Introduction[This bibliography is number 77 in the series Wisconsin Bibliographies in Women's Studies, published by the University of Wisconsin System Women's Studies Librarian's Office.]
The following list includes a wide range of critical texts that have implications for the study of gender's influences on the teaching and practice of creative writing. Little empirical research on gender and creative writing actually exists. In recent works on creative writing such as Joseph Moxley's CREATIVE WRITING IN AMERICA: THEORY AND PEDAGOGY (Boynton/Cook, Heinemann, 1989) or Wendy Bishop's RELEASED INTO LANGUAGE: OPTIONS FOR TEACHING CREATIVE WRITING (NCTE, 1990), issues of gender in creative writing or its teaching are not directly addressed. However, critical work by feminist, gender, composition, and literary theorists has asserted substantive gender-based differences in writing. New work by critics in the areas of gender studies, queer theory, and men's studies has challenged many earlier assumptions about gender and writing, and we have only included a small set of examples of the rich work in this area. We did want to include a few materials from the French feminists as we believe they provide insights into the creative writing process even though we acknowledge that some of the charges of essentialism make some of their work problematic. The new theoretical frameworks suggest useful critical positions from which to analyze issues of gender and creative writing.
Please e-mail comments or additions to firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com.
Gender and Creative WritingAlcoff, Linda. "Cultural Feminism Versus Post-Structuralism: The Identity Crisis in Feminist Theory." FEMINIST THEORY IN PRACTICE AND PROCESS. Eds. Micheline R. Malson, Jean F. O'Barr, Sarah Westphal-Wihl, and Mary Wyer. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1989. 295-326.
---. "The Problem of Speaking for Others." CULTURAL CRITIQUE 20 (Winter 1991-1992): 5-32.
Annas, Pamela J. "Silences: Feminist Language Research and the Teaching of Writing." TEACHING WRITING: PEDAGOGY, GENDER AND EQUITY. Ed. Cynthia Greenwood and Gillian R. Overing. Albany: State U of New York P, 1987. 3-18.
---. "Style as Politics: A Feminist Approach to the Teaching of Writing." COLLEGE ENGLISH 47 (1985): 360-371.
---. "Writing as Women." WOMEN'S STUDIES QUARTERLY 12, no. 1 (Spring 1984): 38-39.
Atwood, Johanna. "Good Intentions, Dangerous Territory: Student Resistance in Feminist Writing Classes." JOURNAL OF TEACHING WRITING 12.2 (1994): 125-143.
Atwood, Margaret. "On Being a 'Woman Writer': Paradoxes and Dilemmas." SECOND WORDS. Boston: Beacon, 1984. 190-214.
Baron, Dennis. GRAMMAR AND GENDER. New Haven: Yale UP, 1986.
Examines the issues of correctness, grammar, and gender historically in the English language.
Batson, Lorie Goodman. "Defining Ourselves as Woman (in the Profession)." PRE/TEXT (Fall/Winter 1988): 207-209.
Bauer, Dale F. "The Other F Word: The Feminist in the Classroom." COLLEGE ENGLISH 52 (1990): 385-396.
Bauer, Dale M. and Susan C. Jarratt. "Feminist Sophistics: Teaching with an Attitude." In CHANGING CLASSROOM PRACTICES: RESOURCES FOR LITERARY AND CULTURAL STUDIES. David B. Downing, ed. Urbana: NCTE, 1994. 149-65.
Belenky, Mary Field, Blythe McVicker Clinchy, Nancy Rule Goldberger, and Jill Mattuck Tarule. WOMEN'S WAYS OF KNOWING: THE DEVELOPMENT OF SELF, VOICE, AND MIND. New York: Basic Books, 1986.
A study of women's developmental stages, contrasted with studies of men's development. Considered "essentialist" by some critics, but work suggests very different stages for women's learning than the prototypical male stages suggested by Kohlberg or Perry.
Bishop, Wendy. "Learning Our Own Ways to Situate Composition and Feminist Studies in the English Department." JOURNAL OF ADVANCED COMPOSITION 10 (1990): 339-356.
