Publications from the Women's Studies Librarian and Her Staff


[This is the first part of a bibliography in five parts on feminist aesthetics. The bibliography is number 65 in the series "Wisconsin Bibliographies in Women's Studies" published by the University of Wisconsin System Women's Studies Librarian's Office, 430 Memorial Library, 728 State Street, Madison, WI 53706.]

Linda Krumholz and Estella Lauter

The following annotated bibliography was prepared in 1988-90 by Linda Krumholz, then a dissertator in English at UW-Madison,as part of my book (still in progress) entitled FEMINIST INTERVENTIONS IN AESTHETICS. We share it now because we think that, beyond its obvious uses as a guide to current issues in feminist aesthetic thought, it offers a unique opportunity to see how an interdisciplinary subfield evolved within Women's Studies during the same period when the larger interdisciplinary field of inquiry was itself taking shape. I gave Linda the broadest possible definition of the terms to be used in her search. "Feminist aesthetics" meant to me the systematic feminist study of all the arts (including what has been called the crafts), and of related individual and institutional practices of (re)cognition, interpretation and evaluation, including what has been called "aesthetic experience" and the perception of beauty. We sectioned the bibliography by media because the early essays almost always pertained to just one form of art even when their titles promised more. To make the process manageable, since we were searching across disciplinary lines, we limited our scope primarily to books and articles published in the U.S. and Canada or elsewhere in English. In general, we did not include works on single figures or historical movements unless their subjects were insufficiently represented by other works focused more directly on aesthetic issues. We included reviews only when the reviewer offered a significant theoretical point. We attempted to represent both sides of dialogues and to stay as close as possible to the language of the author's argument. And finally, we sought to honor all of the phases and schools of feminist thought (liberal, radical, material, and so on). While we do not claim complete objectivity, we have practiced the ethic of inclusivity to the best of our abilities; if we have omitted something that you would like to see included, please send the reference to us. The final wording of each entry was determined by Linda. I would like to take this opportunity to thank her for the caring intelligence of her work. I would also thank the Frankenthal family of Green Bay for the endowment that allowed us to undertake this project. The section on Visual Arts first appeared in HYPATIA 5.2 (Summer 1990).

The abbreviations used in this bibliography are as follows: the journals CANADIAN WOMEN'S STUDIES (CWS); CRITICAL INQUIRY (CI); FEMINIST ART JOURNAL (FAJ); FEMINIST STUDIES (FS); NATIONAL WOMEN'S STUDIES ASSOCIATION JOURNAL (NWSAJ);RESOURCES FOR FEMINIST RESEARCH/DOCUMENTATION SUR LA RECHERCHE FEMINISTE (RFR/DFR); TULSA STUDIES IN WOMEN'S LITERATURE (TSWL) and WOMAN'S ART JOURNAL (WAJ). Also, when an article or chapter found in a book that is cited elsewhere in the bibliography, the entry gives only author/editor(s) and pages. For example, DeKoven, Marianne. "Male Signature, Female Aesthetic..." Friedman and Fuchs 72-81. The full citation for Friedman and Fuchs is found under Friedman, Ellen G. and Miriam Fuchs, ed. BREAKING THE SEQUENCE: WOMEN'S EXPERIMENTAL FICTION, in the same section of the bibliogrphy.

Estella Lauter
Frankenthal Professor, Humanistic Studies
University of Wisconsin-Green Bay, December 1992

Literary Criticism and Theory: 1970-1990

[This is the second part of a bibliography in five parts on feminist aesthetics. The bibliography is number 65 in the series "Wisconsin Bibliographies in Women's Studies" published by the University of Wisconsin System Women's Studies Librarian's Office, 430 Memorial Library, 728 State Street, Madison, WI 53706.]


Abel, Elizabeth, ed. WRITING AND SEXUAL DIFFERENCE. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982.
This is an anthology of articles, published in CRITICAL INQUIRY between 1980 and 1982, that analyze various conjunctions of literature, language, and feminist theories. The essays include overviews, readings of works--from Isak Dinesen to Aristophanes--and issues such as transvestism and the representation of lesbianism and friendship in lesbian literature. See Showalter.

Allen argues that Native American culture is exemplary of egalitarian relations among people and in its spiritual relations with the earth. She sees this as part of a female aesthetic principle basic to American Indian culture and literature.

Barling, Marion. "To Be or Not To Be? Or, And From the Darkness, Let There Be Light: Some Thoughts on Developing a Feminist Aesthetic." RFR/DFR 13.4 (1984/85): 5-6.
Barling suggests that a feminist aesthetic must develop from a female "being," an ontological perspective that is outside of the "male perspective" of art and culture.

Benstock, Shari, ed. FEMINIST ISSUES IN LITERARY SCHOLARSHIP. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987.
The essays, which are mostly from TSWL, engage well-known names in American feminist criticism in broad considerations of feminist criticism and aesthetics, as well as more specific topics, such as the African-American woman's autobiography. See Donovan and Marcus.

Bogdan, Deanne. "Feminist Criticism and Total Form in Literary Experience." RFR/DFR 16.3 (1987): 20-23.
Bogdan argues that the reading pleasure in a realistic text is based on total form, which creates a reading experience of spiritual and emotional reaction through identification with the text and its assumptions. She argues further that feminists need not give up this aesthetic pleasure, but should follow it with a political analysis recognizing the ideological assumptions that were working to create the totalizing effect.

Carruthers, Mary. "Imagining Women: Notes Toward a Feminist Poetic." MASSACHUSETTS REVIEW 20 (1979): 281-307.
Carruthers argues that the treatment of central themes--mother-daughter relationships, romantic love, and the nature of powerful women--change in women's poetry around 1968-70. She believes women's poetry is moving toward a more fully imagined, multidimensional version of women's development.

Christian, Barbara. BLACK WOMEN NOVELISTS: THE DEVELOPMENT OF A TRADITION, 1892-1976. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1980.
Christian delineates a variety of Anglo-American images of black women, to articulate powerful arguments regarding the social and historical role such images have played in supporting the status of the ruling class. She concludes that black writers had to sweep away Anglo-American cultural norms to open up their own representations of African-American culture.

DeJean, Joan. "Fictions of Sappho." CI 13 (1987): 787-805.
DeJean argues that Lipking's article, "A Poetics of Abandonment," repeats a centuries-old gesture exemplified by male poets' treatment of Sappho, in which women's desire and artistic creativity are recast as a response to an abandonment by men, thus rendering "a feminocentric world7quot; and female poetic genius non-threatening to the male writers.

DeKoven, Marianne. "Male Signature, Female Aesthetic: The Gender Politics of Experimental Writing." Friedman and Fuchs 72-81.
DeKoven calls experimental writing an antipatriarchal writing practice, and she argues that despite the prevalence of male elitism and misogyny in avant garde circles, the relation of a female aesthetic--ecriture feminine--to avant garde practice can and should be developed without suppressing the gendered signature.

de Lauretis, Teresa. "The Left Hand of History." HERESIES 4 (1978): 23-26.
De Lauretis argues that we need a feminist theory of textual production rather than a theory of women's writing; "we need a theory of culture with women as subjects--not commodities but social beings producing and reproducing cultural products, transmitting and transforming cultural values."

de Lauretis, Teresa, ed. FEMINIST STUDIES/ CRITICAL STUDIES. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1986.
In her introduction to this book of essays, de Lauretis argues that institutions have the ability to neutralize resistance and transform it into liberal opposition that "proves" the democratic inclusiveness of the institution. Thus, she argues that with self-consciousness and with strategies that push against discursive boundaries, feminists must create a "new aesthetic, a rewriting of culture," that rejects a "homogeneous, monolithic Feminism" as both restrictive and easily appropriated. The essays cover historical, scientific, and literary questions of gender, in conjunction with ethnicity and class, and the relationship of feminist theories to constructions of knowledge.

Donovan, Josephine, ed. FEMINIST LITERARY CRITICISM: EXPLORATIONS IN THEORY. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1975.
In the postscript of this early book of essays, Donovan heralds a new feminine aesthetic that rejects reified values and develops a female epistemology based in a female perspective and an authentic female culture. She suggests that feminist literary criticism must acknowledge multiple interpretations and seek collective readings. See Holly and Schumacher.

---. "Toward a Women's Poetics." Benstock 98-109.
Donovan wishes to create a poetics that emerges from "women's ways of seeing, a women's epistemology." She delineates six elements of women's experience and practice--a position of oppression, consignment to the private sphere, creation of products for home use, common physiological experiences, a maternal ethic, and a greater sense of context and relation--as a basis for a different female methodology.

DuPlessis argues that women novelists subvert both the plot and style of the novel. They create plots that go beyond the traditional conclusion of the marriage plot--the choice of marriage or death--and they develop styles that break up traditional expectations of the genre.

DuPlessis, Rachel Blau, and members of Workshop 9. "For the Etruscans: Sexual Difference and Artistic Production--The Debate Over a Female Aesthetic." Eisenstein and Jardine 128-156. Reprinted in Showalter, NEW FEMINIST CRITICISM 271-291.
The article is written as a dialogue between voices and texts, and interspersed with quotations about the Etruscan language, a metaphor for a female "language." The dialogic form suits the aesthetic elaborated here because it makes the article an "antiphonal, many voiced work" and because it undermines an absolute or authoritative stance. DuPlessis describes the relational nature of hegemony that makes a woman's position "(ambiguously) nonhegemonic." She concludes that "the 'female aesthetic' is simply a version of the aesthetic position that can be articulated by any nonhegemonic group."

Ecker, Gisela, ed. FEMINIST AESTHETICS. Trans. Harriet Anderson. Boston: Beacon Press, 1985.
In her introduction to this collection of essays, translated from the German, Ecker argues for the necessity of using Lacanian concepts of subjectivity and the French feminists' concern with representation, while at the same time pursuing "feminist aesthetics" rather than "feminine aesthetics." The essays that follow, some densely analytical and others more poetical, range from theories of "woman" as the "enigma of beauty" incarnate--the basis of traditional aesthetic theories--to delineations of a utopian "matriarchal aesthetic."

Eisenstein, Hester, and Alice Jardine, eds. THE FUTURE OF DIFFERENCE. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1980.
This anthology brings together sociological and psychological perspectives with linguistic and literary critical approaches, to create a lively array of feminist positions. Part III addresses most directly the question of feminist aesthetics, including, among others, Lorde's essay "Poetry is Not a Luxury" and an essay on women's experimental theater. See DuPlessis and Stanton.

Felski argues against feminist aesthetics, which she defines as "any theoretical position which argues a necessary or privileged relationship between female gender and a particular kind of literary structure, style, or form." Felski notes two forms of feminist aesthetics: the American version in which a distinctive female consciousness or experience is the basis of an aesthetic; and the French linguistically based aesthetic that privileges avant-garde literature as transgressive of phallocentric order. Felski argues that rather than a priori theories of aesthetics that either polarize the political and the aesthetic (as in the former case) or conflate the political and the aesthetic (as in the latter), feminists should look to the highly complex interactions between literature, feminist ideology, and the broader social domain and historic moment.

Fetterley, Judith. THE RESISTING READER: A FEMINIST APPROACH TO AMERICAN FICTION. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1978.
Fetterley argues that women are asked to read against themselves in novels by men, through identification with male protagonists rather than with the females, who are usually represented as quest objects. She proposes that a revolutionary feminist criticism can be created by reading these novels with an active resistance to the roles and assumptions the writers impose on the readers.

Finke, Laurie. "The Rhetoric of Marginality: Why I Do Feminist Theory." TSWL 5 (1986): 251-272.
Finke's article is a response to the articles in FEMINIST ISSUES IN LITERARY SCHOLARSHIP (see Benstock), especially those which attack "theory" per se, as if what they do is independent of theorizing. She also argues that many of the critics contributing to the collection, "prominent white female critics," speak of marginality as an absolute rather than a relative position, ignoring their own privileged status. She proposes a Bakhtinian approach to feminist criticism that could be "a dialogic, nonauthoritarian critical rhetoric" rather than an attempt to establish authority by claiming to speak for all women.

Flynn, Elizabeth A., and Patrocinio Schweickart, eds. GENDER AND READING: ESSAYS ON READERS, TEXTS, AND CONTEXTS. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986.
Based on the premise that learning the basic skills of literacy and literary criticism inducts one into a male-defined reading practice, the essays Flynn and Schweickart have collected propose new reading theories and practices to better understand and change men's and women's reading processes. In Schweickart's essay "Reading Ourselves: Toward a Feminist Theory of Reading," she argues for a dialectical relationship--like a conversation--between the text and the reader. Jean E. Kennard proceeds--in her essay "Ourself Behind Ourself: A Theory for Lesbian Readers"--to problematize the inclusiveness of the category "women," using an idea of "polar reading" derived from gestalt therapy to seek ways in which a reader can find empowerment even when her own experience is not reflected in a text. Other essays include textual readings and sociological studies, including chapters by Susan R. Suleiman, Judith Fetterley, and David Bleich.

Friedman, Ellen G., and Miriam Fuchs, eds. BREAKING THE SEQUENCE: WOMEN'S EXPERIMENTAL FICTION. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1989.
The essays in this anthology, covering eight decades of women's experimental fiction, represent the union of experimental and feminist aesthetics as the creation of a radical aesthetic. Friedman and Fuchs maintain that women's experimental fiction undermines patriarchal narratives (religious, social, etc.) and patriarchal narrative assumptions (of closure, linearity, etc.) by subverting traditional notions of discourse. See DeKoven.

Friedman, Susan Stanford. "Gender and Genre Anxiety: Elizabeth Barrett Browning and H.D. as Epic Poets." TSWL 5 (1986): 203-228.
Friedman argues that both Barrett Browning and H.D. "feminize" the epic, a genre she associates with masculinity, heroism, and action. The two poets "had to deconstruct the male epic tradition and reconstitute the genre to serve their perspectives as women."

