." In TECHNOLOGY AND WOMEN'S VOICES: KEEPING IN TOUCH, ed. Cheris Kramarae. New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1988.

2268 Romney, Caroline. "Women as Inventors, and the Value of Their Inventions in Household Economics." JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION 9, no.1 (September 1894): 1-11,22-26.

2269 Rothman, Sheila M. WOMAN'S PROPER PLACE: A HISTORY OF CHANGING IDEALS AND PRACTICES, 1870 TO THE PRESENT. New York: Basic Books, 1978. See chapter 1, "Women's Special Sphere," with section on "Technology and the White Woman's Burden," pp.14-20.

2270 Rothschild, Joan. "From Sex to Gender in the History of Technology." In IN CONTEXT, ed. S.H. Cutcliffe and R.C. Post, pp.192-203. Cranbury, NJ: Lehigh University Press; Associated University Presses, 1989.

2271 Rothschild, Joan. MACHINA EX DEA: FEMINIST PERSPECTIVES ON TECHNOLOGY. New York: Pergamon, 1983.

2272 Rothschild, Joan, ed. WOMEN, TECHNOLOGY, AND INNOVATION. New York: Pergamon, 1982. Originally published as WOMEN'S STUDIES INTERNATIONAL QUARTERLY 4, no.3 (1981).

2273 Scharff, Virginia. TAKING THE WHEEL: WOMEN AND THE COMING OF THE MOTOR AGE. New York: Free Press, 1991.

2274 Scott, Joan Wallach. "The Mechanization of Women's Work." SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 247, no.3 (September 1982): 167-187.

2275 Spurgeon, Anne M. "Marketing the Unmentionable: Wallace Meyer & the Introduction of Kotex." MARYLAND HISTORIAN 19 (Spring/Summer 1988): 17-30.

2276 Stanley, Autumn. "The Champion of Women Inventors." AMERICAN HERITAGE OF INVENTION & TECHNOLOGY 8, no.1 (Summer 1992): 22-27.

2277 Stanley, Autumn. "Daughters of Isis, Daughters of Demeter: When Women Sowed and Reaped." WOMEN'S STUDIES INTERNATIONAL QUARTERLY 4, no.3 (1981): 289-304. Women's early roles in food-gathering and the development of horticultural technology.

2278 Stanley, Autumn. "Do Mothers Invent? The Feminist Debate in the History of Technology." In THE KNOWLEDGE EXPLOSION: GENERATIONS OF FEMINIST SCHOLARSHIP, ed. Cheris Kramarae & Dale Spender, pp.459-472. New York: Teachers College Press, 1992. Reviews the impact of feminism on the study of the history of technology since 1976.

2279 Stanley, Autumn. "From Africa to America: Black Women Inventors." In THE TECHNOLOGICAL WOMEN, ed. Jan Zimmerman. New York: Praeger, 1983.

2280 Stanley, Autumn. "Invention Begins at Forty: Older Women of the 19th Century as Inventors." JOURNAL OF WOMEN & AGING 2, no.2 (1990): 133-151.

2281 Stanley, Autumn. MOTHERS AND DAUGHTERS OF INVENTION: NOTES FOR A REVISED HISTORY OF TECHNOLOGY. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow, 1993.

2282 Stanley, Autumn. "Once and Future Power: Women as Inventors." WOMEN'S STUDIES INTERNATIONAL FORUM 15, no.2 (1992): 193-204.

2283 Stanley, Autumn. "The Patent Clerk as Conjurer: The Vanishing Lady Trick in a 19th-Century Historical Source." In WOMEN, WORK, AND TECHNOLOGY: TRANSFORMATIONS, ed. Barbara Drygulski Wright et al. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1987.

2284 Stanley, Autumn. "Women Hold Up Two-Thirds of the Sky: Notes for a Revised History of Technology." ISIS WOMEN'S WORLD no.9 (March 1986): 3-4.

2285 TECHNOLOGY REVIEW 87, no.8 (November/December 1984): Special Section: "Women in Technology": 29-52.

2286 Trescott, Martha Moore, ed. DYNAMOS AND VIRGINS REVISITED: WOMEN AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE IN HISTORY. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow, 1979.

2287 U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. BUTTONS TO BIOTECH: U.S. PATENTING BY WOMEN, 1977-1988. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Patent and Trademark Office, Office of Documentation Information, Technology Assessment and Forecast Program, 1990.

2288 U.S. Patent Office. WOMEN INVENTORS TO WHOM PATENTS HAVE BEEN GRANTED BY THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT, 1790 TO JULY 1, 1888. Washington: 1888. Appendix #1, JULY 1, 1888 TO OCTOBER 1, 1892: Washington: 1892. Appendix #2, OCTOBER 1, 1892 TO MARCH 1, 1895: Washington: 1895.

2289 Wajcman, Judy. "Feminism Confronts Technology." University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1991.

2290 Warner, Deborah J. "Women Inventors at the Centennial." In DYNAMOS AND VIRGINS REVISITED: WOMEN AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE IN HISTORY, ed. by Martha Moore Trescott, pp.102-119. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow, 1979. Includes checklist of women and their inventions displayed at the Women's Pavilion at the Centennial celebration, Philadelphia, 1876.

2291 Whicker, Marcia Lynn, and Kronenfeld, Jennie Jacobs. SEX ROLE CHANGES: TECHNOLOGY, POLITICS, AND POLICY. New York: Praeger, 1986.

2292 Whyte, Judith. GIRLS INTO SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: THE STORY OF A PROJECT. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1986.

2293 "Women's Contributions in the Field of Invention." BULLETIN OF THE WOMEN'S BUREAU no.28 (1923). U.S. Department of Labor, Women's Bureau.

2294 WOMEN'S STUDIES INTERNATIONAL QUARTERLY 4, no.3 (1981); Special Issue: "Women, Technology, and Innovation." Contents: Autumn Stanley, "Daughters of Isis, Daughters of Demeter: When Women Sowed and Reaped"; Margaret Alic, "Women and Technology in Ancient Alexandria: Maria and Hypatia"; Helen Deiss Irvin, "The Machine in Utopia: Shaker Women and Technology"; Erik Arnold, Lynda Birke, and Wendy Faulkner, "Women and Microelectronics: The Case of Word Processors"; Sally L. Hacker, "The Culture of Engineering: Women, Workplace, and Machine"; Jan Zimmerman, "Technology and the Future of Women: Haven't We Met Somewhere Before?"; Inestra King, "Feminist Pedagogy and Technology: Reflections on the Goddard Feminism and Ecology Summer Program"; Corlann Gee Bush, "A Preview of the AAUW's Biennial Study/Action Topic `Taking Hold of Technology'"; Christine Bose, "Teaching Women and Technology at the University of Washington"; "Women and Technology Project, Missoula, Montana"; book reviews.