---. "Teaching Undergraduate Creative Writing: Myths, Mentors, and Metaphors." JOURNAL OF TEACHING WRITING 7 (1988): 83-102.
Bleich, David. "Sexism in Academic Styles of Learning." JOURNAL OF ADVANCED COMPOSITION 10 (1990): 231-247.
Booth, Wayne. "Rhetoric for Women." UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 73 (1981): 32-34.
Brannon, Lil. "M[other]: Lives on the Outside." WRITTEN COMMUNICATION 10.3 (July 1993): 457-65.
Bridwell-Bowles, Lillian. "Discourse and Diversity: Experimental Writing within the Academy." COLLEGE COMPOSITION AND COMMUNICATION 43 (1992): 349-368.
---. "Freedom, Form, Function: Varieties of Academic Discourse." COLLEGE COMPOSITION AND COMMUNICATION 46.1 (1995): 46-61.
Brodkey, Linda. ACADEMIC WRITING AS SOCIAL PRACTICE. Philadelphia: Temple UP, 1987.
A full-length study of the writing of two academics, one male and senior and one female and junior, coauthoring an article. Study examines issues of power and accommodation within this framework for professional writing.
---. "Modernism and the Scene(s) of Writing." COLLEGE ENGLISH 49 (1988): 396-418.
Brody, Miriam. MANLY WRITING: GENDER, RHETORIC AND THE RISE OF COMPOSITION. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1993.
Drawing from Quintilian's oft-quoted metaphor of unmanly writing as the emasculated slave, the eunuch, Brody analyzes the historical legacy of the 18th century and 20th century tropes for masculinity used to describe excellence in writing and the ubiquity of stereotypical feminine qualities used to describe poor writing.
Butler, Judith. GENDER TROUBLE: FEMINISM AND THE SUBVERSION OF IDENTITY. New York: Routledge, 1990.
Primarily a philosophical treatise on the problems of polar understandings of gender. Butler recoups some of Foucault's work on sexuality for feminist and gender studies and she draws heavily from concepts of camp and cross-dressing to expand the binary conception of gender.
Cambridge, Barbara. "Equal Opportunity Writing Classrooms: Accommodating Interactional Differences between the Genders in the Writing Classroom." WRITING INSTRUCTOR 7 (1987): 30-39.
Carby, Hazel. RECONSTRUCTING WOMANHOOD: THE EMERGENCE OF THE AFRO-AMERICAN WOMAN NOVELIST. New York: Oxford UP, 1987.
Full length discussion of issues and representation of race and African American women writers.
Cayton, Mary Kupiec. "What Happens When Things Go Wrong: Women and Writing Blocks." JOURNAL OF ADVANCED COMPOSITION 10 (1990): 321-338.
Caywood, Cynthia L. and Gilliam R. Overing, eds. TEACHING WRITING: PEDAGOGY, GENDER, AND EQUITY. New York: State U of New York P, 1986.
An edited collection of 20 articles primarily related to issues of gender and the teaching of composition.
Cixous, Helene. THREE STEPS ON THE LADDER OF WRITING. Trans. Sarah Cornell and Susan Sellers. New York: Columbia UP, 1993.
Cixous' reflection on the process of writing and its reception. She discusses the myths of great writing and draws from the work of Clarice Lispector, Maria Tsvetaeva, Dostoyevsky, and Kafka.
Cixous, Helene, and Catherine Clement. THE NEWLY BORN WOMAN. Trans. Betsy Wing. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 1986.
Composed of two essays and a dialogue between Cixous and Clement, the discussion focuses on ecriture feminine versus the (male) rhetoric of academic writing.
Cochran, Effie Papatzikou. "Giving Voice to Women in the Basic Writing and Language Minority Classroom." JOURNAL OF BASIC WRITING 13.1 (1994): 78-90.
Cohen, Ed. "Are We (Not) What We Are Becoming?: 'Gay Identity,' 'Gay Studies,' and the Disciplining of Knowledge." In ENGENDERING MEN: THE QUESTION OF MALE FEMINIST CRITICISM. Eds. Joseph A. Boone and Michael Cadden. New York: Routledge, 1990. 161-75.