---. "Creativity and the Childbirth Metaphor: Gender Difference in Literary Discourse." FS 13 (1987): 49-82. Reprinted in Showalter, SPEAKING OF GENDER 73-100.
Friedman argues that although in male-authored texts the childbirth metaphor reaffirms the traditional separation of male/mind vs. female/body, the same metaphor can take on subversive meanings in a female-authored text. Thus she concludes that it is not a "feminine sentence" that creates difference, nor any biologically fixed element; it is the gender marking of the text that affects the reading and designates whether the metaphor is read through a masculinist or gynocentric aesthetic.

Froula, Christine. "When Eve Reads Milton: Undoing the Canonical Economy." CI 10 (December 1983): 321-347.
Froula argues that by reading canonical works with non-canonical works one can make visible the assumptions behind canon formation while also revealing the repression of the feminine in the representative apparatus. Thus feminist readings can work against the invisible cultural and patriarchal authority of the canon.

Furman, Nelly. "Textual Feminism." WOMEN AND LANGUAGE IN LITERATURE AND SOCIETY. Eds. Sally McConnell-Ginet, Ruth Borker, and Nelly Furman. New York: Praeger, 1980.
Furman argues that the signifier--the material form of a word--must be distinguished from the signified--the content or meaning of a word--to illuminate the process by which the sign gains meaning. In this process, the reader can gain power in an active creation of textual meaning and use a reading of the text to give voice to a feminist literary consciousness.

Gallop, Jane. THE DAUGHTER'S SEDUCTION: FEMINISM AND PSYCHOANALYSIS. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1982.
Gallop wishes to bring feminism and psychoanalysis to their most radical potential, to counter the concept of the unified, puritanical self of the former and the socially prescriptive nature of the latter. To do so she forces texts to "speak" to each other, playing an intertextual deconstructive jester, in which the critic is the analyst and the text is the body, the analysand. Thus, her reading practice analyzes the textual "unconscious," in which language is slippery and multiple and infused with gendered positions based on psychoanalytic (Freudian and Lacanian) sexual models.

Gaudin, Colette, et al., eds. "Feminist Readings: French Texts/American Contexts." Special issue of YALE FRENCH STUDIES 62 (1981).
In negotiating the divisions between French and North American feminist critical theories, the essays in this volume offer a number of reading strategies, such as Schor's and Spivak's "clitoral" theories, that seek radical convergences between psychoanalytic theories and politically instrumental critiques.

Gilbert, Sandra. "Life's Empty Pack: Notes Toward a Literary Daughteronomy." CI 11 (1985): 355-384.
Gilbert sets up a model of female literary inheritance whereby female precursors do nothing toward enabling their literary "daughters" because they offer them an "empty pack," denying female power and devoting themselves to achieving literary authority by taking on the role of the father.

Gilbert and Gubar describe a feminist poetics and a female literary tradition based on recurrent images in nineteenth-century women's literature. They argue that the social oppression of women authors along with the male texts they read reinforced their silence, creating an anxiety of authorship (the female version of Harold Bloom's model of the anxiety of influence). Gilbert and Gubar argue further that the madwoman and the attic are textual representations of the women authors' repressed anger and crippled psyches--their doubles in the text.

Hammonds, Evelyn. "Toward a Black Feminist Aesthetics." SOJOURNER (Oct 1980).

Hodges, Devon. "FRANKENSTEIN and the Feminine Subversion of the Novel." TSWL 2 (1983): 155-164.
Using Shelley's FRANKENSTEIN as an example, Hodges argues that the novel as genre has encoded patriarchal ideology so women find they must deform traditional structures to express themselves. This reading repudiates critics who have dubbed Shelley's work an artistic failure; Hodges suggests that aesthetic considerations must recognize gendered textual strategies.

Holly, Marcia. "Consciousness and Authenticity: Toward a Feminist Aesthetic." Donovan, FEMINIST LITERARY CRITICISM 38-47.
Holly conceives of a feminist aesthetic as a humanistic aesthetic that finds universal rather than masculine truths. Critical judgments, she argues, should measure the realism and psychological authenticity of a work, which necessitates both a knowledge of the author's background and consciousness-raising on the part of the critic.


Homans, wishing to step beyond the content analysis often found in feminist criticism in the 1970s, focuses on the masculine bias in the language and literary patterns of Romantic poetry. Homans describes the poetic strategies of nineteenth-century women poets who had to contend with a masculine tradition in which poetic transcendence was attained through a Romantic egotism and through an association of woman with nature.

---. "`Her Very Own Howl': The Ambiguities of Representation in Recent Women's Fiction." SIGNS 9 (1983): 186-205.
Homans attempts to bring together French and American feminist theories, insofar as the former consider language coextensive with experience and the latter consider language as separable from experience. Homans argues that the "ambiguous (non)hegemony" of white middle class North American women novelists allows them to feel as if they have direct access to linguistic expression, while doubly marginalized women novelists thematize their skepticism about representation.

---. "`Syllable of Velvet': Dickinson, Rossetti, and the Rhetorics of Sexuality." FS 11 (1985): 569-593.
Homans argues that Emily Dickinson and Christina Rossetti subvert, to differing degrees, the traditional love lyric, epitomized by the love sonnets of Petrarch and Keats. She concludes, following Irigaray, that metonymy and contiguity are the tropes of female sexuality, and she describes Dickinson and Rossetti as two poets consciously working against the objectification (and silencing) of the female by turning from metaphor to metonymy and, in Dickinson's case, away from subject/object relations.

Considering theories of gender relations as cultural myths useful in a critique of culture, Homans employs Irigaray's assistance in pulling together Lacan's "myth" of gendered relations in language with Chodorow's "myth" of mother-daughter relations. In her analysis of nineteenth-century women's writing, she argues that the "literalization" of language--language as touch and sound--is represented symbolically and thematically as a trace of women's relation to language.

Jacobus, Mary, ed. WOMEN WRITING AND WRITING ABOUT WOMEN. London: Croom Helm, 1979.
This anthology of essays from a 1978 Oxford lecture series encompasses the many ways in which critics attempt to "inscribe female difference within writing." The essays focus on women writers from Bronte to Plath, on male representations of women in Ibsen and Hardy, and on trends in feminist literary and film theory. See Showalter and Mulvey.

---. READING WOMAN: ESSAYS IN FEMINIST CRITICISM. New York: Columbia University Press, 1986.
According to Jacobus, psychoanalysis frees women's writing from the determinism of origin or essence, positing the constitution of gendered positions in and by language. Jacobus favors an interpretive process that works through correspondences and the repressed vacillation of gender, eschewing closure and fixed gender identities.

Johnson, Barbara. A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1987.
Johnson makes clear in these essays, as in her analysis of metaphor and metonymy in Hurston's THEIR EYES and in her discussion of abortion, that the gap between language and intention raises questions that are not merely rhetorical. The resistance of language to meaning extends to Johnson's concept of self-resistance, which she posits as dangerous but necessary in feminist discourse.

Jones, Ann Rosalind. "Writing the Body: Toward an Understanding of L'ecriture Feminine." FS 7 (1981): 247-263. Reprinted in Showalter, NEW FEMINIST CRITICISM 361-377.
Jones reviews the works of Kristeva, Irigaray, Cixous, and Wittig, distinguishing concepts in each writer's work and deriving a concept of feminine writing that concentrates on signifying practices and assumes that the female body and one's experiences are always mediated. In the second half of the article, Jones constructs an anti-essentialist, materialist critique and argues for a social definition of women's writing.

Kolodny, Annette. "Some Notes on Defining a `Feminist Literary Criticism.'" CI 2 (1975): 75-92.
Using an empirical, deductive method, Kolodny argues that women's writing cannot be distinguished from men's, except through persistent review of themes and images to discover if subtle patterns, due to social position, exist. Regarding feminist criticism, she argues that critics must not force political messages onto creative texts, but that one's political consciousness must be engaged. She concludes that a communal rather than a competitive atmosphere should distinguish feminist criticism.

---. "Dancing Through the Minefield: Some Observations on the Theory, Practice and Politics of a Feminist Literary Criticism." FS 6 (1980): 1-25. Reprinted in Showalter, NEW FEMINIST CRITICISM 144-167.
Kolodny argues that aesthetic values are based in historical and ideological values and that no interpretations are definitive, therefore it is as important to unearth the ethical implications of critical theories as it is to interpret literary texts. She then associates the lack of definitive readings with the idea of "a playful pluralism," a notion many have argued undermines Kolodny's argument that aesthetic judgments are related to "epistemological, ethical, and moral concerns" because pluralism suggests that any ideological stance is acceptable, which is different than accepting that various interpretations have equal "truth" value.

---. "A Map for Rereading: Gender and the Interpretation of Literary Texts." Showalter, NEW FEMINIST CRITICISM 46-62.
Kolodny contends that Harold Bloom's invocation of literary tradition and literary community assume a male domain, and that since interpretive strategies are learned and historically determined, they are necessarily gender-inflected. Kolodny uses two stories written by women in which male "readers" fail to understand women's "writing" as fables of gender-inflected "misreadings" and rereadings.

Lanser, Susan S. "Toward a Feminist Narratology." STYLE 20 (1986): 341-363.
Lanser argues that feminism and narratology can link--respectively--discussions of language as a mimetic representation with language as a non-referential linguistic construct. Thus narratology could provide feminism with structures for describing rhetorical strategies, and feminism could provide narratology with contextualization and new categories.

Lipking, Lawrence. "Aristotle's Sister: A Poetics of Abandonment." CI 10 (1983): 61-81.
Lipking argues that "a woman's poetics," in order to give us a new way of reading both men's and women's texts, must highlight: woman's historic silencing, a disdain for "aesthetic distance," the role of the community in empowering speech, the importance of affiliation and community relations over positions of authority, and an inquiry regarding the grounds on which importance is established. He calls this a "poetics of abandonment," suggesting that women's poetics come from women's shared passion of loss from abandonment by men.

Lorde, Audre. SISTER OUTSIDER. Trumansburg, NY: The Crossing Press Feminist Series, 1984.
This is a collection of Lorde's essays, written 1976-1983, including "Poetry Is Not a Luxury," "Uses of the Erotic: The Erotic as Power," and "The Master's Tools Will Never Dismantle the Master's House." These essays address issues of literary creation and criticism from an African American lesbian feminist perspective, stressing connections between linguistic creativity and power relations.

McDowell, Deborah E. "New Directions for Black Feminist Criticism." Showalter, NEW FEMINIST CRITICISM 186-199.
McDowell argues that to do Black feminist criticism one must have a grasp of Black literature and culture in general. Within this contextual approach, McDowell contends, a Black feminist aesthetic can be developed from textual analyses of language, literary devices, and mythic structures employed in specific ways in Black women's literature.

Marcus, Jane. "A Still Practice, A/Wrested Alphabet: Toward a Feminist Aesthetic." Benstock, FEMINIST ISSUES 79-97.
In this article Marcus suggests that we adopt "an aesthetics of political commitment" through a "still" or passive reading practice in which we render ourselves egoless. Thus we gain a political voice by suppressing ourselves and "speaking for" our oppressed sisters.

---. ART AND ANGER: READING LIKE A WOMAN. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1988.
In the title essay of this collection, Marcus argues that anger can be a powerful tool in art, for empowering women and challenging existing social structures. Using her own art and anger, Marcus employs a "lupine" criticism--named for the wild flower and for the spirit of Virginia Woolf that guides Marcus' work--in such essays as "Thinking Back Through Our Mothers," "Storming the Toolshed," and a revision of "Still Practice."

Marks, Elaine. "Lesbian Intertextuality." HOMOSEXUALITIES AND FRENCH LITERATURE. Eds. George Stambolian and Elaine Marks. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1979. 353-377.
Marks uses "the Sappho model" to trace a lesbian intertextuality from Sappho's own poetry to Wittig's LE CORPS LESBIEN. She argues that Wittig's texts extend this intertextuality into a new mode of representing female bodies and desire that defies appropriation and creates a new female mythology outside of the "domestication" of female sexuality that structures Judeo-Christian culture.

Marks, Elaine, and Isabelle de Courtivron, eds. NEW FRENCH FEMINISMS. New York: Schocken Books, 1981.
This anthology brought the works of many French feminists to the U.S. readership for the first time. Marks and de Courtivron argue that French feminists employ Marxist and psychoanalytic theories rather than empirical methods, developing a model of the repression of the feminine that differs from the North American model of the oppression of women. The concept of the unconscious basis of language and ideology, common in French feminist writings, underlines the importance of developing textual strategies as intrinsic parts of political change.

Martindale, Kathleen. "On the Ethics of `Voice' in Feminist Literary Criticism." RFR/DFR 16.3 (1987): 16-19.
Martindale argues that polyvocal criticism is ethically the best feminist criticism because it refuses claims to privilege, finality, or neutrality, and it functions by acknowledging the multiplicity of meanings, voices, and positions, rather than by asserting its authority. She suggests that polyvocal criticism is difficult to write and to understand just as it is difficult to imagine the new and different ways of thinking and learning that can produce change.

Meese, Elizabeth. CROSSING THE DOUBLE CROSS: THE PRACTICE OF FEMINIST CRITICISM. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1986.
Meese intends "to provoke critical theory, particularly American manifestations of deconstruction, to be more radically political, and feminism to be more self-consciously polyvocal and destabilizing in its theorizing." Meese stages deconstructive arguments between texts, as in her first chapter: Woolf's A ROOM OF ONE'S OWN and THREE GUINEAS are used to expose the male conservative basis of canon construction and the "interpretive community" in Stanley Fish's IS THERE A TEXT IN THIS CLASS?