2295 WOMEN'S TECHNICAL CONTRIBUTIONS. New York: Society of Women Engineers, 1980. 2nd ed.

2296 Wright, Barbara Drygulski, ed. WOMEN, WORK, AND TECHNOLOGY: TRANSFORMATIONS. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1987.

Technology, Paid Labor, & Workplace (2297-2366)

Citations listed here cover technological developments in the workplace affecting women. Some of the industries mentioned are furniture making, electric products, shoemaking, printing, shipbuilding, and textiles.

2297 Anderson, Karen T. "Last Hired, First Fired: Black Women Workers During World War II." JOURNAL OF AMERICAN HISTORY 69 (June 1982): 86-97.

2298 Anderson, Karen T. "Teaching about Rosie the Riveter: The Role of Women During World War II." OAH MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 3 (Summer/Fall 1988): 35-37.

2299 Andrews, Melodie. "`What the Girls Can Do': The Debate over the Employment of Women in the Early American Telegraph Industry." ESSAYS IN ECONOMIC AND BUSINESS HISTORY 8 (1990): 109-120.

2300 Arnold, Erik, Birke, Lynda, and Faulkner, Wendy. "Women and Microelectronics: The Case of Word Processors." WOMEN'S STUDIES INTERNATIONAL QUARTERLY 4, no.3 (1981): 321-340. A socialist-feminist analysis.

2301 Baron, Ava. "Questions of Gender: Deskilling and Demasculinization in the U.S. Printing Industry, 1830-1915." GENDER & HISTORY 1 (Summer 1989): 178-199.

2302 Barrett, Eilidh, M. "The Trials of Labour: Motherhood versus Employment in a Nineteenth-Century Textile Centre." CONTINUITY AND CHANGE 5, no.1 (1990): 121-154.

2303 Berg, Maxine. "Women's Work, Mechanisation, and the Early Phases of Industrialisation in England." In THE HISTORICAL MEANINGS OF WORK, ed. Patrick Joyce, pp.64-98. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

2304 Biggs, Mary. "Neither Printer's Wife nor Widow: American Women in Typesetting, 1830-1950." LIBRARY QUARTERLY 500, no.4 (1980): 431-452.

2305 Blackwelder, Julia Kirk. "Mop and Typewriter: Women's Work in Early Twentieth-Century Atlanta." ATLANTA HISTORY JOURNAL (Fall 1983): 21-30.

2306 Blewett, Mary H. "I Am Doom to Disapointment: The Diaries of a Beverly, Massachusetts Shoebinder, Sarah E. Trask, 1849-51." ESSEX INSTITUTE HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS 117 (July 1981): 192-212.

2307 Blewett, Mary H. "The Union of Sex and Craft in the Haverhill Shoe Strike of 1895." LABOR HISTORY 20 (Summer 1979): 352-375.

2308 Blewett, Mary H. "Women Shoemakers and Domestic Ideology: Rural Outwork in Early Nineteenth-Century Essex County." NEW ENGLAND QUARTERLY 60 (September 1987): 403-428.

2309 Boris, Eileen. "Homework and Women's Rights: The Case of the Vermont Knitters 1980-1985." SIGNS 13 (Autumn 1987): 98-120.

2310 Boris, Eileen. "Regulating Industrial Homework: The Triumph of `Sacred Motherhood'." JOURNAL OF AMERICAN HISTORY 71 (March 1985): 745-763.

2311 Borish, Linda J. "Farm Females, Fitness, and the Ideology of Physical Health in Antebellum New England." AGRICULTURAL HISTORY 64 (Summer 1990): 17-30.

2312 Brown, Ava, and Klepp, Susan E. "If I didn't Have My Sewing Machine...: Women and Sewing Machine Technology." In A NEEDLE, A BOBBIN, A STRIKE: WOMEN NEEDLEWORKERS IN AMERICA, ed. by Jean Jensen & Sue Davidson. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1984.

2313 Bulbeck, Chilla. "Manning the Machines: Women in the Furniture Industry, 1920-1960." LABOUR HISTORY 51 (November 1986): 24-32.

2314 Burns, Stewart. "Capacitors and Community: Women Workers at Sprague Electric, 1930-1980." PUBLIC HISTORIAN 11 (Fall 1989): 61-82.

2315 Cockburn, Cynthia. BROTHERS: MALE DOMINANCE AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE. London: Pluto, 1983. Study of the artisan tradition of compositors in the British newspaper industry and its masculinist culture.

2316 Cockburn, Cynthia. "Caught in the Wheels: The High Cost of Being a Female Cog in the Male Machinery of Engineering." In THE SOCIAL SHAPING OF TECHNOLOGY: HOW THE REFRIGERATOR GOT ITS HUM. ed. by Donald MacKenzie and Judy Wajcman, pp.55-65. Philadelphia: Open University Press, 1985.

2317 Cockburn, Cynthia. MACHINERY OF DOMINANCE: WOMEN, MEN, AND TECHNICAL KNOW-HOW. London: Pluto, 1986. A look at the gendering process in several industries affected by new technologies.

2318 Cockburn, Cynthia. "The Material of Male Power." In THE SOCIAL SHAPING OF TECHNOLOGY: HOW THE REFRIGERATOR GOT ITS HUM, ed. by Donald MacKenzie and Judy Wajcman, pp.125-146. Philadelphia: Open University Press, 1985.

2319 Coffin, Judith. "Social Science Meets Sweated Labor: Reinterpreting Women's Work in Late Nineteenth-Century France." THE JOURNAL OF MODERN HISTORY 63 (June 1991): 230-270.

2320 Cohen, Marjorie. "Changing Perceptions of the Impact of the Industrial Revolution on Female Labour." INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF WOMEN'S STUDIES 7 (September/October 1984): 291-305.

2321 Cooper, Patricia A. "`What This Country Needs in a Good Five-Cent Cigar.'" TECHNOLOGY AND CULTURE 29 (October 1988): 779-807.

2322 Davis, Lynne. "Minding Children or Minding Machines...Women's Labour and Child Care During World War II." LABOUR HISTORY 53 (November 1987): 85-98.

2323 Davis, Natalie Zemon. "Women in the Crafts in Sixteenth-Century Lyon." FEMINIST STUDIES 8, no.1 (Spring 1982): 46-80.