Connors, Robert J. "Teaching and Learning as a Man," COLLEGE ENGLISH 58:2 (1996): 137-157.
Culley, Margo and Catherine Portuges, eds. GENDERED SUBJECTS: THE DYNAMICS OF FEMINIST TEACHING. Boston: Routledge, 1985.
A collection of 23 articles, the volume has a strong strand of relatively early attention to questions of positionality, especially the inclusion of racial dimensions to feminist thinking.
De Lauretis, Teresa. TECHNOLOGIES OF GENDER: ESSAYS ON THEORY, FILM, AND FICTION. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1987.
Another theoretical work now considered standard reading, the chapters "The Technology of Gender," "The Violence of Rhetoric: Considerations of Representation and Gender," and "Strategies of Coherence" apply not only to gender but also to other contemporary creative genres.
Drucker, Johanna. "Women and Language." POETICS JOURNAL 4 (May 1984): 56-57.
Ede, Lisa S. and Andrea Lunsford. SINGULAR TEXTS/ PLURAL AUTHORS: PERSPECTIVES ON COLLABORATIVE WRITING. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois UP, 1990.
A study of the uses of collaborative writing in a number of disciplines (e.g., modern languages, chemistry, engineering, technical communication. Includes an extended discussion of the Western concept of authorship and how it has tended to exclude women.
Eichhorn, Jill, Sara Farris, Karen Hayes, Adriana Hernandez, Susan C. Jarratt, Karen Powers-Stubbs, and Marian M. Sciachitano. "A Symposium on Feminist Experiences in the Composition Classroom." COLLEGE COMPOSITION AND COMMUNICATION 43 (1992): 297-322. Elliott, Gayle. "Pedagogy in Penumbra: Teaching, Writing, and Feminism in the Fiction Workshop." In COLORS OF A DIFFERENT HORSE: RETHINKING CREATIVE WRITING THEORY AND PEDAGOGY. Eds. Wendy Bishop and Hans Ostrom. Urbana: National Council of Teachers of English, 1994. 100-126.
Farrell, Thomas. "The Male and Female Modes of Rhetoric." COLLEGE ENGLISH 40 (1979): 909-921.
Flynn, Elizabeth. "Composing as a Woman." COLLEGE COMPOSITION AND COMMUNICATION 39 (1988): 423-435.
---. "Composing 'Composing as a Woman': A Perspective on Research." COLLEGE COMPOSITION AND COMMUNICATION 41 (1990): 83-89.
---. "Composition Studies from a Feminist Perspective." THE POLITICS OF WRITING INSTRUCTION. Ed. Richard Bullock and John Trimbur. Portsmouth: Boynton/Cook, 1991.
Fox, Tom. "Gender Interests in Reading and Writing." In THE SOCIAL USES OF WRITING. Norwood, NJ: Ablex, 1990. 51-70.
Frey, Olivia. "Beyond Literary Darwinism: Women's Voices and Critical Discourse." COLLEGE ENGLISH 52 (1990): 507-26.
Gabriel, Susan, and Isaiah Smithson, eds. GENDER IN THE CLASSROOM: POWER AND PEDAGOGY. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois P, 1990.
The volume includes 11 articles, including several examining classroom practices and gendered readings.
Gannett, Cinthia. GENDER AND THE JOURNAL: DIARIES AND ACADEMIC DISCOURSE. Albany, NY: State U of New York P, 1992.
Examines the genres of valued discourse in English Studies along with the journal, concluding that the journal has been a devalued genre because it is gendered.
Gauthier, Xaviere. "Is There Such a Thing as a Women's Writing?" Trans. Marilyn A. August. In NEW FRENCH FEMINISMS. Eds. Elaine Marks and Isabelle de Courtivron. New York: Schocken, 1981. 161-64.
Gearhart, Sally Miller. "The Womanization of Rhetoric." WOMEN'S STUDIES INTERNATIONAL QUARTERLY 2 (1979): 195-201.