Meese, Elizabeth, and Alice Parker, eds. THE DIFFERENCE WITHIN: FEMINISM AND CRITICAL THEORY. Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 1989.
From Meese and Parker's introduction, relating the historical construction of gender to theories of difference, to Gayatri Spivak's response, a powerful discussion of the relationship of difference and differance to deconstruction and critical theorizing, this collection of essays covers a broad spectrum of authors and theoretical approaches, suggesting both the diversity and the common ground of critical theory within the institution.

Miller, Nancy K. POETICS OF GENDER. New York: Columbia University Press, 1986.
Miller brings together fourteen essays from a conference addressing the poetics of gender. For example, Catherine Stimpson describes Gertrude Stein's experimental writing as a poetics of transposition of gender; Jane Gallop critiques ecriture feminine for its effacement of class divisions between women; Domna Stanton addresses the problems in privileging the maternal metaphor; Naomi Schor argues that psychoanalytic readings must be complemented by historical readings; Elaine Showalter considers quilting as an ambiguous metaphor for "female culture"; and Monique Wittig poses the necessity for transforming the gender marking in languages.

---. SUBJECT TO CHANGE: READING FEMINIST WRITING. New York: Columbia University Press, 1988.
In this collection of Miller's essays, emerging from confrontations between feminism and deconstruction, Miller counters the post-modern "death of the author" with her assertion of the importance of female authorial subjectivity. Miller insists--in her essays "The Text's Heroine," "Changing the Subject," and "Arachnologies"--that feminist critics retain the gendered signature, while continuing to challenge the stability of the subject and the social construction of Woman. In "Emphasis Added," Miller proposes a "feminine writing" that does not prioritize avant garde writing, but is found in thematic structures that are "implausible" insofar as they upset preset plots and shift the emphasis of women's desire.

Moi criticizes Anglo-American feminist critics for their "liberal-humanist" aesthetic that values content analysis, realist texts, and the authority of experience. As counterpoint, Moi extols the French feminists, and especially Julia Kristeva, for their analysis of language and form to locate disruptions in the symbolic order, and for their deconstructions of gender oppositions. She argues that "feminist criticism is about deconstructing [. . . ] an opposition between the political and the aesthetic."

Montefiore, Jan. FEMINISM AND POETRY: LANGUAGE, EXPERIENCE, IDENTITY IN WOMEN'S WRITING. London: Pandora Press/Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd., 1987.
Montefiore critiques the radical feminist aesthetic for its unexamined Romanticism which heralds poetry as a direct and transcendent expression of experience, and she critiques certain conceptions of a woman's tradition as constraining, based on psychological problems or revisionary myths. Montefiore argues for a feminist poetics that is an imaginative, utopian disruption of the Symbolic order, based in Irigaray's conceptualizations of feminine subjectivity and the Lacanian Imaginary.

Namjoshi, Suniti. "Poetry or Propaganda?" CWS 5.1 (1983): 5-6.
Namjoshi argues that although literature is rife with patriarchal assumptions, these assumptions are not inherent in literary forms. Thus, feminist literature can resist these assumptions and release us from inhibitions, allowing our imaginations to function.

Newton, Judith, and Deborah Rosenfelt, eds. FEMINIST CRITICISM AND SOCIAL CHANGE: SEX, CLASS, AND RACE IN LITERATURE AND CULTURE. New York: Methuen, 1985.
In this anthology Newton and Rosenfelt define their concept of materialist-feminist criticism and the interaction of literary and cultural phenomena with ideology. The articles cover a broad range of approaches to African-American, lesbian, and working class literature as well as a range of topics, from popular culture--film and romance novels--to the shaping of the canon in American literary studies, to compelling discussions of deconstruction and theconstruction of gender. See Smith and Kuhn.

Ogunyemi, Chikwenye Okonjo. "Womanism: The Dynamics of the Contemporary Black Female Novel in English." SIGNS 11 (1985): 63-80.
Womanism differs from feminism insofar as black women have a greater consciousness of the racial, cultural, national, economic, and political issues that accompany sexual issues, and, Ogunyemi argues, one should not read "womanist" novels as examples of sexual liberation without recognizing the central importance of the writer's relation to and celebration of black culture.

Olsen, Tillie. SILENCES. London: Virago, 1980.
In her book of essays, Olsen mourns the silences--the literary works unwritten or unpublished because of difficult circumstances and biased institutional practices.

Poovey, Mary. "Feminism and Deconstruction." FS 14 (1988): 51-65.
Poovey describes three ways that deconstruction can be useful to feminism: to reveal the figurative nature of ideology, to challenge oppositional logic, and to use the concept of the in-between to rethink power relations and identity as fragmentary. She also cautions that deconstruction must be historically situated, that feminists not forget that social reality cannot be simply deconstructed, and that we do not consider women as "naturally" subversive, thereby masking difference and power relations among women.

Pratt, Annis. ARCHETYPAL PATTERNS IN WOMEN'S FICTION. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1981.
Pratt describes archetypes as complex image and narrative patterns that emerge from the unconscious. Archetypal patterns in fiction, Pratt argues, create a ritual for the reader's transformation, and they reveal a "buried feminine tradition" in which women writers reject patriarchal norms and discover an authentic unconscious.

Pryse, Marjorie, and Hortense J. Spillers, eds. CONJURING: BLACK WOMEN, FICTION, AND LITERARY TRADITION. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1985.
In this anthology of essays on black women's literature, Pryse and Spillers delineate the "conjuring" tradition--a tradition for black women writers based on concepts of black women's ancient magical powers--to indicate the power of creating and conceptualizing the world using one's own cultural and personal images. The essays elaborate on African-American cultural contexts for readings of black women's literature ranging from early American to contemporary works.

Rabine, Leslie Wahl. "A Feminist Politics of Non-Identity." FS 14 (1988): 11-31.
Rabine, aware of the potential of deconstruction to be used both to strengthen feminist analysis and to dismiss it, is interested here in finding the aspects of deconstruction that are fertile for feminism and vice versa. Through clear discussions of Derrida's deconstruction of the primacy of speech and presence and the concept of the supplement, Rabine discusses the deconstructive strategies of Nancy Chodorow and Zillah Eisenstein, to show how important deconstructive strategies can be to work our way out of the hierarchical and oppositional forms of gender relations.

Register, Cheri. "Review Essay: Literary Criticism." SIGNS 6 (1980): 268-282.
Register defines a "female aesthetic" as reflective of female experience, thus stressing the oppression of women, while a "feminist aesthetic" embodies a critical consciousness that leads toward collectivity and transformation. Arguing that feminist criticism is always based on "female experience," she suggests mother-daughter relations and colonial liberation are useful models for feminist analysis of women's literature.

Rich, Adrienne. ON LIES, SECRETS, AND SILENCE: SELECTED PROSE 1966-1976. New York: W.W. Norton, 1979.
This collection includes Rich's signal essay, "When We Dead Awaken: Writing as Re-Vision" (1971), in which she describes women's critical work as emerging from a newly awakening feminist cultural perspective. In all of her essays, Rich constructs a women's cultural tradition, based on resistance to and re-vision of patriarchal power and cultural biases.

Robinson, Lillian S. SEX, CLASS, AND CULTURE. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1978.
Making arguments fifteen and twenty years ago that are equally compelling today, Robinson argues that the social constructions of race, class, and sex are legitimate and intrinsic issues of literary criticism, and that feminist criticism cannot work outside of a historical perspective. She urges feminists to create a radical, socialist criticism and to work to transform institutions rather than to seek respectability within them.

---. "Treason Our Text: Feminist Challenges to the Literary Canon." TSWL 2 (1983): 83-98. Reprinted in Showalter, NEW FEMINIST CRITICISM 105-121.
Robinson argues that feminist revisions of the canon must eventually challenge the aesthetic criteria on which inclusion in the canon is based--such as "literary quality, timelessness, universality." The question of aesthetic criteria is complicated in feminist criticism, "torn between defending the quality of their discoveries and radically redefining literary quality itself." She sees some strides in redefining aesthetic standards in the inclusion in the feminist tradition of works which affirm "values associated with femininity," but she feels that the feminist tradition ghettoizes women's literature rather than challenging the "complexity criteria," which she would like to counter with a search for "honest writing," an aesthetic left undefined in this article.

Schenck, Celeste M. "Feminism and Deconstruction: Re-Constructing the Elegy." TSWL 5 (1986): 13-27.
Schenck argues that the funeral elegy is a patriarchal genre, concerned with succession, transcendence, and denials of mortality, that must be revised for the female poet's use as a formal strategy for prolonging attachments and deferring resolution or radical separation.

Schor argues that the detail is doubly gendered as feminine, "bounded on the one side by the ORNAMENTAL, with its traditional connotations of effeminacy and decadence, and on the other, by the EVERYDAY, whose `prosiness' is rooted in the domestic sphere of social life presided over by women." Schor discusses the detail as an aesthetic category antithetical to Classicist and Idealist aesthetics, and she examines the contemporary retrieval of the detail and its implications regarding gender.

Schumacher, Dorin. "Subjectivities: A Theory of the Critical Process." Donovan, FEMINIST LITERARY CRITICISM 29-37.
Schumacher proposes that feminist criticism is neither objective nor intuitive; it is the development of meaning through the use of an interpretive model. Since all models are sex-linked, feminist criticism is not a new form; it is an exposure of and challenge to the masculinist bias that already informs criticism.

Siegfried, Charlene Haddock. "Feminist Aesthetics and Marginality." RFR/DFR 16.4 (1987): 10-15.
Siegfried explores the relationship between feminist aesthetics and marginality to establish feminism as an aesthetic theory on equal footing with other theories and marginalization as a useful, though risky, position to theorize from.

Showalter, Elaine. A LITERATURE OF THEIR OWN: BRITISH WOMEN NOVELISTS FROM BRONTE TO LESSING. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1977.
Showalter's aim is to describe the female literary tradition as a literary subculture in the English novel that develops in three stages: imitation and internalization of oppression (feminine), protest and advocacy (feminist), and self-discovery (female).

---. "Towards a Feminist Poetics." WOMEN WRITING AND WRITING ABOUT WOMEN. Ed. Jacobus 1979. 22-41. Rpt. in Showalter, NEW FEMINIST CRITICISM 125-143.
In her review of feminist criticism in the 70s, Showalter poses male "scientific" criticism--such as Marxism and Structuralism--against female "interpretive" criticism based on "the authority of experience." She envisions female criticism in two parts: "feminist critique" of male-authored texts, and "gynocritics," the reading of female-authored texts in their social and psychological contexts.

---. "Feminist Criticism in the Wilderness." Abel 9-36. Reprinted in Showalter, NEW FEMINIST CRITICISM 243-270.
Showalter further defines feminist criticism by dividing feminist critical theories into four models--biological, linguistic, psychoanalytic, and cultural. Through a theory of a women's subculture, she argues that cultural criticism encompasses the other three models while retaining an empirical and historical basis.

In her introduction to this collection of "classic" essays on feminist theory, Showalter describes the female aesthetic as a revival of women's culture and of "women's language"--literary styles and forms that come from a specific female psychology. The essays also propose a lesbian aesthetics, a black aesthetics, challenges to canon formation, and revised assumptions regarding reading and writing. See DuPlessis, Jones, Kolodny, McDowell, Miller, Robinson, Showalter, Smith, Tompkins, and Zimmerman.

---, ed. SPEAKING OF GENDER. New York: Routledge, 1989.
Gender, the social category, must be separated from sex, the biological category, and put in conjunction with class, race, and sexuality, to create a feminist (and post-feminist?) literary criticism, Showalter avers in her introduction. With gender as a key factor, essays in this anthology critique reader response, deconstructive, and Afro-Americanist theories, and use readings of texts to elaborate social and literary constructions of gender.

Smith, Barbara. "Toward a black feminist criticism." CONDITIONS TWO (1970): 25-44. Reprinted in Showalter, NEW FEMINIST CRITICISM 168-185. Reprinted in Newton and Rosenfelt 3-18.
Smith asserts that there is an identifiable literary tradition of black women writers, with aesthetic, thematic, and stylistic similarities. Smith argues that a lesbian interpretation is crucial to an understanding of black women's experience of their autonomy and their impact on each other's lives, and that both black women's literature and lesbian literature depict strong women, refuse to be linear, and rewrite the form of the sentence when necessary.

Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty. IN OTHER WORLDS: ESSAYS IN CULTURAL POLITICS. New York: Methuen, 1987.
Spivak draws together feminism, Marxism, psychoanalysis, and deconstruction in a reading and writing practice that problematizes possibilities of "truth" and "meaning"--as in her deliberate superimpositions onto the text of TO THE LIGHTHOUSE--while retaining a firm commitment to the politics of material reality--as in her proposal of a clitoral sexual economy that works towards women's reproductive freedom internationally.

Stanley, Julia Penelope, and Susan J. Wolfe (Robbins). "Toward a Feminist Aesthetic." CHRYSALIS 6: 57-71.
Stanley and Wolfe describe a number of elements comprising a feminist aesthetic: a "communal quality," an "impulse toward wholeness," a looseness of form, and a depiction of the process of writing in the product.

Stanton, Domna. "Language and Revolution: The Franco-American Dis-Connection." Eisenstein and Jardine 73-87.
Stanton reconnects the French feminist philosophies--based on the pervasive effects of language in the unconscious and the repression of a "feminine unconscious"--and North American feminism--with its empirical and anti-psychoanalytic biases. Though the differences are important tools for critique on either side, Stanton suggests that the concept of "poetry" as an expression of a feminine unconscious brings together the theories of Cixous, Irigaray, and Kristeva with those of Rich and Lorde.

---. THE FEMALE AUTOGRAPH. NY: New York Literary Forum, 1984.

Tate, Claudia. "Review Essay: On Black Literary Women and the Evolution of Critical Discourse." TSWL 5 (1986): 111-123.
In her review of recent criticism of black women writers, Tate argues that new reading strategies, rather than New Critical adaptations, can challenge "Anglo and phallocentric assumptions" and "promote an understanding of [a work's] distinctly black aesthetic and ideological character." By treating writers as vehicles, more interested in conveying messages than creating art, critics allow traditional concepts of black women as mothers of their culture to overwhelm their artistic and imaginative abilities. Critics would do better "to discuss black women's literary texts as products of their desire to create textual meaning."