2324 Dublin, Thomas. WOMEN AT WORK: THE TRANSFORMATION OF WORK AND COMMUNITY IN LOWELL, MASSACHUSETTS, 1826-1860. New York: Columbia University Press, 1979.

2325 Dubnoff, Steven. "Gender, the Family, and the Problem of Work Motivation in a Transition to Industrial Capitalism." JOURNAL OF FAMILY HISTORY 4 (Summer 1979): 121-136.

2326 Francis, Raelene. "`No More Amazons': Gender and Work Process in the Victorian Clothing Trades, 1890-1939." LABOUR HISTORY 50 (May 1986): 95-112.

2327 Gluck, Sherna Berger. "Interlude or Change: Women and the World War II Work Experience: A Feminist Oral History." INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ORAL HISTORY 3 (June 1982): 92-113.

2328 Goldberg, Vicki. "Woman of Steel." AMERICAN HERITAGE OF INVENTION & TECHNOLOGY 2 (Spring 1987): 16-22.

2329 Gosling, F.G. "Dial Painters Project: Argonne National Laboratory's Documentation of Radium Hazards to Workers." LABOR'S HERITAGE 4, no.2 (Summer 1992): 64-77. Most of the workers were women and teenage girls.

2330 Hacker, Sally L. "The Culture of Engineering: Woman, Workplace and Machine." WOMEN'S STUDIES INTERNATIONAL QUARTERLY 4, no.3 (1981): 341-353. Explores patriarchal elements in the culture of engineering/management.

2331 Hacker, Sally L. "Sex Stratification, Technology, and Organizational Change: A Longitudinal Case Study of AT&T." SOCIAL PROBLEMS 26, no.5 (June 1979): 539-557.

2332 Harrison, Barbara. "Suffer the Working Day: Women in the `Dangerous Trades,' 1880-1914." WOMEN'S STUDIES INTERNATIONAL FORUM 13, no.1/2 (1990): 79-90.

2333 Hartmann, Heidi I., Kraut, Robert E., and Tilly, Louise A., eds. COMPUTER CHIPS AND PAPER CLIPS: TECHNOLOGY AND WOMEN'S EMPLOYMENT. Washington: National Academy Press, 1986. 2 vols. In vol.1, see chapter 2, "Historical Patterns of Technological Change," pp.24-61, for background on telephone operators, workers in printing and publishing, office workers, retail clerks, and nurses. In vol. 2, see Claudia Goldin's statistical study, "Women's Employment and Technological Change: A Historical Perspective," pp.185-222, plus case studies of the insurance industry by Barbara Baran (pp.25-62), bookkeeping by Sharon Hartman Strom (pp.63-97), secretarial work by Mary C. Murphee (pp.98-135), and computer-related occupations and high-tech industries, by Myra H. Strober and Carolyn L. Arnold (pp.136-182).

2334 Henry, Susan. "Work, Widowhood and War: Hannah Bunce Watson, Connecticut Printer." CONNECTICUT HISTORICAL SOCIETY BULLETIN 48 (Winter 1983): 25-39.

2335 Hirschfield, Deborah Scott. "Women Shipyard Workers in the Second World War." INTERNATIONAL HISTORY REVIEW 11 (August 1989): 478-485.

2336 Horn, Jon. "History of the Dalles Lumbering Co." WOMEN IN NATURAL RESOURCES 11 (March 1990): 28-33.

2337 Hunt, Felicity. "The London Trade in the Printing and Binding of Books: An Experience in Exclusion, Dilution and De-skilling for Women Workers." WOMEN'S STUDIES 6, no.5 (1983): 517-524.

2338 Jordan, Ellen. "The Exclusion of Women from Industry in Nineteenth- Century Britain." COMPARATIVE STUDIES IN SOCIETY AND HISTORY 31 (April 1989): 273-296.

2339 Kessler-Harris, Alice. OUT TO WORK: A HISTORY OF WAGE-EARNING WOMEN IN THE UNITED STATES. New York: Oxford University Press, 1982. See especially chapter 6, "Technology, Efficiency, and Resistance."

2340 Levine, Susan. LABOR'S TRUE WOMAN: CARPET WEAVERS, INDUSTRIALIZATION, AND LABOR REFORM IN THE GILDED AGE. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1984.

2341 Levine, Susan. "Ladies and Looms: The Social Impact of Machine Power in the American Carpet Industry." In DYNAMOS AND VIRGINS REVISITED: WOMEN AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE IN HISTORY, ed. by Martha Moore Trescott, pp.67-76. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow, 1979.

2342 Lown, Judy. WOMEN AND INDUSTRIALIZATION: GENDER AND WORK IN NINETEENTH-CENTURY ENGLAND. Cambridge, England: Polity, 1990. A study of textile workers.

2343 Martin, Michele. "HELLO, CENTRAL?": GENDER, TECHNOLOGY, AND CULTURE IN THE FORMATION OF TELEPHONE SYSTEMS. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1991.

2344 McGaw, Judith A. "Technological Change and Women's Work: Mechanization in the Berkshire Paper Industry, 1820-1855." In DYNAMOS AND VIRGINS REVISITED: WOMEN AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE IN HISTORY, ed. by Martha Moore Trescott, pp. 77-99. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow, 1979.

2345 Milkman, Ruth. "Female Factory Labor and Industrial Structure: Control and Conflict over `Woman's Place' in Auto and Electrical Manufacturing." POLITICS AND SOCIETY 12 (1983): 159-203.

2346 Milkman, Ruth. "Redefining `Women's Work': The Sexual Division of Labor in the Auto Industry During World War I." FEMINIST STUDIES 8 (Summer 1982): 337-372.

2347 Milkman, Ruth. "Rosie the Riveter Revisited: Management's Postwar Purge of Women Automobile Workers." In ON THE LINE: ESSAYS IN THE HISTORY OF AUTO WORK, ed. by Nelson Lichtenstein and Stephen Meyer. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1989.

2348 Mohanty, Gail Fowler. "From Craft to Industry: Textile Production in the United States." MATERIAL HISTORY BULLETIN [Canada] 31 (Spring 1990): 23-31.

2349 Mulligan, William H. Jr. "Mechanization and Work in the American Shoe Industry, Lynn, Massachusetts, 1852-1883." THE JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC HISTORY 41, no.1 (March 1981): 59-64.

2350 Nash, Gary B. "The Failure of Female Factory Labor in Colonial Boston." LABOR HISTORY 20 (Spring 1979): 165-188.

2351 Nisonoff, Laurie. "Bread and Roses: The Proletarianisation of Women Workers in New England Textile Mills, 1827-1848." HISTORICAL JOURNAL OF MASSACHUSETTS 9 (January 1981): 3-14.