Gillam, Alice M. "Feminism and Composition Research: Researching as a Woman." COMPOSITION STUDIES/FRESHMAN ENGLISH NEWS 20.1 (Spring 1992): 47-54.
Glenn, Cheryl. "Sex, Lies, and Manuscript: Refiguring Aspasia in the History of Rhetoric." COLLEGE COMPOSITION AND COMMUNICATION 45.2 (1994): 180-199.
Gore, Jennifer. THE STRUGGLE FOR PEDAGOGIES: CRITICAL AND FEMINIST DISCOURSES AS REGIMES OF TRUTH. New York: Routledge, 1993.
Reviews the work of the major critical pedagogy proponents and analyzes the reasons and effects of the lack of feminist analyses.
Haake, Katharine, Sandra Alcosser, and Wendy Bishop. "Teaching Creative Writing: A Feminist Critique." AWP CHRONICLE 22.2 (Oct/Nov 1989): 1-6.
Holbrook, Sue Ellen. "Women's Work: The Feminizing of Composition." RHETORIC REVIEW 9 (1991): 201-229.
Hollis, Karyn L. "Feminism in Writing Workshops: A New Pedagogy." COLLEGE COMPOSITION AND COMMUNICATION 43 (1992): 340-348.
---. "Literacy Theory, Teaching Composition, and Feminist Response." PRE/TEXT 13.1-2 (1992): 103-115.
Irigaray, Luce. SPECULUM OF THE OTHER WOMAN. Trans. Gillian G. Gill. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1985.
Includes critique of Freud's views on femininity, readings of classical Western philosophers on women, and a rereading of Plato's cave story from a feminist perspective.
---. THIS SEX WHICH IS NOT ONE. Trans. Catherine Porter and Carolyn Burke. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1985.
Includes 11 essays by Irigaray, primarily revising and challenging psychoanalytic theories of women. Important for the counter-metaphors Irigaray offers, especially her discussion of two lips, "When Our Lips Speak Together." Also includes a feminist revision of Marxist analysis.
Jarratt, Susan C. "The First Sophists and Feminism: Discourses of the 'Other.'" ASPASIA 5 (1990): 27-41.
---. REREADING THE SOPHISTS: CLASSICAL RHETORIC REFIGURED. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1991.
Reviews the historical reception of the Greek Sophists and suggests that their work bears a similar relation to other Greek philosophers as does the relation between female and male authors. Suggests recouping the Sophistic rhetorical as more compatible with a contemporary understanding of rhetoric.
Jarratt, Susan C. and Nedra C. Reynolds. "The Splitting Image: Contemporary Feminisms and the Ethics of Ethos." In ETHOS: NEW ESSAYS IN RHETORICAL AND CRITICAL THEORY. James S. Baumlin and Tita French Baumlin, eds. Dallas: Southern Methodist UP, 1992. 37-63.
Johnson, Donna M. and Duane H. Roen. "Complimenting and Involvement in Peer-Reviews: Gender Variation." LANGUAGE IN SOCIETY 21 (1992): 27-57.
Jones, Ann Rosalind. "Writing the Body: Toward an Understanding of L'Ecriture Feminine." In THE NEW FEMINIST CRITICISM: ESSAYS ON WOMEN, LITERATURE, THEORY. Ed. Elaine Showalter. New York: Pantheon, 1985. 361-377.
Juncker, Clara. "Writing (with) Cixous." COLLEGE ENGLISH 50 (1988): 424-435.
Keroes, Jo. "But What Do They Say? Gender and the Content of Student Writing." DISCOURSE PROCESSES 13 (1990): 243-257.
Kirsch, Gesa. WOMEN WRITING THE ACADEMY: AUDIENCE, AUTHORITY, AND TRANSFORMATION. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois UP, 1993.
Studies of women academics writing within the constraints of gender and discipline.
Kneupper, Charles, ed. RHETORIC AND IDEOLOGY: COMPOSITIONS AND CRITICISMS OF POWER. Arlington: Rhetoric Society of America, 1989.