Tompkins, Jane P. "Sentimental Power: UNCLE TOM'S CABIN and the Politics of Literary History." Showalter, NEW FEMINIST CRITICISM 81-104.
Countering the usual condenscension toward "sentimental women's" books, Tompkins uses Stowe's work as an example of a political critique of North American culture that advocates a matriarchal "family state" based in spiritual power and an ethic of sacrifice. Tompkins writes that "the popular domestic novel of the nineteenth century represents a monumental effort to reorganize culture from the woman's point of view."

Todd, Janet. FEMINIST LITERARY HISTORY: A DEFENCE. Cambridge, Great Britain: Polity Press, 1988.
In tracing the history of feminist criticism, Todd intends to recuperate the socio-historical critical approach of American feminists, based on the premise that "however battered, deconstructed, and falsified, the enlightenment's individualistic bourgeois liberalism, its belief in rational advance and its aim of increasing freedom and equality through greater awareness of self and culture still form the ground of hope and of collective action."

Trujillo, Marcella. "The Dilemma of the Modern Chicana Artist and Critic." HERESIES 8 (1970): 5-10.
Trujillo describes the problems of invisibility of the "brown" race, the economic, political, and historic oppression of Mexican-Americans, and the cultural oppression of Chicanas by the macho code of many Chicanos, and she proposes strategies for Chicana artists and critics to overcome these problems. She suggests that literature can serve not only as a place for romantic, nostalgic, or folkloric utopian desires, but also as a place to question oppression in everyday life.

Walker, Alice. IN SEARCH OF OUR MOTHER'S GARDENS. San Diego: A Harvest/HBJ Book, 1984.
In this collection of her essays, Walker distinguishes Black women's struggles and solidarity from Euro-American feminism through her concept of "womanism." In the essays--such as the famous title essay--she ties African-American women's cultural, linguistic, and historic strengths to the writing of "womanist" literature.

Wall collects essays by black feminist theorists and critics such as Deborah E. McDowell, Claudia Tate, and Gloria T. Hull, within a context of "changing words," both as exchange or dialogue and as a transformation of discourse and criticism. In the essays, the authors explore the applicability of Freudian theories to black family structures and consciousness (Hortense J. Spillers), the usefulness of deconstruction for black feminist theorists (Valerie Smith), and the need for a "literary activism" (Barbara Christian). Mae Gwendolyn Henderson combines Bakhtin's dialogics with Gadamer's dialectics to suggest a multidimensional model of black women reading and writing, Susan Willis considers the relation of black women to consumer culture, and Abena P.A. Busia concludes the book with her proposal of a "diaspora literacy."

West, Celeste. "The Literary-Industrial Complex." CHRYSALIS 8 (1979): 95-13.
West deals succinctly with the problems inherent in the corporate control of the publishing industry, noting the sexism, racism, classism, and heterosexism that it generates in selecting what will be published. The article includes a list of publishers owned by conglomerates.

Yaeger, Patricia. HONEY-MAD WOMEN: EMANCIPATORY STRATEGIES IN WOMEN'S WRITING. New York: Columbia University Press, 1988.
Yaeger proposes that the "honey-mad writer is a symbol of verbal plenitude, of woman's capacity to rewrite her culture." Merging the historical bias of North American feminist theory with the French feminist theories of language and desire, she argues that women have long been finding pleasure in "feminine orality." Yaeger brings the French feminists' word play and exploration to the American appreciation of women writers of the past--"to devise a feminist aesthetic of `play'."

Zimmerman, Bonnie. "What Has Never Been: An Overview of Lesbian Feminist Literary Criticism." FS 7 (1981): 451-476. Reprinted in Showalter, NEW FEMINIST CRITICISM 200-244.
Zimmerman calls for a distinct lesbian aesthetic that she proposes as a type of perspective and imagination. She argues for the importance of this aesthetic, to enrich reading possibilities, while she carefully evaluates the difficulties: of defining a "lesbian text," of providing a separate female space without creating a moral hierarchy or a critical orthodoxy, and of retaining a historical viewpoint that negotiates the shifting historical and cultural definitions of lesbianism.

Performance Arts: Film, Music, and Theatre: 1970-1990

[This is the third part of a bibliography in five parts on feminist aesthetics. The bibliography is number 65 in the series "Wisconsin Bibliographies in Women's Studies" published by the University of Wisconsin System Women's Studies Librarian's Office, 430 Memorial Library, 728 State Street, Madison, WI 53706.]

Alexander, Jae, et al. "Feminist Film Criticism." Special issue of FILM READER 5 (1982).

The essays, from a 1980 feminist film conference, range from interpretations of mainstream and feminist experimental films to discussions of issues, such as lesbian filmmaking as self-birthing and representations of Native American women in Westerns.

Armatage, Kay. "Feminist Film-making: Theory and Practice." CANADIAN WOMEN'S STUDIES 1.3 (1979): 49-50.
Armatage argues that feminist filmmaking is a matter of process, and thus she tries new approaches in fictional filmmaking to avoid objectification and the manipulation of the subject and the viewer. She gives the actors freer range, she presents scenes unedited, and she foregrounds the voyeurism of the camera, thus exposing the filmmaker's power in manipulating the image.

Austin, Gayle, ed. "The `Woman' Playwright Issue." PERFORMING ARTS JOURNAL 21 7.3 (1983): 87-102.
A group of women playwrights and critics respond to an article by Mel Gussow in the NEW YORK TIMES that applauds women's recent "success" in the theater. The respondents reject the implied standard of success, and, while they generally reject a women's aesthetic, they suggest that the women's theater that offers the greatest challenge to aesthetics is ignored by the mainstream theater and its critics.

Bergstrom, Janet. "Rereading the Work of Claire Johnston." CAMERA OBSCURA 3-4 (1979): 21-31.
While acknowledging the powerful insights of Johnston's film theories, Bergstrom argues that the concept of "rupture," in which feminine discourse and desire break up the classical film text, is highly dependent on the spectator's reception, an issue that needs revision in Johnston's work. Bergstrom concludes by asserting the importance of filmic enunciation as a means of reconstituting feminine discourse and desire.

Bettendorf, M. Virginia B. "Rachel Rosenthal: Performance Artist in Search of Transformation." WAJ 8.2 (1987/88): 33-38.
Rachel Rosenthal's experimental theater and performance art breaks down the separations between her life and her art, between the artist and the audience, between various media, and between the senses affected, suggesting the potent feminist potential for performance art to break down traditional divisions.

Bobo, Jacqueline. "THE COLOR PURPLE: Black Women as Cultural Readers." Pribram 90-109.
Bobo analyzes Black women's responses to the film THE COLOR PURPLE to theorize how a specific audience creates meaning from a mainstream text and uses it to empower themselves and their social group.

Bowers, Jane, and Judith Tick, eds. WOMEN MAKING MUSIC: THE WESTERN ART TRADITION, 1150-1950. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1986.
Women have long been absent from the field of musicology because of an inattention to the sociology of music, a focus on individual, innovative works, and studies arising from institutional musical structures that historically exclude women. In Bowers and Tick's collection the contributors transform musicology using a variety of strategies--compensation for exclusion, analysis of the effects of minority status in music, and the creation of alternative musical institutions--to explore women's roles in Western music making.

Briscoe, James R. "Integrating Music by Women into the Music History Sequence." COLLEGE MUSIC SYMPOSIUM 25 (1985): 21-25.
It is important to include musical works by women, Briscoe argues, because of their inherent value in complementing men's works, and as role models for women composers.

Brown, Janet. FEMINIST DRAMA: DEFINITION AND CRITICAL ANALYSIS. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, Inc., 1979.
Brown uses a Burkean methodology to derive her definition of feminist drama: "If the agent is a woman, her purpose autonomy, and the scene an unjust socio-sexual hierarchy, the play is a feminist drama." After applying this definition to five contemporary plays and to feminist theater groups, Brown acknowledges the limitations of this definition, which excludes formal analysis and assumes a narrow definition of feminism.

Brunsdon, Charlotte, ed. FILMS FOR WOMEN. London: British Film Institute Publishing, 1986.
The essays in this anthology focus on "representations of women that women have made." Brunsdon's selections of interpretations in the four sections--documentary, fiction, Hollywood, and exhibition and distribution--enact central debates in feminist film theory.

Byars, Jackie. "Gazes/Voices/Power: Expanding Psychoanalysis for Feminist Film and Television Theory." Ed. Pribram 110-131.
Byars revises psychoanalytic film theories with the theories of Nancy Chodorow and Carol Gilligan to do "recuperative" readings of certain film and television narratives, describing elements of resistance in gender definitions.

Campbell, Loretta. "Reinventing Our Image: Eleven Black Women Filmmakers." HERESIES 16 (1983): 59-62.
When the African-American women filmmakers interviewed by Campbell are asked if there exists a Black aesthetic, some (Jean G. Facey, Allie Sharon Larkin, Fronza Woods) wish to reject clear black/white and male/female distinctions, while others (Melvonna Bellenger, Kathleen Collins, Cynthia Ealey, Lyn Blum) see an aesthetic emerging from common experiences of Black women, from common styles, and from a developing tradition.

Case, Sue-Ellen, and Jeanie Forte. "From Formalism to Feminism." THEATER JOURNAL 16.2 (1985): 62-65.
Although the radicalism of the 60's made the streets the theater and the politicizing of theater destroyed its formalist structures, Case and Forte detect a "new formalism" in theater that once again favors formalist principles over political impact. Feminist theater, on the other hand, offers radical disruptions of the cultural construction of gender and sexuality, of colonization and history.

Case, Sue-Ellen. "The Personal Is Not the Political." ART & CINEMA 1.3 (1987).
Case argues that radical feminism, the dominant feminism in the U.S., severs the personal from the political by representing women--in the work of women such as Marsha Norman, Beth Henley, Mary Daly, and Susan Griffin--as transcendent "woman" outside of economic and political contexts.

---. FEMINISM AND THEATRE. New York: Methuen, 1988.
Citing theater's particular characteristics as a literary art that employs the human body, Case argues that theater is central in the reevaluation of the cultural representation of "Woman" as sign and object. She combines textual analysis with considerations of historical performance features, such as cross-gender traditions ("classical drag"), and she makes connections between women's historical practices, from the earliest Greek mimes to salons to performance art. Case begins by deconstructing classical drama and its theory, based in Aristotle's POETICS, and she concludes by proposing a new poetics of the theater in which radical feminism and materialist feminism can be deployed dialectically to create a "guerilla action" that combines theory and practice.

---. "Toward a Butch-Femme Aesthetic." Hart 282-299.
The butch-femme pairing, in Case's argument, is the model for an active, feminist subject position because it oscillates among roles, none of which are defined against a male opposite. To develop the butch-femme aesthetic, Case proposes a reconsideration of role-playing in lesbian culture, as neither illness nor reinscription of "natural" sex roles, but as a conscious masquerade. With "camp" as a discourse and seduction as a performance mode, the butch-femme aesthetic obliterates the realism that naturalizes sex roles.

Chinoy, Helen Krich, and Linda Walsh Jenkins, eds. WOMEN IN AMERICAN THEATRE: CAREERS, IMAGES, MOVEMENTS. New York: Crown Publishers Inc., 1981.
Chinoy and Jenkins collect essays that focus on historical analysis and historical figures to ascertain a women's tradition in theatre, based on theatre as a nurturing art rather than as a competitive business. The essays are grouped in six sections that consider: the relationship of women's theatre to ritual, women's roles in theatre--from actress and playwright to director and critic, images of women in theatre, and feminist theatre, concluding with extensive source material.

Citron, Michelle. "Women's Film Production: Going Mainstream." Pribram 45-63.
Citron notes the increasing entry of feminist filmmakers into mainstream Hollywood film production, and she suggests that the cultural power of narrative film makes this a risky but important venture.

Cowie, Elizabeth. "Woman as Sign." M/F 1 (1978): 49-63.
In analyzing contradictions in Levi-Strauss' theory of woman as a sign of exchange, Cowie argues that woman's value and definition are produced by, and not inherent in, social structures. She concludes that "what must be grasped in addressing `women and film' is the double problem of the production of woman as a category and of film as a signifying system."

Creed, Barbara. "From Here to Modernity: Feminism and Postmodernism." SCREEN 28.2 (1987): 47-67.
In negotiating a relationship between feminism and postmodernism, Creed uses Alice Jardine's concept of "gynesis"--a theoretical valorization of the feminine in postmodern writing which is not necessarily concerned with women or feminism--to read against certain postmodern strategies that ignore or subsume feminism and to argue against any "master narrative." Creed reads nostalgia films as nostalgic for the loss of a paternal signifier and sci-fi horror films as a postmodern version of a fascination with and horror of the female reproductive body.

de Lauretis, Teresa, and Stephen Heath, eds. THE CINEMATIC APPARATUS. London: Macmillan, 1980.
While a number of articles and discussions in this collection pertain indirectly, two essays--by Jacqueline Rose and de Lauretis--deal directly with the relation of feminism to the cinematic apparatus. The former seeks a means of representing, feminine desire, and the latter, in a consideration of the cinema as a social technology, proposes a role for feminist criticism in achieving social change.

de Lauretis, Teresa. ALICE DOESN'T: FEMINISM, SEMIOTICS, CINEMA. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1984.
Since the representation of woman as spectacle pervades our culture, de Lauretis argues, cinema is a particularly apt medium for analysis. Drawing from Marxist, psychoanalytic, and semiotic theories, she engages both theoretical and cinematic texts, to discuss the construction of subjectivity and the orientation of desire, which at once objectify, exclude, and imprison women and make women complicit in these processes.