2352 Offen, Karen. "`Powered by a Woman's Foot': A Documentary Introduction to the Sexual Politics of the Sewing Machine in Nineteenth-Century France." WOMEN'S STUDIES INTERNATIONAL FORUM 11, no.2 (1988): 93-101. Four translated documents about the health and morals of female sewing machine operators reveal "the highly-gendered intersection of technological innovation, economics, and medicine." An introductory essay and afterword provide historical context.

2353 Quataert, Jean H. "The Shaping of Women's World in Manufacturing: Guilds, Households, and the State in Central Europe, 1648-1870." AMERICAN HISTORICAL REVIEW 90 (December 1985): 1122-1148.

2354 Quataert, Jean H. "A Source Analysis in German Women's History: Factory Inspectors' Reports and the Shaping of Working Class Lives, 1878-1914." CENTRAL EUROPEAN HISTORY 16 (June 1983): 99-121.

2355 Reynolds, Sian. "Women in the Printing and Paper Trades in Edwardian Scotland." In THE WORLD IS ILL DIVIDED: WOMEN'S WORK IN SCOTLAND IN THE NINETEENTH AND EARLY TWENTIETH CENTURIES, ed. Eleanor Gordon & Esther Breitenbach, pp.49-69. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1990.

2356 Rios, Palmiran. "Export-Oriented Industrialization and the Demand for Female Labor: Puerto Rican Women in the Manufacturing Sector, 1952-1980." GENDER & SOCIETY 4 (September 1990): 321-337.

2357 Rose, Sonya O. "Gender Segregation in the Transition to the Factory: The English Hosiery Industry, 1850-1910." FEMINIST STUDIES 13 (Spring 1987): 163-184.

2358 Ruddell, David-Thiery. "Domestic Textile Production in Colonial Quebec, 1608-1840." MATERIAL HISTORY BULLETIN [Canada] 31 (Spring 1990): 39-49.

2359 Sacks, Karen Brodkin, and Remy, Dorothy, eds. MY TROUBLES ARE GOING TO HAVE TROUBLE WITH ME: EVERYDAY TRIALS AND TRIUMPHS OF WOMEN WORKERS. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1984.

2360 Schmiechen, James A. SWEATED INDUSTRIES AND SWEATED LABOR: THE LONDON CLOTHING TRADES, 1860-1914. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1984.

2361 Tentler, Leslie Woodcock. WAGE-EARNING WOMEN: INDUSTRIAL WORK AND FAMILY LIFE IN THE UNITED STATES, 1900-1939. New York: Oxford University Press, 1979.

2362 Tillotson, Shirley. "The Operators Along the Coast: A Case Study of the Link Between Gender, Skilled Labour and Social Power, 1900-1930." ACADIENSIS 20 (Autumn 1990): 72-88.

2363 Tsurumi, E. Patricia. FACTORY GIRLS: WOMEN IN THE THREAD MILLS OF MEIJI JAPAN. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1990.

2364 Valenze, Deborah. "The Art of Women and the Business of Men: Women's Work and the Dairy Industry c.1740-1840." PAST & PRESENT no.130 (February 1991): 142-169.

2365 Walshok, Mary Lindenstein. BLUE COLLAR WOMEN: PIONEERS ON THE MALE FRONTIER. Garden City, NY: Anchor Books, 1981.

2366 Zonderman, David A. "From Mill Village to Industrial City: Letters from Vermont Factory Operatives." LABOR HISTORY 27 (Spring 1986): 265-285.

Engineering & Technical Professions (2367-2386)

2367 Bradby, Marie. "Hispanic Women at the Johnson Space Center." HISPANIC ENGINEER 5, no.3 (Fall 1989): 28-31.

2368 Christensen, Lawrence O. "Being Special: Women Students at the Missouri School of Mines and Metallurgy." MISSOURI HISTORICAL REVIEW 83, no.1 (1988): 17-35.

2369 Florman, Samuel C. "Will Women Engineers Make A Difference?" TECHNOLOGY REVIEW 87, no.8 (November/December 1984): 51-52.

2370 Goff, Alice G. WOMEN CAN BE ENGINEERS. Youngstown, OH: privately published, 1946.

2371 Haas, Violet B., and Perrucci, Carolyn C., eds. WOMEN IN SCIENTIFIC AND ENGINEERING PROFESSIONS. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1984. See in particular "Responsibilities of Women Faculty in Engineering Schools," by Mildred S. Dresselhaus, pp.128-134; and "Women Engineers in History: Profiles in Holism and Persistence," by Martha M. Trescott, pp.181-204.

2372 Hynes, H. Patricia. "Feminism and Engineering: The Inroads." In THE KNOWLEDGE EXPLOSION: GENERATIONS OF FEMINIST SCHOLARSHIP, ed. Cheris Kramarae & Dale Spender, pp.133-140. New York: Teachers College Press, 1992. Reviews the impact of feminism on engineering since the late 1960s.

2373 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON EDUCATION E-28, no.4 (November 1985); Special Issue: "Women in Engineering."

2374 Kozloski, Lillian, and Mackowski, Maura J. "The Wrong Stuff." FINAL FRONTIERS (May/June 1990): 20-23,52-55. Description of program to test women pilots for inclusion in the Mercury astronaut program and the reasons why the women who were found qualified were not employed.

2375 Kreinberg, Nancy. I'M MADLY IN LOVE WITH ELECTRICITY -- AND OTHER COMMENTS ABOUT THEIR WORK BY WOMEN IN SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Berkeley: Lawrence Hall of Science, University of California, 1977.

2376 Lefcourt, Susan. "Women in Engineering -- Revisited." CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (November 3, 1969): 92-98.

2377 Marcus, Gail H. "The Status of Women in the Nuclear Industry." BULLETIN OF THE ATOMIC SCIENTISTS 32, no.4 (April 1976): 34-39

2378 McIlwee, Judith S., and Robinson, J. Gregg. WOMEN IN ENGINEERING: GENDER, POWER, AND WORKPLACE CULTURE. Albany, NY: State University of New York, 1992.

2379 Nichols, Roberta. "Women in Science and Engineering: Are Jobs Really Sexless?" TECHNOLOGY REVIEW 75 (June 1973): 43-47.

2380 Parrish, John B. "Women Continue in the Professions." CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROGRESS 84, no.1 (January 1988): 50-56.

2381 Pursell, Carroll W., Jr. "`Am I a Lady or an Engineer?' The Origins of the Women's Engineering Society in Britain, 1918-1940." TECHNOLOGY AND CULTURE 34, no.1 (January 1993): 78-97.