Kolodny, Annette. "A Map for Rereading: Gender and the Interpretation of Literary Texts." THE NEW FEMINIST CRITICISM: ESSAYS ON WOMEN, LITERATURE, AND SOCIETY. Ed. Elaine Showalter. New York: Pantheon, 1985: 46-62.
Kraemer, Don J., Jr. "Gender and the Autobiographical Essay: A Critical Extension of the Research." COLLEGE COMPOSITION AND COMMUNICATION. 43 (1992): 323-339.
---. "No Exit: A Play of Literacy and Gender." JOURNAL OF ADVANCED COMPOSITION 10 (1990): 305-322.
Kristeva, Julia. REVOLUTION IN POETIC LANGUAGE. Trans. Margaret Waller. New York: Columbia UP, 1984.
One of Kristeva's early works, she describes the basic psychoanalytic model with which she works in relation to texts. The leakage of the semiotic, associated with the feminine and the child's time before language, the Law of the Father, is suggested as that which makes art.
---. "The System and the Speaking Subject." In Moi, Kristeva, 25-33.
---. "Women's Time." Trans. Alice Jardine and Harry Blake. In Moi, Kristeva, 188-213.
Lakoff, Robin. LANGUAGE AND WOMAN'S PLACE. New York: Harper and Row, 1975.
An extraordinarily influential short reflection on features of language thought to be associated with women, this book launched a major research agenda in language and gender.
Lamb, Catherine E. "Beyond Argument in Feminist Composition." COLLEGE COMPOSITION AND COMMUNICATION 42 (1992): 11-24.
Lauer, Janice M. "The Feminization of Rhetoric and Composition Studies?" RHETORIC REVIEW 13.2 (1995): 276-286.
Lay, Mary M. "Feminist Theory and the Redefinition of Technical Communication." JOURNAL OF BUSINESS AND TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION 5.4 (October 1991): 348-70.
Lewis, Magda, and Roger I. Simon. "A Discourse Not Intended for Her: Learning and Teaching within Patriarchy." HARVARD EDUCATIONAL REVIEW 56 (1986): 457-472.
Looser, Devoney. "Composing as an 'Essentialist'?: New Directions for Feminist Composition Theories." RHETORIC REVIEW 12.1 (1993): 54-69.
Lunsford, Andrea, ed. RECLAIMING RHETORICA: WOMEN IN THE RHETORICAL TRADITION. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh P, 1995.
A collection of 16 articles on Western women rhetoricians and women's rhetoric, from the classical period through contemporary practices.
Mariani, Philomena. CRITICAL FICTIONS: THE POLITICS OF IMAGINATIVE WRITING. Ed. Philomena Mariani. Seattle: Bay, 1991. 3-12.
McConnell-Ginet, Sally, Ruth Borker, and Nelly Furman, eds. WOMEN AND LANGUAGE IN LITERATURE AND SOCIETY. New York: Praeger, 1980.
A "classic" work in issues of women, language, and style, it has sections on views of women and language from the disciplines and in everyday discourse, as well as feminist readings, primarily from a language perspective of women writers, including Marianne Moore, Kate Chopin, Colette, Simone de Beauvoir, Virginia Woolf and others.
Mills, Sara. FEMINIST STYLISTICS. London: Routledge, 1995.
The book takes up theoretical analyses of feminist models of texts, gendered style, and gender and reading, before moving to word, sentence, and discourse analysis of women's styles.
---, ed. LANGUAGE AND GENDER: INTERDISCIPLINARY PERSPECTIVES. London: Longman, 1995.
A wide ranging consideration of women and language, including a section on lesbian poetics, and articles on feminism and popular fiction and science fiction and feminism.
Moi, Toril. "Feminism, Postmodernism, and Style." CULTURAL CRITIQUE (1988): 3-22.
---, ed. THE KRISTEVA READER. New York: Columbia UP, 1985.
---. SEXUAL/TEXTUAL POLITICS. London: Methuen, 1985.
A brief overview of the differences between North American and European feminist criticism. Good descriptions of the early work of Cixous, Kristeva, and Irigaray.