---. TECHNOLOGIES OF GENDER: ESSAYS ON THEORY, FILM, AND FICTION. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1987.
In this collection of her essays, de Lauretis investigates film and fiction as social technologies, with feminism providing radical rewritings and rereadings of the dominant Western culture. In her last essay, "Rethinking Women's Cinema: Aesthetics and Feminist Theory," she argues that feminist film has created a new social subject by addressing the spectator as a woman and as heterogeneous rather than as Woman. De Lauretis concludes by proposing a feminist deaesthetic, that shifts the focus from the aesthetics of the text to the aesthetics of reception, and addresses a deconstruction, deaestheticization, desexualization, and deoedipalization of cinema.

Diamond, Elin. "Refusing the Romanticism of Identity: Narrative Interventions in Churchill, Benmussa, Duras." THEATRE JOURNAL 37 (1985): 273-286.
Diamond argues that by disconnecting two temporalities--the story narrative and the historical narrative--these playwrights forefront the historical construction of gender identity while working toward the dissolution of these identities, thus creating a provisional representation of the female subject at odds with patriarchal history.

---. "Brechtian Theory/Feminist Theory: Toward a Gestic Feminist Criticism." DRAMA REVIEW 32.1 (1988).
Diamond proposes a radical mergence of feminist and Brechtian theory, both of which endeavor to demystify representation. Expanding on the central elements of Brechtian theory--defamiliarization and alienation, the inclusion of difference, historicization, and the GESTUS--Diamond asserts that a gestic feminist criticism would connect and make visible the sex-gender system, theater politics, and social history.

Doane, Mary Ann. "The Woman's Stake: Filming the Female Body." OCTOBER 17 (1981): 23-36.
Doane argues that to denaturalize the sexualized body of woman and to pose "a complex relation between the body and psychic/signifying processes" feminism must move beyond the opposition between essentialism and anti-essentialism, taking the risk of constructing a feminine specificity. For examples, Doane describes feminist approaches to filming women's bodies as the construction of another syntax that reformulates the specular imaging of woman.

---. "Film and the Masquerade: Theorising the Female Spectator." SCREEN 23 (1982): 74-87.
Doane conceives of the position of the female spectator as an oscillation between transvestism--woman seeing as man--and masquerade--woman seeing as woman. Male spectatorship is generally based on theories of voyeurism, while female spectators are described in narcissistic terms--woman IS the image. Doane proposes that an excess of femininity foregrounds the feminine as a masquerade. This counters women's proximity to the film image of woman, enabling women to view and read the film from a specifically female position.

Doane, Mary Ann, Patricia Mellencamp, and Linda Williams, eds. RE-VISION: ESSAYS IN FEMINIST FILM CRITICISM. Frederick, MD: University Publications of America, 1984.
These essays use analytical tools from the theories of Foucault, Lacan, and Althusser to investigate cinematic discourse and the means of producing meaning with the cinematic apparatus. The relation of power and the gaze, the viability of realistic film, and feminist readings of the "woman's film" and a 1931 German lesbian film, lead to ideas as to the creation and criticism of film from feminist positions.

Dolan, Jill. "Women's Theatre Program ATA: Creating a Feminist Forum." WOMEN & PERFORMANCE 1.2 (1984): 5-13.
In her critique of the WTP's 1984 conference, Dolan illustrates the necessity for articulations of political differences, instead of allowing the umbrella of "women's" theatre to erase feminist and lesbian positions and to thwart the construction of a new performance aesthetic.

---. "Gender Impersonation Onstage: Destroying or Maintaining the Mirror of Gender Roles?" WOMEN & PERFORMANCE 2.2 (1985): 5-11.
Dolan discusses theatrical gender impersonations by men and women, gay men and lesbians, to examine the greater investment women have in disrupting the social construction of gender. She concludes that instead of a mirror of reality, theatre can be a laboratory to experiment with non-gendered identities.

---. "The Dynamics of Desire: Sexuality and Gender in Pornography and Performance." THEATRE JOURNAL 39.2 (1987): 156-74.
Dolan argues that in the cultural feminist condemnation of pornography, male power dominance is considered inherent in sexual desire and fantasy. Dolan counters that position, describing lesbian pornography as a representation of sexual desire outside of heterosexual constructs and lesbian sadomasochism as a literalization and exploration of the relationships of power and sexuality.

---. "Is the Postmodern Aesthetic Feminist?" ART & CINEMA 1.3 (Fall 1987).
The postmodern performance practice uses deconstruction and formal inventions to subvert aesthetic values of text and authority, but they do not challenge political values and gender divisions. On the other hand, Dolan argues, lesbian performance artists unite postmodern elements and political content to challenge representational norms and sexual categories, without mistaking formal innovation for political change.

---. THE FEMINIST SPECTATOR AS CRITIC. Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press, 1988.
Dolan considers the quest for a feminist or feminine aesthetic problematic because it suggests normative criteria that reinforce canon formation and prescriptive feminisms. Dividing feminism into the categories liberal, cultural/radical, and materialist, she cites the cultural feminists as the expounders of a feminine aesthetic, derived from essentialist assumptions about Woman that elide differences of race, class, and sexuality. Dolan prefers materialist feminism, with its strategies for deconstructing the male subject position constructed in the traditional theatre apparatus and for positing a lesbian subject as a disruption to signification systems, not retrievable within heterosexual or gendered role assumptions.

Ellenberger, Harriet. "The Dream Is the Bridge: In Search of Lesbian Theatre." TRIVIA 5 (1984): 17-59.
Ellenberger parallels lesbian lives to experimental theatre, since lesbians--moving between two polarized gender roles--must make up their lives as they go. She describes lesbian theatre in three parts: 1) enacting--making up representations of lesbians lives; 2) freeing--telling secrets to liberate from taboos, directing plays through "indirection" (rather than directorial manipulation), freeing oneself from the constraints of gender definitions; and 3) shaping--discovering new structures and plots that change the way people think.

Erens, Patricia, ed. SEXUAL STRATEGEMS: THE WORLD OF WOMEN IN FILM. New York: Horizon Press, 1979.
This collection begins with critiques of male-directed cinema, moving to analyses of "women's cinema," discussions of women directors and their films. For theoretical essays, see Johnston, Lesage, and Erens.

---. "Towards a Feminist Aesthetic: Reflection-Revolution-Ritual." Ed. Erens, SEXUAL STRATEGEMS. 156-167.
Defining aesthetics as an artist's perspective on the relation between art and life, Erens describes three stages in the aesthetic choices of women directors. The reflective aesthetic corresponds to consciousness raising, focusing on women's individual and internal processes. The revolutionary aesthetic challenges the status quo, focusing on strong women characters and didactic messages. Erens concludes, "Ideally feminist creations should strive towards a ritualistic aesthetic, an art which is truly androgynous . . . " In this last stage, aesthetic distance is maintained and artistic concerns are held above passions and political causes.

Fehervary, Helen, and Nancy Vedder-Shults, ed. "Women and Film: A Discussion of Feminist Aesthetics." NEW GERMAN CRITIQUE 13 (1978): 83-107.
Fehervary and Vedder-Shults lead a discussion with Michelle Citron, Julia Lesage, Judith Mayne, B. Ruby Rich, and Anna Marie Taylor about feminist aesthetics in cinema. In this lively interchange the women discuss the accessibility of film over other media, the role of teaching and criticism in culture, the usefulness and problems of Freudian and Marxist methodologies, lesbian representations and critiques, and the exposure of ideology in making and criticizing cinema.

"Feminism and Film: Critical Approaches." Editorial, CAMERA OBSCURA 1 (Fall 1976): 3-10.
The editors select the camera obscura as a metaphor for the convergence of ideology and representation in film. The metaphor, originally a representation of an androcentric view, was used by Freud and Marx to describe processes of consciousness. This points to the semiological and psychoanalytic perspectives of the journal, in which the film text, the aesthetic object, is read as a conjunction of social, political, economic, and cultural codes.

Feral, Josette. "Writing and Displacement: Women in Theatre." Trans. Barbara Kerslake. MODERN DRAMA 27.4 (1984): 549-63.
Feral uses Luce Irigaray's theories to analyze five plays by women, locating features of feminine discourse in the absence of linear plot development, the mobility and incompleteness of the text, and the diversity and simultaneity of voices.

Fischer, Lucy. SHOT/COUNTERSHOT: FILM TRADITION AND WOMEN'S CINEMA. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1989.
Shot/countershot--when the camera is aligned with one character's point of view and then the other's--is a metaphor for Fischer's intertextual approach, in which she creates dialogues in each chapter between patriarchal/ dominant films and the feminist "counter-cinema."

Forte, Jeanie. "Rachel Rosenthal: Feminism and Performance Art." WOMEN & PERFORMANCE 2.2 (1985): 27-37.
Forte describes Rosenthal's performance art as a paradigm for feminist art practice, a theatrical terrorizing and radical unnaming that deconstructs and exposes representational prohibitions.

Gaines, Jane. "White Privilege and Looking Relations: Race and Gender in Feminist Film Theory." SCREEN 29.4 (1988): 12-26.
Gaines argues that the universalism of psychoanalytic theory and its applications in feminist film theory exclude the historical dimension necessary to understand the different relations of power and subjectivity for black women and black men within the white "racial patriarchy."

Gardner, Kay. "Women's Music. What's That?" PAID MY DUES: JOURNAL OF WOMEN AND MUSIC 6 (1976): 3-6.
Gardner describes music as religion and healing, and women's music as an expression of peace and joy and womanliness.

Giordano, Teresa, et al, eds. WOMEN AND MUSIC. Special issue of HERESIES 10 (1980).
This issue includes articles on the contributions of Black women to jazz, blues, and gospel music. See Giordano et al.

Giordano, Teresa, et al. "Is There a Feminist Aesthetic in Music?" HERESIES 10 (1980): 20-24.
Of the seven women responding to this question, three felt a female or feminine aesthetic was a useful concept: Giordano argues that "men create culture and women experience it," thus male and female experience and aesthetics differ; Anna Rubin believes women's work conveys a greater intensity of feeling or "dramatic-expressionism"; and Valerie Samson describes women musicians as more concerned with life and connections with people. The four others are more cautious about the concept: Jeannie Pool describes a female aesthetic as prescriptive; Elizabeth Sacre insists such an aesthetic would have to be dynamic, self-critical, and ambiguous; Carol Sudhalter prefers to discuss social changes as they affect women's creativity and confidence; and Judith Tick concludes by delineating the historical use of sexual aesthetics to sanction male dominance in music.

Gledhill, Christine. "Recent Developments in Feminist Criticism." QUARTERLY REVIEW OF FILM STUDIES 3 (1978): 457-493.
Gledhill argues that anti-realism among feminist theorists contributes to the understanding of the cinematic creation of meaning but goes too far in conflating language and signifying practices with social processes and relations. She critiques theories based on Barthes, Althusser, and Lacan for not theorizing differences of reception among social subjects or the complex network of codes used to read realistic texts. She concludes that a neo-Marxist aesthetic can provide a realist epistemology and an aesthetic of subversion.

---. "Pleasurable Negotiations." Pribram 64-89.
Interested in the "negotiations" between institutions, texts, and audiences that produce meaning, Gledhill posits "negotiation" as a method by which "the textual critic analyzes the CONDITIONS AND POSSIBILITIES OF READING."

Hart, Lynda, ed. MAKING A SPECTACLE: FEMINIST ESSAYS ON CONTEMPORARY WOMEN'S THEATRE. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1989.
In her introduction to this anthology, Hart notes that "Alone among all literary productions, the theatre's medium is the physical body," and "By seizing the body and subverting its customary representations" women playwrights are transforming theatrical discourse. Covering a broad range of issues, texts, and performances, the essayists consider contemporary women's theater as it creates new aesthetic positions, such as a butch-femme aesthetic (see Case), the inclusion of other cultural traditions in theater by women of color, and in the revisions of theoretical and canonical traditions.

Haskell, Molly. FROM REVERENCE TO RAPE: THE TREATMENT OF WOMEN IN THE MOVIES. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987.
Haskell discusses stereotypes of women in film as reflections of widespread social attitudes in this updated version of her 1974 book. Proceeding chronologically from the twenties to the present, Haskell argues that film representations of women shift from idealization to violation due to changing social relations.

Jenkins, Linda Walsh. "Locating the Language of Gender Experience." WOMEN & PERFORMANCE 2.1 (1984).
Jenkins describes theater as an apt form in which to delineate distinctly male and female sign systems, or "biogrammars." Evolving from their different social spheres, female language and female plays tend to be domestic, relational, and circular, while male language and male plays tend to be public, confrontational, and often misogynist.

Johnston, Claire. "Women's Cinema as Counter-Cinema." NOTES ON WOMEN'S CINEMA. Ed. Claire Johnston. London: SEFT, 1974. (Reprinted in Erens, SEXUAL STRATEGEMS. 133-143.)
Johnston rejects the sociological analysis of images of women in film and challenges the idea of Hollywood as a monolithic cultural oppressor, using auteur theory and Barthes' concept of "myth" in which woman becomes a signifier of ideology in society. Johnston argues that a truly revolutionary counter-cinema must disrupt the fabric of male bourgeois cinema and challenge cinematic depictions of reality, while joining politics and entertainment.

---. "Feminist Politics and Film History." SCREEN 16.3 (Aut. 1975): 115-24.
Johnston argues that feminist criticism must "disengage and place" ideologies and not expect films to "reflect" reality, and it must attend to textual production and the domain of form within which meaning is produced and limited.

---. "The Subject of Feminist Film Theory/Practice." SCREEN 21.2 (1980): 27-34.
For Johnston, theory and practice are inseparable since "one of the projects of the [women's] movement is to construct knowledge of the nature and causes of women's oppression in order to devise strategies for social transformation." Semiotics and psychoanalysis are useful to "theoretical work on the relationship between text and subject and the historical conjuncture," which puts feminist film criticism at "the conjuncture of discursive, economic and political practices which produce subjects in history."