2382 Saigal, Anil. "Women Engineers: An Insight Into Their Problems." U.S. WOMAN ENGINEER 34, no.4 (July/August 1988): 42-43.

2383 Trescott, Martha Moore. "A History of Women Engineers in the United States, 1850-1975: A Progress Report." In PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY OF WOMEN ENGINEERS 1979 NATIONAL CONFERENCE, pp.1-14. New York: Society of Women Engineers, 1979.

2384 Trescott, Martha Moore. "Women and Engineering Education: Historical Sketches." In WOMEN AND ENGINEERING EDUCATION: REPORT ON A CONFERENCE OF THE CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, 20 AND 21 MARCH 1987, LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA, pp.II1-II16. Northridge, CA: Women in Science and Engineering Programs, School of Engineering and Computer Science, California State University, 1988.

2385 Trescott, Martha Moore. "Women Engineers in History: Profiles in Holism and Persistence." In WOMEN IN SCIENTIFIC AND ENGINEERING PROFESSIONS, ed. by Violet B. Haas and Carolyn C. Perrucci, pp.181-204. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1981. Includes lengthy comments on industrial engineer Lillian Gilbreth.

2386 Trescott, Martha Moore. "Women in the Intellectual Development of Engineering: A Study in Persistence and Systems Thought." In WOMEN OF SCIENCE: RIGHTING THE RECORD, ed. by G. Kass-Simon & Patricia Farnes, pp.147-187. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1990.

Biographies & Studies: Engineers & Technologists (2387-2407)

2387 Alic, Margaret. "Women and Technology in Ancient Alexandria: Maria and Hypatia." WOMEN'S STUDIES INTERNATIONAL QUARTERLY 4, NO.3 (1981): 305-312. Describes what may be the earliest technological work that can be ascribed to women.

2388 Bishop, Ronald L., and Lange, Frederick W., eds. THE CERAMIC LEGACY OF ANNA O. SHEPARD. Niwot, CO: University Press of Colorado, 1991.

2389 Brittain, James E. "From Computer to Electrical Engineer: The Remarkable Career of Edith Clarke." IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON EDUCATION E-28, no.4 (November 1985): 184-189.

2390 Bromberg, Howard. "Grace Murray Hopper: A Remembrance." IEEE SOFTWARE 9, no.3 (May 1992): 103. U.S. Navy Rear Admiral Hopper (d. January 1, 1992) was the co-inventor of the computer language COBOL. Obituaries also appeared in COMMUNICATIONS OF THE ACM 32, no.4 (April 1992): 128; DIGITAL REVIEW 9, no.2 (January 20, 1992): 40; FEDERAL COMPUTER WEEK 6, no.1 (January 13, 1992): 26; IEEE SOFTWARE 9, no.2 (March 1992): 95, and elsewhere.

2391 "A Career, Business, Life Built on Freedom and Flexibility." IEEE SOFTWARE 9, no.4 (July 1992): 77. Interview with Steve Shirley, who changed her name to "Steve" to sell her software more easily and who helped form the group Women in Information Technology (Women in IT).

2392 Cowan, Ruth Schwartz. "Ellen Swallow Richards: Technology and Women." In TECHNOLOGY IN AMERICA: A HISTORY OF INDIVIDUALS AND IDEAS, ed. Carroll W. Pursell, Jr. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1981. 1st ed. 2nd ed. 1990. pp.142-150.

2393 Dresselhaus, Mildred S. "Electrical Engineer." SUCCESSFUL WOMEN IN THE SCIENCES: AN ANALYSIS OF DETERMINANTS, ed. by Ruth B. Kundsin, pp.17-22. (ANNALS OF THE NEW YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 208; 1973.) Repr. with title WOMEN AND SUCCESS: THE ANATOMY OF ACHIEVEMENT. New York: Morrow, 1974.

2394 Herzenberg, Caroline L., and Howes, Ruth Hege. "Women of the Manhattan Project." TECHNOLOGY REVIEW (in press).

2395 Howes, Ruth Hege, and Herzenberg, Caroline L. "Women in Weapons Development: The Manhattan Project." WOMEN AND THE USE OF MILITARY FORCE, ed. Ruth Hege Howes and Michael R. Stevenson, pp.95-110. Boulder, CO: Lynne Riener, 1993.

2396 Keeshan, Kathleen K. "From the Arts to Applied Mathematics: A Path to Success in Research." U.S. WOMAN ENGINEER 36, no.2 (March-April 1990): 11-13. On the career of Patricia Selinger of IBM Database Technology Institute.

2397 Moore, Glenis. "Hertha Ayrton - First Lady of the IEE." ELECTRONICS & POWER 32 (August 1986): 583-585. Inventor of a portable fan for repulsing poison gases.

2398 Perry, Tekla S. "Susan Hackwood." IEEE SPECTRUM 29, no.8 (August 1992): 62+. Founding Dean of University of California at Riverside College of Engineering.

2399 Richmond, Caroline. "A Builder of Bridges (Joanna Kennedy)." NEW SCIENTIST 102 (June 7, 1984): 38.

2400 Robinson, Lisa Mae. "Regulating What We Eat: Mary Engle Pennington and the Food Research Laboratory." AGRICULTURAL HISTORY 64 (Spring 1990): 143-153.

2401 Sluby, Patricia Carter. "Black Women and Inventions." SAGE 6, no.2 (1989): 33-35.

2402 Trescott, Martha Moore. "Julia B. Hall and Aluminum." In DYNAMOS AND VIRGINS REVISITED: WOMEN AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE IN HISTORY, ed. by Martha Moore Trescott, pp.149-179. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow, 1979.

2403 Trescott, Martha Moore. "Lillian Moller Gilbreth and the Founding of Modern Industrial Engineering." MACHINA EX DEA: FEMINIST PERSPECTIVES ON TECHNOLOGY, ed. by Joan Rothschild, pp.23-37. New York: Pergamon, 1983.

2404 Vare, Ethlie Ann, and Ptacek, Greg. MOTHERS OF INVENTION: A HISTORY OF FORGOTTEN WOMEN AND THEIR UNFORGETTABLE IDEAS. New York: Morrow, 1988. Brief biographies of over 100 inventors.

2405 Weigold, Marilyn E. SILENT BUILDER: EMILY WARREN ROEBLING AND THE BROOKLYN BRIDGE. Port Washington, NY: Associated Faculty Press, 1984. Civil engineer.