Mullin, Joan. "Feminist Theory, Feminist Pedagogy: The Gap Between What We Say and What We Do." COMPOSITION STUDIES/FRESHMAN ENGLISH NEWS 22.1 (1994): 14-24.
Osborn, Susan. "'Revision/Re-vision': A Feminist Writing Class." RHETORIC REVIEW 9 (1991): 258-273.
Peterson, Linda H. "Gender and the Autobiographical Essay: Research Perspectives, Pedagogical Practices." COLLEGE COMPOSITION AND COMMUNICATION 42 (1991): 170-83.
Phelps, Louise Wetherbee and Janet Emig, eds. FEMININE PRINCIPLES AND WOMEN'S EXPERIENCE IN AMERICAN COMPOSITION AND RHETORIC. Pittsburgh: U of Pittsburgh P, 1995.
A collection of 20 articles on women's experiences in contemporary rhetoric and composition. Articles of interest to creative writers include Lillian Bridwell-Bowles' article "Discourse and Diversity," and Cinthia Gannett's discussion of the contrasts among journals, diaries, and academic forms of discourse.
Rich, Adrienne. OF WOMEN BORN. New York: Norton, 1976.
---. ON LIES, SECRETS, AND SILENCE: SELECTED PROSE 1966-1978. New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1979.
Richman, Michele. "Sex and Signs: The Language of French Feminist Criticism." LANGUAGE AND STYLE 13 (1980): 62-81.
Ritchie, Joy S. "Confronting the 'Essential' Problem: Reconnecting Feminist Theory and Pedagogy." JOURNAL OF ADVANCED COMPOSITION 10 (1990): 249-274.
Roen, Duane H. "Gender and Teacher Response to Student Writing." GENDER ISSUES IN THE TEACHING OF ENGLISH. Ed. Nancy Mellin McCracken and Bruce C. Appleby. Portsmouth: Boynton/Cook-Heinemann, 1992.
Roen, Duane H. and Donna M. Johnson. "Perceiving the Effectiveness of Written Discourse through Gender Lenses: The Contribution of Complimenting." WRITTEN COMMUNICATION 9 (1992): 435-464.
Rosaldo, Michelle Zimbalest. "Woman, Culture, and Society: A Theoretical Overview." In WOMAN, CULTURE, AND SOCIETY. Ed. Michelle Zimbalest Rosaldo and Louise Lamphere. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1974. 17-42.
Rubin, Donald L. and Kathryn Greene. "Gender-Typical Style in Written Language." RESEARCH IN THE TEACHING OF ENGLISH 26 (1992): 7-40.
Rubin, Donnalee. GENDER INFLUENCES: READING STUDENT TEXTS. Urbana: NCTE, 1993.
Examines impact of gender on the reading of college students' texts.
Russ, Johanna. HOW TO SUPPRESS WOMEN'S WRITING. Austin: U of Texas P, 1983.
An examination of resistance to inclusion of women's writing in literature. Slightly different perspective from that of Dale Spender (see below).
Selfe, Cynthia. "Technology in the English Classroom: Computers through the Lens of Feminist Theory." In COMPUTERS AND COMMUNITY. Ed. Carolyn Handa. Portsmouth: Boynton/Cook, 1990. 118-140.
Sirc, Geoffrey. "Gender and 'Writing Formations' in First Year Narratives." FRESHMAN ENGLISH NEWS 18 (1989): 4-11.
Spender, Dale. MAN-MADE LANGUAGE. London: Routledge, 1980.
An analysis of women's share of the English language from a radical feminist perspective.
---. NATTERING ON THE NET: WOMEN, POWER, AND CYBERSPACE. North Melbourne, Australia: Spinifex P, 1995.
Discusses women's language in relation to contemporary electronic venues.
---. THE WRITING OR THE SEX? OR WHY YOU DON'T HAVE TO READ WOMEN'S WRITING TO KNOW IT'S NO GOOD. New York: Pergamon P, 1989.
An analysis of the continuing resistance to including the work of women writers in the study of literature.