Kaplan, E. Ann. "Avant-garde Feminist Cinema: Mulvey and Wollen's RIDDLES OF THE SPHINX." QUARTERLY REVIEW OF FILM STUDIES 4 (1979): 135-144.
In her analysis of Mulvey and Wollen's film, Kaplan concludes that avant-garde films may be valuable for a critique of ideology, but there is still a need for an accessible, non-propagandistic feminist counter-cinema.

---. "Integrating Marxist and Psychoanalytical Approaches in Feminist Film Criticism." MILLENIUM FILM JOURNAL 6 (1980): 8-17.
Rejecting the simple sociological analysis of Marxist critics and the ahistoricism and anti-realism of psychoanalytic critics, Kaplan argues that the combination--psychoanalytic insights set within social, historical, and political contexts--will bring about the most useful understanding of the way social structures shape our fantasies.

---. "Theories and Strategies of the Feminist Documentary." MILLENIUM FILM JOURNAL 12 (1982-83): 44-67.
Kaplan argues that criticisms of realist film overgeneralize the effects of form and the relationship between political change and film structures and disregard differences of reception between fictional and documentary films. She suggests that among other things we must reconsider the rejection of pleasure in feminist filmmaking.

---. WOMEN AND FILM: BOTH SIDES OF THE CAMERA. London: Methuen, 1983.
Moving from Hollywood films to independent feminist films, Kaplan analyzes the domination of the male gaze and the countercinemas that work to construct a "feminine" subjectivity outside of patriarchal definitions. She suggests that the Mother, as the repressed or the gap in patriarchal culture, can be a useful place to reformulate our position as women.

---. "Whose Imaginary? The Televisual Apparatus, The Female Body and Textual Strategies in Select Rock Videos on MTV." Pribram 132-156.
Kaplan works from Beaudrillard to describe television, in opposition to cinema, as an apparatus of alienation, deferred plenitude, and inconsistency of gaze that mirrors a split subjectivity rather than an Imaginary wholeness. In her analysis of MTV, Kaplan poses television as a postmodern apparatus with the potential to eliminate gender as a significant category, and she considers an examination of the impact this may have on women.

Kay, Karyn, and Gerald Peary, eds. WOMEN AND THE CINEMA: A CRITICAL ANTHOLOGY. New York: E.P. Dutton, 1977.
This anthology brings together diverse voices--from Colette, Greta Garbo, and Yoko Ono to Susan Sontag, Claire Johnston, and Laura Mulvey--creating a unique combination of film criticism and social documentation.

Keyssar states that feminist dramas "assert a new aesthetic based on the transformation rather than a recognition of persons." She calls recognition, with its inference of a true self or essence, conservative, while individual transformation on the stage suggests the possibility of social transformation. Analyzing the political impact of script, form, and staging, she favors Brechtian and social realist forms over bourgeois realism, because she maintains that the former forces the audience out of a voyeuristic role and into the position of responsible witnesses.

Koskoff, Ellen, ed. WOMEN AND MUSIC IN CROSS-CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE. New York: Greenwood Press, 1987.
Koskoff collects essays that develop anthropological feminist perspectives, "to construct a model that incorporates cultural concepts of power, gender, music, and value." The essays address relationships between gender ideology and music around the world.

Kuhn, Annette. WOMEN'S PICTURES: FEMINISM AND CINEMA. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1982.
Kuhn begins by proposing that culture is part of ideology, and thus interventions in culture have the potential to transform sex/gender systems. Working through a variety of textual and feminist theories, Kuhn defines "feminist" criticism and films as those whose meanings oppose the dominant culture, whereas "feminine" criticism and films present challenges to dominant modes of representation and the processes of creating meaning. She explores relations of reception, the production of women's sexuality in pornography, and varieties of countercinema, while elaborating on historical and economic contexts and the production of meaning in cinema.

---. "Women's Genres." SCREEN 25.1 (1984): 18-28.
In her discussion of melodrama and soap opera, Kuhn insists on the importance of distinguishing between a female audience--an a priori sociological category of femaleness as social gender--and a feminine spectatorship--the subject position constructed in relations between spectator and text. Kuhn feels these positions may be analyzed as interacting discursive formations of the social, cultural, and textual.

Kuhn argues that theory is a necessary part of feminism because the transformation of knowledge is a political transformation. Proposing that a triangular relationship between representation, spectators, and social formations generates meanings from images, Kuhn analyzes a variety of film images in various films such as VD propaganda films, films that use sexual disguise, and pornography.

Lacy, Suzanne, and Lucy R. Lippard. "Political Performance: A Discussion." HERESIES 17 (1984): 22-27.
Lacy and Lippard discuss the immediate, communal, and spiritual aspects of performance art, and they seek a dynamic interchange between the aesthetics and politics of activist and culturally educational performances.

Larkin, Alile Sharon. "Black Women Film-makers Defining Ourselves: Feminism in Our Own Voice." Pribram 157-173.
Larkin argues that feminism is racist when it pits Black women against Black men, when it generalizes about "female culture," and when it treats sexism as separable from racism. From Sedeka and Alhamisi Wadinasi, Larkin describes four stages of Black identity: pre-encounter (world as white), encounter (develop Black perspective), immersion (all must be relevant to Blackness), and internalization (secure self-concept, work for Black community control and identity with all oppressed people). She represents Black identity as central to Black women in her films.

Leavitt, Dinah Luise. FEMINIST THEATRE GROUPS. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co., 1980.
Leavitt explores the new wellspring of feminist theatre groups, assessing their power to mirror woman's experience and provide new roles and new myths to create positive social change.

Lesage, Julia. "Feminist Film Criticism: Theory and Practice." WOMEN & FILM 5/6 (1974): 12-14. Reprinted in Erens, SEXUAL STRATEGEMS 144-155.
Lesage argues that we need to expand feminist film criticism beyond analysis of the text to encompass six elements: the prefilmic milieu, the filmmaker(s), the film text, the audience, the audience's milieu, and the production/distribution system.

---. "The Political Aesthetics of the Feminist Documentary Film." QUARTERLY REVIEW OF FILM STUDIES 3.4 (1978): 507-23.
Lesage argues that feminist documentary filmmakers shift the aesthetics of cinema verite to a political aesthetic through a close identification with their subjects, a participation in the women's movement, and a sense of the film's intended effect. With a narrative structure based on consciousness-raising groups, the films politicize personal stories and develop women's conversation as a form of subcultural resistance.

Lowe, Bia. "Theater as Community Ritual: An Interview with Terry Wolverton." HERESIES 17 (1984): 48-49.
Wolverton expounds a communal ritual structure of lesbian and feminist theater practices as a means of expressing individual experiences and binding the actors and audience in a group process of transformation, rather than in a representation of transformation.

Lyon, Elisabeth. "Discourse and Difference." CAMERA OBSCURA 3-4 (1979): 14-20.
To argue against the essentialism of "feminist writing" and its application in film criticism, Lyon cites the work of Michele Montrelay, who positions women's subjectivity in a historically specific phallocentric discourse. Lyon derives from this a feminist psychoanalytic theory of film and discourse that includes the possibility of transformation.

Malpede, Karen, ed. WOMEN AND THEATRE: COMPASSION AND HOPE. New York: Drama Book Publishers, 1983.
This is a collection of short pieces--from interviews, program notes, essays, and letters--by women playwrights, actors, dancers, directors, and musicians, about the theatre. Malpede stresses the spiritual, mythic, and healing power of women in drama, as they transform a masculine artistic impulse for dominance to one of caring and true intimacy.

Mayne, Judith. "The Woman at the Keyhole: Women's Cinema and Feminist Criticism." NEW GERMAN CRITIQUE 23 (1981): 27-43.
Mayne posits the critic's role as a metaphoric equivalent to the projector, coming between camera and screen, filmmaker and spectator. The feminist critic thus attempts to expose the celluloid fragments, opening up a space in the narrative and voyeuristic structures that circumscribe women viewers and filmmakers.

---. "Feminist Film Theory and Criticism." SIGNS 11 (1985): 81-100.
In her review article, Mayne notes various debates in feminist film theory and criticism, discussing psychoanalytic theories, different approaches to classical and alternative films, and the difference between "images of women" criticism and the consideration of women as subjects. She highlights contradiction as a tool for analysis of classical cinema, and as a source of creative tension in approaches to alternative women's cinema and to feminist theory in general.

Mellen, Joan. WOMEN AND THEIR SEXUALITY IN THE NEW FILM. New York: Horizon Press, 1973.
Mellen argues for a connection between "capitalism in moral decline" and the presentation of women as dangerous and subordinate. Although she lacks an analysis of the relationship between ideology and representation, her readings--concentrating on the representations of bourgeois women, female sexuality, and lesbianism--are wide-ranging and provocative.

Minh-ha, Trinh T., ed. "She, The Inappropriated Other." Special issue of DISCOURSE 8 (1986-87).
Minh-ha describes this special issue as a consideration of "the place/s of post-colonial woman as writing and written subject." Through analyses of representations of the "Other" in a variety of cultural forms--film, painting, poetry, etc.--a "critical difference" challenges the hegemony of Western cultures and their identities as unified (First World) cultures.

Mulvey, Laura. "Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema." SCREEN 16.3 (1975). Reprinted in Mulvey, VISUAL AND OTHER PLEASURES, 14-26.
In this signal essay on the construction of the look in cinema, Mulvey adopts a "political use of psychoanalysis" to argue that in conventional film narrative the cinematic apparatus is used to manipulate the look, and at the same time to mask its construction, to satisfy male fetishistic desires. She concludes that feminists need a film practice that frees the look of the camera and of the audience by rejecting voyeuristic pleasures.

---. "Feminism, Film and the Avant-Garde." WOMEN WRITING AND WRITING ABOUT WOMEN. Ed. Jacobus. 177-195. (Reprinted in Mulvey, VISUAL AND OTHER PLEASURES, 111-126.)
Mulvey asserts that feminists have used avant-garde film concepts to create a radical aesthetic that--in league with theories of ideology, semiotics, and psychoanalysis--challenges traditional representations and highlights the production of meaning.

---. VISUAL AND OTHER PLEASURES. Bloomington, IN: Bloomington University Press, 1989.
This collection of Mulvey's essays includes a discussion of public/private, "high" art/popular art distinctions, and she argues that feminist aesthetics should embrace women's sphere of historical experience for analysis, not celebration. For many years interested in an avant-garde feminist aesthetic, Mulvey cautions in a later essay that negative or counter aesthetics risk locking one into a dialogue with an adversary. A feminist perspective, she avers in her essay "Changes," should insist on the possibility of change without closure.

Penley, Constance. "The Avant-Garde and Its Imaginary." CAMERA OBSCURA 2 (1978): 3-33.
In theorizing the relation of avant-garde strategies in cinema to a feminist film-making practice, Penley considers a number of metapsychological approaches to film. She concludes that avant-garde experiments with non-signifying film often fetishize abstract rules and create an aesthetic of transgression that reinforce paternal power. A political film practice, that emphasizes transformation rather than transgression, needs language to complicate the image's power of identification and a non-narrative form to rework subject-object relations.

Phelan, Peggy. "Feminist Theory, Poststructuralism, and Performance." TDR 32.1 (1988): 107-127.
Phelan adapts poststructural theories of woman's absence in "a reexamination of the economy of exchange between the performer and the spectator in performance." In her analysis of three very different performances, she proposes ways in which representations of women can interfere with the structure of male desire that defines woman by her absence.

Pollock, Griselda. "What's Wrong with Images of Women." SCREEN EDUCATION 24 (Summer 1977): 25-34.
Pollock contends that analyses of "images of women" stamp particular images as "good" or "bad" rather than addressing woman as a signifier in an ideological discourse and theorizing the way in which meaning is constructed.

Pool, Jeannie G. "A Critical Approach to the History of Women in Music." HERESIES 10 (1980): 2-5.
Referring to Linda Nochlin's work in art history, Pool argues that recognition of the historic roles and exclusions of women in music history must transform music history as a whole, from the "great man" (or woman) paradigm to a consideration of the networks of social and institutional relations that generated musical creations.

Pribram, Diedre, ed. FEMALE SPECTATORS: LOOKING AT FILM AND TELEVISION. London: Verso, 1988.
Pribram argues that psychoanalytic theories must be put in social contexts so that gender is considered alongside other variables such as race and class, as part of subject formation and social division. She selects essays that consider the female spectator in three ways: as shaped by psychic and social processes in subject formation, as historically and socially constituted groups, and as participants in a broad popular base. See Bobo, Byars, Citron, Gledhill, Kaplan, Larkin, and Williams.

Rea, Charlotte. "Women's Theatre Groups." THE DRAMA REVIEW: TDR 16.2 (1972): 79-89.
Rea reviews the variety of women's theater collectives and performance groups, highlighting decisions such as whether or not to have a leader/director, whether to put personal expression over political clarity, and how to strike a balance between aesthetic and political considerations.

Rich, B. Ruby. "In the Name of Feminist Film Criticism." HERESIES 9 (1980): 74-81.
Decrying mis-naming as a strategy of patriarchy, Rich shows how various critics--feminist and non-feminist--miss the feminist potential of feminist cinema, through distorting terminology. Rich suggests new terms for feminist film criticism, but she cautions against setting aesthetic norms of feminist film rather than recognizing different dynamic interactions between form and content.

Rosen, Judith and Grace Rubin-Rabson. "Why Haven't Women Become Great Composers?" HIGH FIDELITY/MUSICAL AMERICA 23.2 (1973): 46-52.
In a clearly anti-feminist format, "amateur musicologist" Rosen is pitted against Dr. Rubin-Rabson, prominent psychologist--woman against woman. Rosen considers "patronage"--in its broadest sense--and social forces in the exclusion of women from composition and from recognition. Rubin-Rabson suggests that sustained creativity may be an innately male characteristic.