2406 Wheeler, Roger, and Snowdon, Philip. "American Women in Space." JOURNAL OF THE BRITISH INTERPLANETARY SOCIETY 40 (1987): 81-88. Biographies of the first 12 women in space.

2407 Zientara, Marguerite. WOMEN, TECHNOLOGY, AND POWER: TEN STARS AND THE HISTORY THEY MADE. New York: AMACOM, 1987. Oral histories of ten female leaders in the microcomputer industry.

Reproductive Technology (2408-2433)

This section primarily lists works on the history of technological devices used in promoting (ex.: forceps, fetal monitors) or preventing (ex.: intrauterine devices, diaphragm) childbirth. Some discuss the development of the sanitary napkin.

2408 Arditti, Rita, et al, eds. TEST-TUBE WOMEN: WHAT FUTURE FOR MOTHERHOOD? London: Pandora, 1984.

2409 Behuniak-Long, Susan. "Radical Conceptions: Reproductive Technologies and Feminist Theories." WOMEN & POLITICS 10, no.3 (1990): 39-64.

2410 Bullough, Vern L. "A Brief Note on Rubber Technology and Contraception: The Diaphragm and the Condom." TECHNOLOGY AND CULTURE 22, no.1 (1981): 104-111.

2411 Cederqvist, Lars L., and Fuchs, Fritz. "Antenatal Sex Determination: An Historical Review." CLINICAL OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY 13 (March 1970): 159-177.

2412 Corea, Gena. MAN-MADE WOMEN. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987.

2413 Corea, Gena. THE MOTHER MACHINE: REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGIES FROM ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION TO ARTIFICIAL WOMBS. New York: Harper and Row, 1985.

2414 Cowan, Ruth Schwartz. "Genetic Technology and Reproductive Choice: An Ethics for Autonomy." THE CODE OF CODES: SCIENTIFIC AND SOCIAL ISSUES IN THE HUMAN GENOME PROJECT, ed. Daniel J. Kevles and Leroy Hood, pp.244-264. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1992.

2415 Das, Kedarnath. OBSTETRIC FORCEPS: ITS HISTORY AND EVOLUTION. St. Louis: Mosby, 1929.

2416 Grant, Nicole J. THE SELLING OF CONTRACEPTION: THE DALKON SHIELD CASE, SEXUALITY, AND WOMEN'S AUTONOMY. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 1992.

2417 Hanmer, Jalna, and Allen, Pat. "Reproductive Engineering: The Final Solution?" FEMINIST ISSUES 2, no.1 (Spring 1982): 53-74. Repr. from ALICE THROUGH THE MICROSCOPE, ed. by the Brighton Women and Science Group. London: Virago, 1980.

2418 Hanmer, Jalna. "Reproductive Technology: The Future for Women?" MACHINA EX DEA: FEMINIST PERSPECTIVES ON TECHNOLOGY, ed. by Joan Rothschild, pp.183-197. New York: Pergamon, 1983.

2419 Landry, Donna, and MacLean, Gerald. "Of Forceps, Patents and Paternity: TRISTRAM SHANDY." EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY STUDIES 23 (Summer 1990): 522-541.

2420 Laufe, Leonard. OBSTETRIC FORCEPS. New York: Harper & Row, 1968.

2421 Leavitt, Judith Walzer. "The Growth of Medical Authority: Technology and Morals in Turn-of-the-Century Obstetrics." MEDICAL ANTHROPOLOGY QUARTERLY 1, no.3 (1987): 230-255.

2422 Mintz, Morton. AT ANY COST: CORPORATE GREED, WOMEN, AND THE DALKON SHIELD. New York: Pantheon, 1985.

2423 Perry, Susan, and Dawson, Jim. NIGHTMARE: WOMEN AND THE DALKON SHIELD. New York: Macmillan, 1985.

2424 Ratcliff, Kathryn Strother, ed. HEALING TECHNOLOGY: FEMINIST PERSPECTIVES. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1989. Includes articles on fetal monitors, postmodern pregnancy, and new reproductive technologies. While the focus is on current practices, information is provided on the historical development of new technologies.

2425 REPRODUCTIVE AND GENETIC ENGINEERING: INTERNATIONAL FEMINIST PERSPECTIVES 1, no.1- (March 1988- ). Journal devoted to these issues. Chiefly contemporary.

2426 Rose, Hilary, and Hanmer, Jalna. "Women's Liberation, Reproduction, and the Technological Fix." London: Tavistock, 1976. SEXUAL DIVISIONS AND SOCIETY, ed. by Diana Leonard Barker and Sheila Allen, pp.199-223.

2427 Rothman, Barbara Katz. THE TENTATIVE PREGNANCY: HOW AMNIOCENTESIS CHANGES THE EXPERIENCE OF MOTHERHOOD. New York: Norton, 1993. 2nd ed.

2428 Rowland, Robyn. LIVING LABORATORIES: WOMEN AND REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGIES. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1992.

2429 Spallone, Patricia, and Steinberg, Deborah Lynn. MADE TO ORDER: THE MYTH OF REPRODUCTIVE AND GENETIC PROGRESS. Oxford, England: Pergamon, 1987. Twenty-one articles. Not historical. Bibliography, pp.231-236.

2430 Stanworth, Michelle, ed. REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGIES: GENDER, MOTHERHOOD, AND MEDICINE. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1987.

2431 Wertz, Richard W., and Wertz, Dorothy C. LYING-IN: A HISTORY OF CHILDBIRTH IN AMERICA: ITS TECHNOLOGIES AND SOCIAL RELATIONS. New York: Free Press, 1977; New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1989. Expanded ed. Includes bibliographic essay.

2432 Woliver, Laura R. "The Influence of Technology on the Politics of Motherhood: An Overview of the United States." WOMEN'S STUDIES INTERNATIONAL FORUM 14 (1991): 479-490.

2433 WOMEN'S STUDIES INTERNATIONAL FORUM 8, no.5 (1985); Special Issue: "Reproductive and Genetic Engineering."

Books for Older Children & Young Adults

Books for Older Children and Young Adults (2434-2505)

Most of the titles listed are collective or individual biographies of women scientists and physicians. Some include classroom activities to help students understand the scientific contributions of these women.