Stacey, Judith, Bereaud, Susan, and Daniels, Joan, eds. AND JILL CAME TUMBLING AFTER. New York: Dell, 1974.
Sullivan, Patricia A. "Feminism and Methodology in Composition Studies." In METHODS AND METHODOLOGY IN COMPOSITION RESEARCH. Eds. Gesa Kirsch and Patricia A. Sullivan. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1992. 37-61.
Swearingen, C. Jan. "Discourse, Difference, and Gender: Walter J.Ong's Contribution to Feminist Language Studies." MEDIA, CONSCIOUSNESS, AND CULTURE: EXPLORATIONS OF WALTER J. ONG'S THOUGHT. Eds. B. E. Cronbeck, T. J. Farrell and P. A. Soukup. Newbury Park: Sage, 1991. 210-222.
Tannen, Deborah. GENDER AND DISCOURSE. New York: Oxford UP, 1994.
An accessible review of sociolinguistic work on language and gender, though it doesn't address intersections with race, class, and sexual orientation. Of interest to creative writers is the chapter Tannen writes with Robin Lakoff on the pragmatics and verisimilitude of dialogue in Bergman's "Scenes from a Marriage."
Taylor, S. O. "Women in a Double Bind: Hazards of the Argumentative Edge." COLLEGE COMPOSITION AND COMMUNICATION 29 (1978): 385-389.
Thorne, Barrie, and Nancy Henley, eds. LANGUAGE AND SEX: DIFFERENCE AND DOMINANCE. Rowley, MA: Newbury, 1975.
Twelve articles from the period in which binary oppositions between women and men's language were posed, but articles include Muriel Schultz's "The Semantic Derogation of Women," and the Don Zimmerman and Candace West article, "Sex Roles, Interruptions, and Silences." Also include 100 page annotated bibliography.
Thorne, Barrie, Cheris Kramarae, and Nancy Henley, eds. LANGUAGE, GENDER, AND SOCIETY. Rowley: Newbury House, 1983.
A collection of 10 essays on issues of language and gender including Pamela Fishman's "Interaction: The Work Women Do," and an extensive (150+ pages) annotated bibliography of work on language in gender in the late 1970's and early 1980's.
Tobin, Lad. "The Personal Narratives of Adolescent Males.7quot; COLLEGE ENGLISH 58:2 (1996): 158-175.
Trinh, Minh-ha. WOMAN, NATIVE, OTHER: WRITING POSTCOLONIALITY AND FEMINISM. Bloomington, IN: Indiana UP, 1989.
Takes up the issues of creativity for third world women and how they are perceived as authors. Discussion of "Difference" in third chapter addresses multiple positionings of non-Western women authors.
Tuell, Cynthia. "Composition Teaching as 'Women's Work': Daughters, Handmaids, Whores, and Mothers." In WRITING OURSELVES IN TO THE STORY: UNHEARD VOICES FROM COMPOSITION STUDIES. Sheryl L. Fontaine and Susan Hunter, eds. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1993. 123-139.
West, Candace, and Don H. Zimmerman. "Sex Roles, Interruptions and Silences in Conversation." Language, GENDER, AND SOCIETY. Eds. Barrie Thorne and Nancy Henley, 105-129.
Winette, Susan. "Coming Unstrung: Women, Men, Narrative, and Principles of Pleasure." PMLA 105. 3 (May 1990): 505-18.
Woolbright, Meg. "The Politics of Tutoring: Feminism within the Patriarchy." WRITING CENTER JOURNAL 13.1 (1992): 16-30.
Woolf, Virginia. A ROOM OF ONE'S OWN. 1929. Rpt. New York: Harcourt, 1957. Worsham, Lynn. "Kenneth Burke's Appendicitis: A Feminist's Case for Complaint." PRE/TEXT 12.1-2 (1991): 67-95.
---. "Writing against Writing: The Predicament of Ecriture Feminine in Composition Studies." In CONTENDING WITH WORDS: COMPOSITION AND RHETORIC IN A POSTMODERN AGE. Patricia Harkin and John Schilb, eds. New York: MLA, 1991. 82-104.