Rosen, Marjorie. POPCORN VENUS: WOMEN, MOVIES AND THE AMERICAN DREAM. New York: Coward, McGann & Geoghegan, 1973.
Despite the lack of theoretical sophistication, Rosen creates an interesting document on the relationship of the shifting roles and images of women in Hollywood films to American history.

Roth, Martha. "Notes Toward a Feminist Performance Aesthetic." WOMEN & PERFORMANCE 1.1 (1983): 5-14.
Roth concludes her notes with a desire for new images of women derived from "female imaginings" in which playwrights and performers retain an "absolute authenticity to their experience as women." Without an articulated concept of culture and cultural transmission, her critique (especially of "Oriental dance") is problematic.

Roth, Moira. THE AMAZING DECADE: WOMEN AND PERFORMANCE ART IN AMERICA 1970-1980. Los Angeles: Astro Artz, 1983.
This book on women's performance art combines brief review essays of artists' work with historical contexts and theoretical questions. In Roth's title essay, she discusses the evolution of performance art in conjunction with the feminist movement, in which expressions of the personal as political and rituals that elaborate mythic conceptions of women make way for more historical and poetic expressions of feminism that also articulate the artist's role as cultural and political mediator.

Running-Johnson, Cynthia. "Feminine Writing and Its Theatrical `Other'." THEMES IN DRAMA 11 (1989): 177-184.
Based on Cixous' articulation of ecriture feminine, Running-Johnson suggests that aspects of theatrical experience contain "feminine" characteristics of multiplicity, acceptance, and transformation, and thus theater, "as the staging of possibility," offers hope for change.

Sisley, Emily L. "Notes on Lesbian Theatre." THE DRAMA REVIEW: TDR 25.1 (1981): 47-56.
To avoid reductive definitions of lesbian theatre, Sisley adapts William Hoffman's definition of gay theatre to argue that lesbian theatre "implicitly or explicitly acknowledges that there are [lesbians] on both sides of the footlights."

Van de Vate, Nancy. "Every Good Boy (Composer) Does Fine." SYMPHONY NEWS 24.6 (1973-74): 11-12.
Van de Vate notes discouraging social forces and a lack of recognition as conditions working against women as composers.

Wandor, Michelene. CARRY ON, UNDERSTUDIES: THEATRE AND SEXUAL POLITICS. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1986.
In this revised edition, Wandor discusses sexual politics and alternative theatre in the 70s and early 80s from a socialist-feminist position, with an historical analysis of theatre, class, and gender in feminist and gay theatre.

Williams, Linda. "Feminist Film Theory: MILDRED PIERCE and the Second World War." Pribram 12-30.
Williams deems inadequate both the psychoanalytic and semiotic feminist approaches, that focus on textual enunciation and on an analysis of repression, and the sociological and historical approaches that focus on historical dynamics and on an analysis of the text as a reflection of historical and cultural "reality." Williams combines the two approaches and, following Frederic Jameson, she analyzes the repression of historical contradictions.

Wood, Elizabeth. "Review Essay: Women in Music." SIGNS 6 (1980): 283-297.
In Wood's review she underlines the need for feminist music studies to take advantage of feminist analyses in other realms of culture: to examine the construction of value attribution, the ways in which music culture functions, and how elite and mass, acquired and indigenous musical and non-musical arts interact.

Yarbro-Bejarano, Yvonne. "Chicanas' Experience in Collective Theatre." WOMEN AND PERFORMANCE 2.2 (1985): 45-58.
Yarbro-Bejarano argues that economic and social factors specific to Chicanas make collective theater more accessible and more politically and artistically satisfying for them than commercial theater. Despite the development of broader creative and organizational skills in collective theater, Chicanas must still deal with racism and sexism in various theater companies. Yarbro-Bejarano discusses various political, Chicano, and Chicana theater collectives, and she concludes by describing the different theatrical forms--teatropoesia, actos, and popular forms--that have been developed in Chicano theater collectives.

Zeig, Sande. "The Actor as Activator: Deconstructing Gender Through Gesture." WOMEN AND PERFORMANCE 2.2 (1985): 12-17.
Zeig identifies gestures as "a concrete means of producing meaning" and "as a particular aspect of the oppression of women." As a lesbian, and as a stage and a social actor, Zeig argues that one can learn other gestures and deconstruct the sex class gender system by "reappropriating the gestures that do not carry the stamp of oppression."

Visual Arts: 1970-1992

[This is the fourth part of a bibliography in five parts on feminist aesthetics. The bibliography is number 65 in the series "Wisconsin Bibliographies in Women's Studies" published by the University of Wisconsin System Women's Studies Librarian's Office, 430 Memorial Library, 728 State Street, Madison, WI 53706.]


Alloway, Lawrence. "Women's Art in the 1970's." ART IN AMERICA 64 (1976): 64-72.
Alloway lauds the politics and social engagement of feminist art practice--in women's exhibitions, organizations, and co-ops--but he describes feminist art theory as woefully behind the practice. Limited by a narrow definition of feminism as collective action, he criticizes feminist art theory--from concepts of "central imagery" to reevaluations of women's "crafts"--for focusing on elements that are not exclusive to women's art. Thus he excludes shifts in representation and interpretation as a means of political change.

Alpers, Svetlana. "Art History and Its Exclusions: The Example of Dutch Art." Broude and Garrard 183-199.
Alpers argues that we must rewrite art history, not to include women, but to analyze the historical construction of meaning that affects concepts of women. Alpers compares Italian painting to Dutch painting, describing the fifteenth-century Italian aesthetic, which she considers the basis of current Western aesthetics, as one of mastery and possession, and the Dutch as one of presence and process.

Barry, Judith, and Sandy Flitterman. "Textual Strategies: The Politics of Art-Making." SCREEN 21 (1980): 35-48.
Barry and Flitterman discuss four categories of women's art: art that glorifies an essential female power, art that celebrates an alternative woman's tradition, art that considers women's cultural activity as excluded from a monolithic patriarchal culture, and art that analyzes the social representations of women. Favoring the last category, they argue that this art exploits existing social contradictions and actively engages the viewer in the construction of social meanings, thus creating the possibility of representations and cultural change.

Berger, John. WAYS OF SEEING. London: British Broadcasting Corporation, 1972.
In this complex but highly accessible work, Berger connects the commodification of art to the commodification of women and of representations of women. Berger exposes the social underpinnings of aesthetic judgments by analyzing visual representations as a means of conferring status and conveying a sense of power to the viewer.

Betterton, Rosemary, ed. LOOKING ON: IMAGES OF FEMININITY IN THE VISUAL ARTS AND MEDIA. London: Pandora, 1987.
In this anthology, Betterton has gathered articles that analyze the still image in advertisements, news media, fine art, and pornography, bringing feminist theories to issues of representation and the social construction of femininity.

Bonney, Claire. "The Nude Photograph: Some Female Perspectives." WAJ 6.2 (1985/86): 9-14.
Bonney discusses nude photography in terms of its revision of the concepts of femininity as represented by pose, activity, and erotic energy.

Broude, Norma. "Miriam Schapiro and `Femmage': Reflections on the Conflict Between Decoration and Abstraction in Twentieth-Century Art." Broude and Garrard 315-329. Schapiro's "femmage"--her "collage" of and collaboration with traditional women's arts--is, according to Broude, a challenge to the distinction between the "merely" decorative "low" arts, usually associated with women, and the more "meaningful" abstract "high" art of (usually) male artists. Broude notes the irony that makes the "content" of Schapiro's decorative arts important as a statement about the need to include art forms without "content."

Broude, Norma and Mary D. Garrard, eds. FEMINISM AND ART HISTORY: QUESTIONING THE LITANY. New York: Harper & Row, 1982.
The editors of this book of essays consider feminism in art history "an adjustment of historical perspective." The essays explore the impact of feminism on art history by reassessing values and historical contexts from the classical to the contemporary periods in Western art. See Alpers, Broude, Comini, Duncan, and Mainardi.

Brunet, Monique. "Le banquet au feminin: THE DINNER PARTY." CWS 1.3 (1979): 9-10.
Brunet critiques Judy Chicago's work on THE DINNER PARTY, arguing that Chicago undermines the implicit objective of raising "feminine" art forms to the level of "high" art by leaving the 400 men and women who worked on the project unheralded, regaling the "conceptual artist" as "Goddess" and creator while the "artisans" or workers are merely tools. This places the physical craft below the conceptual, as well as offending the feminist ethic/aesthetic of attribution.

Caldwell, Susan Havens. "Experiencing THE DINNER PARTY." WAJ 1.2 (1980/81): 35-37.
Caldwell responds primarily to the religious symbolism--Christian symbolism suggesting the sacrificial nourishment provided by women--and the "religiosity" in the work's emotional appeal, which together with the collaborative effort, suggest to Caldwell a parallel with the construction of a cathedral in the middle ages, the creation of an art form "meaningful" to the entire community.

Chadwick, Whitney. WOMEN, ART, AND SOCIETY. London: Thames and Hudson, 1990.
In this feminist reevaluation of art history, Chadwick infuses her overview of Western women's art with considerations of social contexts, aesthetic expectations, and concepts of "femininity," concluding with discussions of feminism, postmodernism, and political change in women's art.

Chicago, Judy. THROUGH THE FLOWER: MY STRUGGLE AS A WOMAN ARTIST. Garden City, NY: Anchor Books, 1977.
Representing herself as exemplar, Chicago traces her growth from an awareness of her individual womanhood to her comprehension of social gender structures, in the art world and in heterosexual relationships. She avers that as a teacher and artist, she has a social responsibility to depict women's values and world view through the form and imagery of her art and by choosing to work outside of the male institutions of art.

Comini, Alessandra. "Gender or Genius? The Woman Artists of German Expressionism." Broude and Garrard 271-291.
Comini reassesses the German expressionist movement by bringing into its history and definition the works of three women artists--Kathe Kollwitz, Paula Modersohn-Becker, and Gabriele Munter. She argues that the exclusion of these women misrepresents the movement, and that Kollwitz in particular expresses a more socially conscious side of expressionism.

de Bretteville, Sheila Levrant. "A Reexaminination of Some Aspects of the Design Arts from the Perspective of a Woman Designer." ARTS IN SOCIETY 11 (1974): 114-123.
De Bretteville argues that complexity and the use of fragmentary elements in design evoke the participation of the viewer and thereby undermine authoritarian control. She suggests that these, and other, "female" values presented in visual and physical forms can break down socially constructed divisions between male and female, work and leisure, public and private.

Duncan, Carol. "When Greatness Is a Box of Wheaties." ARTFORUM 14 (1975): 60-64.
Duncan describes Nemser's book of interviews, ART TALK, as an act of exploitation of the artists that forces their voices into Nemser's social discourse and art history agenda. She argues that Nemser uses the interviews to attempt to prove her thesis that women are as "great" as men--and greatness is inherent and universal--but that men have tried to suppress their importance.

---. "Happy Mothers and Other New Ideas in Eighteenth-Century French Art." Broude and Garrard 201-219.
Duncan incorporates the writing and painting of eighteenth-century France to reckon with the economic and social development of the family and its representations in paintings, thus delineating the processes by which representation is interwoven with historical forces.

Feinberg, Jean, Lenore Goldberg, Julie Gross, Bella Lieberman, and Elizabeth Sacre. "Political Fabrications: Women's Textiles in 5 Cultures." HERESIES 4 (1978): 28-37.
Interested in "the politics of art and aesthetics" the five authors analyze works in different cultures within the contexts, "both real and ideological," of the work's production, while avoiding assessments of quality and the imposition of contemporary Western notions of oppression on the women discussed.

Friedlander, Judith. "The Aesthetics of Oppression: Traditional Arts of Women in Mexico." HERESIES 4 (1978): 3-9.
Commenting on the feminist aesthetic that wishes to reevaluate folk and women's arts, Friedlander warns that we must be aware of the real consequences in women's lives of preserving traditional arts (her example is cooking). While traditional arts may exemplify the undervalued artistry of women, they may also carry with them the traditional overburdening of women as workers in the home and must not be idealized as "timeless, authentic female culture."

Garrard, Mary D. "Feminism: Has It Changed Art History?" HERESIES 4 (1978): 59-60.
Garrard argues that feminism should do more than attend to previously ignored women's achievements. Feminist art history must expose the politics of female exclusion and conceptions of femininity that have shaped the entire discourse on art.

Gouma-Peterson, Thalia, and Patricia Mathews. "The Feminist Critique of Art History." THE ART BULLETIN 69 (1987): 326-357.
Gouma-Peterson and Mathews' article is both a historical overview and an incisive analysis of methodology, valuable for its scope, in the writers treated, and for its extensive footnotes. The authors argue that from the first to the second generation of feminist art criticism and history, the question of aesthetics has moved from one of a "female sensibility" to considerations of "representation and gender difference." They favor deconstructive approaches, since they see the "unfixing" of the category of femininity, in its relations to class and race, as the most progressive means to undermine the ideological constructions that fix social categories and social roles.

Hammond, Harmony. "Horseblinders." HERESIES 9 (1980): 45-47.
Hammond writes that "feminism is not an aesthetic," arguing that a "feminist visual rhetoric" that associates a particular style with feminism, is restrictive and divisive, rather than a stimulation to feminist art and women's creativity.

Hess, Thomas B., and Elizabeth Baker, eds. ART AND SEXUAL POLITICS: WOMEN'S LIBERATION, WOMEN ARTISTS, AND ART HISTORY. New York: Macmillan, 1973.
This book begins with Linda Nochlin's signal essay, "Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists?," an essay important both for its assertion that art history must examine social and institutional practices that shape artistic opportunity and conceptions of the artist, and for its central role in redirecting debate in feminist art history. The essays in the rest of this book, various responses to Nochlin's essay or her title's question, rarely carry the debate out of a liberal, ahistorical analysis.