2434 Bachrach, Deborah. MARGARET SANGER. San Diego, CA: Lucent Books, 1993.

2435 Baker, Rachel. AMERICA'S FIRST TRAINED NURSE: LINDA RICHARDS. New York: Messner, 1962. Nursing history and biography from the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

2436 Billings, Charlene W. GRACE HOPPER: NAVY ADMIRAL & COMPUTER PIONEER. Hillside, NJ: Enslow Publishers, 1989.

2437 Bowman, Kathleen. NEW WOMEN IN MEDICINE. Mankato, MN: Creative Education, 1976. Includes biographies of sex educator Mary Calderone, pediatrician Kathryn Nichol, neurologist Anna Elington, medical researcher Mary Louise Robbins, endocrinologist Estelle Ramey, nurse-midwife Margaret Hewitt, and psychiatrist Elisabeth Kubler-Ross.

2438 Brandt, Keith. MARIE CURIE, BRAVE SCIENTIST. Mahwah, NJ: Troll Assoc., 1983.

2439 Brown, Jordan. ELIZABETH BLACKWELL: PHYSICIAN. New York: Chelsea House, 1989.

2440 Brown, Marion Marsh. HOMEWARD THE ARROW'S FLIGHT. Nashville, TN: Abingdon, 1980. On Omaha Indian physician Susan LaFlesche Picotte.

2441 Brown, Pam. FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE: THE DETERMINED ENGLISHWOMAN WHO FOUNDED MODERN NURSING AND REFORMED MILITARY MEDICINE. Milwaukee, WI: Gareth Stevens, 1989.

2442 Bryan, Jenny. HEALTH AND SCIENCE. New York: Hampstead Press, 1988. Examines the participation of women in medical and scientific discoveries and the growth of health care in France, Great Britain, and the U.S. through the lives of Marie Curie, Cicely Saunders, and Clara Barton.

2443 Carson, Rachel. THE SENSE OF WONDER. New York: Harper & Row, 1956.

2444 Clapp, Patricia. DR. ELIZABETH, THE STORY OF THE FIRST WOMAN DOCTOR. New York: Lothrop, 1974.

2445 Clark, Eugenie. LADY AND THE SHARKS. Sarasota, NY: Mote Marine Lab, 1991. Autobiography of an ichthyologist, reprinted from a 1969 edition.

2446 Crawford, Deborah. LISE MEITNER, ATOMIC PIONEER. New York: Crown, 1969.

2447 Dash, Joan. THE TRIUMPH OF DISCOVERY: WOMEN SCIENTISTS WHO WON THE NOBEL PRIZE. New York: Messner, 1991.

2448 DeLeeuw, Adele. MARIE CURIE, WOMAN OF GENIUS. Champaign, IL: Garrard, 1970.

2449 Douty, Esther M. AMERICA'S FIRST WOMAN CHEMIST: ELLEN RICHARDS. New York: Messner, 1961.

2450 Dubowski, Cathy East. CLARA BARTON: HEALING THE WOUNDS. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Silver Burdett Press, 1991.

2451 Dunn, Andrew. MARIE CURIE. New York: Franklin Watts, 1991.

2452 Emberlin, Diane. CONTRIBUTIONS OF WOMEN: SCIENCE. Minneapolis: Dillon Press, 1977.

2453 Facklam, Margery. WILD ANIMALS, GENTLE WOMEN. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1978. Includes zoologists and animal behaviorists.

2454 Ferris, Jeri. NATIVE AMERICAN DOCTOR: THE STORY OF SUSAN LAFLESCHE PICOTTE. Minneapolis, MN: Carolrhoda Books, 1991. Biography of the first Native American woman to graduate from medical school.

2455 Fromer, Julie. JANE GOODALL: LIVING WITH THE CHIMPS. Frederick, MD: Twenty-First Century Books, 1992. For grades 3-6.

2456 Gallardo, Evelyn. AMONG THE ORANGUTANS: THE BIRUTE GALDIKAS STORY. San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 1993. Primatologist.

2457 Gleasner, Diana C. BREAKTHROUGH: WOMEN IN SCIENCE. New York: Walker, 1983.

2458 Goldberg, Jake. RACHEL CARSON. New York: Chelsea Juniors, 1992.

2459 Goodfield, June. AN IMAGINED WORLD: A STORY OF SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERY. New York: Harper & Row, 1981. An intimate portrait of five years in the life of a cancer researcher.

2460 Haber, Louis. WOMEN PIONEERS OF SCIENCE. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1979.

2461 Hume, Ruth. GREAT WOMEN OF MEDICINE. New York: Random House, 1974. Includes biographies of physicians, nurses, and researchers.

2462 Jezer, Marty. RACHEL CARSON: BIOLOGIST AND AUTHOR. New York: Chelsea House, 1988.

2463 Kaye, Judith. THE LIFE OF FLORENCE SABIN. New York: Twenty-First Century Books, 1993. For grades 4-8.

2464 Keller, Mollie. MARIE CURIE. New York: Watts, 1982.

2465 Kevles, Bettyann. WATCHING THE WILD APES: THE PRIMATE STUDIES OF GOODALL, FOSSEY, AND GALDIKAS. New York: Dutton, 1976.

2466 Kittredge, Mary. BARBARA MCCLINTOCK. New York: Chelsea House, 1991. Biography of Nobel Prize winning geneticist.

2467 Kronstadt, Janet. FLORENCE SABIN. New York: Chelsea House, 1990. Immunologist.

2468 Kudlinski, Kathleen V. RACHEL CARSON: PIONEER OF ECOLOGY. New York: Viking Kestrel, 1988.

2469 Latham, Jean Lee. ELIZABETH BLACKWELL: PIONEER WOMAN DOCTOR. Champaign, IL: Garrard, 1975.

2470 Lutzker, Edythe. WOMEN GAIN A PLACE IN MEDICINE. New York: McGraw- Hill, 1969. Both a history of medical treatment of women and biographies of the first British women doctors.

2471 McCoy, Joseph J. THE CANCER LADY: MAUD SLYE AND HER HEREDITARY STUDIES. Nashville: Nelson, 1977.

2472 McFerran, Anna. ELIZABETH BLACKWELL: FIRST WOMAN DOCTOR. New York: Grossett & Dunlap, 1966.

2473 McKown, Robin. SHE LIVED FOR SCIENCE: IRENE JOLIOT-CURIE. New York: Messner, 1961.

2474 McLenighan, Valjean. WOMEN AND SCIENCE. Milwaukee, WI: Raintree, 1980. Careers of six women scientists.

2475 McPherson, Stephanie Sammartino. ROOFTOP ASTRONOMER: A STORY ABOUT MARIA MITCHELL. Minneapolis, MN: Carolrhoda Books, 1990.

2476 McPherson, Stephanie Sammartino. THE WORKERS' DETECTIVE: A STORY ABOUT DR. ALICE HAMILTON. Minneapolis: Carolrhoda Books, 1992. For grades 3-6.

2477 Morgan, Helen L. MARIA MITCHELL, FIRST LADY AMERICAN ASTRONOMER. Philadelphia, PA: Westminster, 1977.

2478 Murrow, Liza Ketchum. SUSAN HUMPHRIS, GEOLOGIST. Brattleboro, VT: Teachers' Laboratory, 1989.

2479 Nies, Kevin A. FROM SORCERESS TO SCIENTIST: BIOGRAPHIES OF WOMEN PHYSICAL SCIENTISTS. California Video, 1991. Lives of women scientists series, v.1 Short biographies of nineteen astronomers, physicists, chemists, and earth scientists from different ethnic groups. Includes puzzles, demos and labs to help students understand each woman's scientific work.

2480 Noble, Iris. CONTEMPORARY WOMEN SCIENTISTS OF AMERICA. New York: Messner, 1979.

2481 Perl, Teri. MATH EQUALS: BIOGRAPHIES OF WOMEN MATHEMATICIANS AND RELATED ACTIVITIES. Menlo Park, CA: Addison-Wesley, 1978. Nine biographies with related activities for high schoolers.

2482 Perl, Teri. WOMEN AND NUMBERS: LIVES OF WOMEN MATHEMATICIANS PLUS DISCOVERY ACTIVITIES. San Carlos, CA: Wide World Publishing/Tetra, 1993. Activities based on the work of thirteen mathematicians, with biographies. For grades 3-8.

2483 Perl, Teri, and Manning, Joan M. WOMEN, NUMBERS AND DREAMS: BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES AND MATH ACTIVITIES. Santa Rosa, CA: National Women's History Project, 1982. Teacher's manual available also.

2484 Pflaum, Rosalynd. MARIE CURIE AND HER DAUGHTER IRENE. Minneapolis: Lerner Publications, 1993. For grades 5-9.

2485 Phelan, Mary Kay. PROBING THE UNKNOWN: THE STORY OF DR. FLORENCE SABIN. New York: Dell, 1976. Reprint of 1969 Crowell edition.

2486 Ranahan, Demerris. CONTRIBUTIONS OF WOMEN: MEDICINE. Minneapolis, MN: Dillon, 1981. Includes Helen Taussig, Virginia Apgar, Savitri Ramcharan, Adele Hofman, Olga Jonasson and others.

2487 Sabin, Francene. ELIZABETH BLACKWELL, THE FIRST WOMAN DOCTOR. Mahwah, NJ: Troll Assoc., 1982.

2488 SALUTE TO BLACK WOMEN INVENTORS: LEARNING ACTIVITIES. Chicago, IL: Chandler/White, 1990. Inventions patented by Black women from 1884 to 1975 with a learning activity for each invention.

2489 Stanford, Barbara. WOMEN IN SCIENCE. Portland, ME: J. Weston Walch, 1975.

2490 Steinkamp, Marjorie W., and Maehr, Martin L., eds. WOMEN IN SCIENCE. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1984.

2491 Stopes-Roe, Harry Verdon with Ian Scott. MARIE STOPES AND BIRTH CONTROL. London: Priory Press, 1974.

2492 Stott, Carole. INTO THE UNKNOWN. New York: Hampstead Press, 1989. Astronomer Caroline Herschel, aviator Amy Johnson, and astronaut Sally Ride.

2493 Stwertka, Eve. RACHEL CARSON. New York: Franklin Watts, 1991.

2494 Tames, Richard. MARIE CURIE. New York: Franklin Watts, 1990.

2495 Topalian, Elyse. MARGARET SANGER. New York: F. Watts, 1984.

2496 Vare, Ethlie Ann. ADVENTUROUS SPIRIT: A STORY ABOUT ELLEN SWALLOW RICHARDS. Minneapolis, MN: Carolrhoda Books, 1992. Grades 3-6.

2497 Veglahn, Nancy. THE MYSTERIOUS RAYS: MARIE CURIE'S WORLD. Coward, McCann & Geoghegan, 1977.

2498 Veglahn, Nancy. WOMEN SCIENTISTS. New York: Facts on File, 1992.

2499 Verheyden-Hilliard, Mary Ellen. AMERICAN WOMEN IN SCIENCE BIOGRAPHIES. Bethesda, MD: Equity Institute, 1988. A series of 15 biographies for children (grades 1-4) about women scientists and mathematicians from diverse ethnic groups. Includes mathematicians Shirley Mathis McBay and Caryn Navy, engineer Nancy Wallace, and scientists Antoinette Rodez Schiesler, Rue Chih Cheo Huang, Constance Tom Noguchi, Maria Cordero Hardy, Agnes Naranjo Stroud-Lee, Elma Gonzalez, Phyllis Stearner, Judith Pachciarz, June Rooks, and Anne Barrett Swanson.

2500 Wadsworth, Ginger. RACHEL CARSON: VOICE FOR THE EARTH. Minneapolis, MN: Lerner, 1992.

2501 Weaver, Rebecca, and Dale, Rodney. MACHINES IN THE HOME. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.

2502 Wilkie, Katherine E. MARIA MITCHELL: STAR GAZER. Champaign, IL: Garrard, 1966.

2503 "Women Heroes of Science: A Bibliography, a Selection of Titles About the History of Women in Science." SCIENCE BOOKS & FILMS 27, no.2 (March 1, 1991): 33-34.

2504 Yost, Edna. AMERICAN WOMEN OF SCIENCE. Philadelphia, PA: Frederick A. Stokes Co., 1943; Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, 1955. Rev. ed. Biographies of Ellen H. Richards (home economist), Annie Jump Cannon (astronomer), Alice Hamilton (industrial toxicologist), Florence Rena Sabin (medical researcher), Mary Engle Pennington (refrigeration expert), Lillian Moller Gilbreth (management engineer), Libbie Henrietta Hyman (zoologist), Wanda K. Farr (botanist), Hazel K. Stiebeling (nutritionist), Florence B. Seibert (chemist), Katharine Burr Blodgett (physicist), and Margaret Mead (anthropologist).

2505 Yost, Edna. WOMEN OF MODERN SCIENCE. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1959: repr. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1984. Biographies of Gerty Theresa Cori (biochemist), Lise Meitner (physicist), Helen Sawyer Hogg (astronomer), Elizabeth Shull Russell (geneticist), Rachel Fuller Brown (biochemist), Chien Shiung Wu (nuclear physicist), Edith Hinkley Quimby (physicist), Jocelyn Crane (zoologist), Florence van Straten (meteorologist), Gladys Anderson Emerson (biochemist), and Dorothea Rudnick (embryologist).