Hudson, Christine. "Pour une approache feministe de l'histoire de l'art." CWS 1.3 (1979): 4-5.
Hudson suggests that to find a feminist approach to art history, the historical reasons for women's exclusion from art production and from the historical annals of art should be a part of the art historical analysis, while at the same time the current material conditions that continue such exclusions should be addressed.

Jaudon, Valerie, and Joyce Kozloff. "`Art Hysterical Notions' of Progress and Culture." HERESIES 4 (1978): 38-42.
To expose assumptions of art history and to pinpoint the importance of language in shaping the concepts of the discipline, Jaudon and Kozloff compile quotations from art historians revealing the sexist basis of their judgments.

Kahr, Madlyn Millner. "Women as Artists and `Women's Art.'" WAJ 3.2 (1982/83): 28-31.
Kahr is against creating a category of "women's art," decrying the "special pleading and extravagant claims" she feels have been made under its rubric. She feels that women should fight for "equal but not preferential treatment" rather than ghettoize themselves and relegate themselves to "women's work."

Kampen, Natalie B. "Women's Art: Beginnings of a Methodology." FAJ 1.2 (1972): 10+.
Kampen argues that female artists are like female workers, and aesthetic standards and definitions of quality must move from purely formal to social, historical, and psychological considerations to deal adequately with women's art.

Kraft, Selma. "Cognitive Function and Women's Art." WAJ 4.2 (1983/84): 5-9.
Using scientific data Kraft argues that "there is a particularly female way of processing information and that this sensibility reveals itself in art which emphasizes intervals and arrangements of repeated motifs." Despite her caution, she implies that this phenomenon is transcultural and transhistorical.

Kramer, Marjorie. "Some Thoughts on Feminist Art." WOMEN AND ART 1.1 (1971): 3.
Kramer argues against any inherent qualities of femininity, and against any assertions of a feminine aesthetic, sensibility, or form. She writes that feminist art is a result of a feminist consciousness, it is figurative rather than abstract, and it is recognizable as a social statement.

Krauss, Rosalind E. L'AMOUR FOU: PHOTOGRAPHY AND SURREALISM. New York: Abbeville Press, Publishers, 1985.
Krauss calls surrealist photography a scandal and a contradiction, since it tampered with the conception of photography as a direct witness of the real, and it revealed that the object of photography is always manipulated. Using texts by Lacan, Freud, and Barthes, along with numerous photographs, Krauss poses the canonized surrealism of Breton against that of Bataille, showing how the female body as the "form" of formalist aesthetics is used by surrealists to interrogate representation.

Kuspit, Donald B. "Betraying the Feminist Intention." ARTS MAGAZINE 54 (1979): 124-126.
Kuspit defines the "feminist intention" in art as an unmasking of the ideological character of art, apparently making art practice inseparable from feminist art criticism. He attacks feminist decorative art as an authoritarian art that posits a pure, absolute, and idealistic order, demanding uncritical submission by the viewer.

Lauter, Estella. WOMEN AS MYTHMAKERS: POETRY AND VISUAL ART BY TWENTIETH CENTURY WOMEN. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1984.
Through analysis of six twentieth-century women artists, and overviews of works by many other women artists, Lauter argues that visual as well as verbal artists can change cultural codes by altering mythology and creating new mythic images.

---. "`Moving to the Ends of Our Own Rainbow': Steps Toward a Feminist Aesthetic." PHILOSOPHICAL ISSUES IN ART. Ed. Patricia H. Werhane. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1984. 537-543.
Lauter discusses Lippard's essays as formulations of a new aesthetic theory that redefine art as gendered, inclusive, and part of a dialogue with its audience, breaking down the separation between the social and aesthetic aspects of art.

Linker, Kate. "Eluding Definition." ARTFORUM 23.4 (1984): 61-67. Linker argues that theories of psychoanalysis and deconstruction can find rich applications to contemporary women's art, since many artists depict the dismantling of the centered self and fixed categories of meaning, and the construction of gendered subjectivity within shifting social and ideological forces. [She concludes that "in this questioning of meaning's autonomy we recognize a dagger directed at a tenet of Western esthetics that artworks are unified structures, enduring objects, expressions of the creative subject."]

Lippard, Lucy R. FROM THE CENTER: FEMINIST ESSAYS ON WOMEN'S ART. New York: E.P. Dutton, 1976.
In one of the early works of feminist art criticism, Lippard intends "to help forge a separate feminist esthetic consciousness." Her essays, written between 1970 and 1975, explore many exciting directions of feminist art in the 70s, from the creation of the L.A. Woman's Building to the new conceptual art, from discussions of female imagery to the work of individual artists. Her approach includes many cultural and artistic evaluations while never forgetting the economic, material, and practical concerns of women artists.

In her most recent collection of essays, Lippard elaborates on the conjunction of art, feminism, and left politics. Especially interested in overtly political art, she writes about the Art Workers' Coalition, street art, performance art, and murals, addressing the purposes of art and how art is deployed in the world, from the institutional commodification of art to the potential for art to stimulate social change.

Loeb, Judy, ed. FEMINIST COLLAGE: EDUCATING WOMEN IN THE VISUAL ARTS. New York: Teaching College Press, 1979.
The essays in this book cover a wide variety of topics and approaches, concentrating on examinations of the role of institutions in shaping aesthetics, both in art education and reception. For example, in the article, "The Male Artist as Stereotypical Female," June Wayne concentrates on the ways that society uses aesthetic judgments--of women and art--to isolate and deny artists power, while in the article, "The Pink Glass Swan," Lucy R. Lippard discusses the use of aesthetics to designate and separate by social class.

London, Julia, and Joan Howarth. "Evolution of a Feminist Art Working with WAVAW." HERESIES 6 (1979): 86-88.
This article describes the shaping of a media event as a model for effective "radical intervention of artists in society." The editorial statement that follows this article elaborates on the media's power to shape representation and communicate social concepts, underlining the importance of controlling the representation of one's ideas.

Mainardi, Patricia. "Quilts: The Great American Art." Broude and Garrard 331-346.
Mainardi describes quilts as universal female art forms and part of women's cultural heritage that have played a role in female creativity, community, cooperation, and communication. Although the mainstream art world still excludes them from the designation of Art, quilts address issues of originality and tradition, individuality and collectivity, content and values in art, and the feminine sensibility.

---. "Feminine Sensibility: An Analysis." FAJ 1.2 (1972): 9+.
Mainardi reviews elements of a feminine sensibility as they were discussed in a conference. The heated debate over these issues is quieted in this inclusive and non-judgmental review.

Moss, Irene, and Lila Katzen. "Separatism: The New Rip-Off." FAJ 2.2 (1973): 7+.
Moss argues that art and art standards are universal and that separatism is against the natural order in which both sexes participate equally. Katzen argues that separatism creates unrealistic expectations for women and causes them to lose their competitive role in the mainstream art world.

Nemser, Cindy. "Art Criticism and Gender Prejudice." ARTS MAGAZINE 46.5 (1972): 44-46.
Nemser condemns gender-charged sexist language by male art reviewers, calling for new critical language. She cites psychological tests to argue that intellect and creativity are ungendered, and she concludes that only "reactionary female chauvinists" would claim that biology or cultural conditioning differentiate male and female art.

---. "Stereotypes and Women Artists." FAJ 1.1 (1972): 1+.
Nemser decries stereotypical categories that male reviewers use to undermine the power of women's art. Nemser concludes her article by denying a different feminine sensibility, based on the most egregious formulations of that sensibility delineated by hostile male reviewers.

---. "The Women Artists' Movement." FAJ 2.4 (1973-74): 8-10.
In her historical overview of women artists organizing in the years 1969 to 1973, Nemser challenges both the male establishment and the women working toward concepts of a female aesthetic. She limits the term feminist to those who are seeking to expose male sexism and are working to have women included in the male art structures.

---. "Towards a Feminist Sensibility: Contemporary Trends in Women's Art." FAJ 5.2 (1976): 19-23.
In this article, Nemser rejects the possibility of a "feminine" sensibility, concentrating instead on "feminist art as a doctrine of equal rights for women in the aesthetic area." She argues that this "feminist" sensibility is evident in any art in which "women's immediate personal experience" is expressed.

Nochlin, Linda. WOMEN, ART AND POWER AND OTHER ESSAYS. New York: Harper & Row, 1988.
Nochlin's collected essays conclude with her pivotal 1971 essay, "Why Are There No Great Women Artists?" in which she challenges the notion of inherent genius by raising the many issues of social and institutional situations, such as the exclusion of women from studying the nude and social dictates of feminine behavior. In her later essays, Nochlin expands on her social and institutional analysis: in one essay, she describes Berthe Morisot's depiction of a wet nurse as a deconstruction of the sacred mother-child dyad and, in her title essay, she reads the narrative and iconographic levels of paintings to reveal their ideological messages on the conjunction of women, art, and power.

Owens, Craig. "The Discourse of Others: Feminists and Postmodernism." THE ANTI-AESTHETIC: ESSAYS IN POST MODERN CULTURE. Ed. Hal Foster. Port Townsend, WA: Bay Press, 1983. 57-82.
In exploring the intersection of the feminist critique of patriarchy and the postmodernist critique of representation, Owens finds psychoanalytic and deconstructive theories useful, but he cautions against the limitations of any single theoretical discourse. Owens argues that the exposure of invisible power structures is not an adequate explanation of many contemporary women visual artists, and he discusses their works as forms of representation that destabilize identity, refuse appropriation, and undermine authoritative subjectivity.

Parker traces the history of embroidery as a sign of the shifting ideology of femininity from medieval to contemporary England. Through an economic and social perspective, she discusses how embroidery was depicted and what it depicted, how embroidery was used to train girls in femininity, and how it has been used to express rebellion against social definitions.

Parker, Rozsika, and Griselda Pollock. OLD MISTRESSES: WOMEN, ART AND IDEOLOGY. New York: Pantheon Books, 1981.
In their book, Pollock and Parker analyze the ideological forces that shape the discourse of art history to discover "Why modern art history ignores the existence of women artists." Through a historical and structural analysis of the representation of women and artists from the nineteenth century to the present, the authors find that artists are increasingly associated with social and intellectual independence and genius attributed to masculinity, while women are represented as homebound, dependent, and mentally fixed. The authors conclude that in women's relation to traditional institutions, as well as in their own art practice, women artists can expose and deconstruct these ideological constructions by changing, to quote Lippard, "the way art is seen, bought, sold, and used in our culture."

---. FRAMING FEMINISM: ART AND THE WOMEN'S MOVEMENT 1970-85. London: Pandora, 1987.
This anthology, based on "a correlation between the value system that sustains the institutions of art and the sexual division that structures our society," constructs the historical context for British art criticism and practice in the 70s and 80s. The selections, almost one-third of which are by the editors, emphasize feminist deconstructive and materialist critical approaches, as in Pollock's argument against "Images of Women" criticism, complemented by Parker's "Images of Men."

Peel, Giovanna. "A Room of One's Own: A Case for Women's Architecture." CWS 3.3 (1982): 44-45.
Peel contends that women have a more "traditional" aptitude for architectural construction because they have "traditionally" dominated home spaces and because the construction of homes is a long dormant female occupation.

Pollock, Griselda. "Women, Art and Ideology: Questions for Feminist Art Historians." WAJ 4.1 (1983): 39-47.
Pollock argues for an adaptation of Marxist forms of analysis in feminist art history, shifting art historians' focus from descriptive histories to an analysis of art in its historical context, to show how art production is affected by ideology and how it expresses ideological assumptions.

Pollock declares that feminism has brought about a paradigm shift in art history that exposes previous art history as a masculinist discourse and that reconceptualizes art as a social practice. In her essays she employs Marxist and psychoanalytic discourses to analyze and deconstruct the social construction of femininity and woman in artistic representations.

Rabinovitz, Lauren. "Issues of Feminist Aesthetics: Judy Chicago and Joyce Wieland." WAJ 1.2 (1980/81): 38-41.
Comparing Wieland's TRUE PATRIOT LOVE to Chicago's DINNER PARTY, Rabinovitz defines five aspects of feminist aesthetic value: that the work encourages "active artistic participation" by the viewer/reader, that artists work cooperatively on an equal status, that traditional women's crafts are considered art, that female imagery be used without misappropriation or objectification, and that the contradictions inherent in making images into "art" be dealt with consciously.

Raven, Arlene. CROSSING OVER: FEMINISM AND THE ART OF SOCIAL CONCERN. Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press, 1988.
In this collection of her essays, Raven uses an associational method to draw together historical events, poetry, descriptions of works of art, the words of artists, and her own voice. In her verbal weaving, Raven treats a variety of topics and individual artists, discussing spirituality and ethnicity, concepts of home, and the battle against rape. Using feminism to cross over traditional boundaries--between artistic and political commentary, between critical and poetic writing--her essays merge artistic and social concerns.

Raven, Arlene, and Ruth Iskin. "Through the Peephole: Toward a Lesbian Sensibility in Art." CHRYSALIS 4 (1978): 19-26.
In a dialogue between Raven and Iskin, Raven attempts to broaden the idea of a lesbian sensibility by considering lesbianism as a model for all feminists, as a symbol of a woman who takes risks, is in control of her life, and who is the source of her own artistic creation, and she suggests that the lesbian sensibility "reflects a new process, form, and content," though she does not elaborate on this idea.

Raven, Arlene, Cassandra L. Langer, and Joanna Frueh. FEMINIST ART CRITICISM: AN ANTHOLOGY. Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press, 1988.
The essays in this book, organized chronologically from 1973 to 1987, utilize a variety of theoretical approaches, while addressing Chicana art, African American women's performance art, erotic art, cinema, and general theories of feminist art criticism. Despite their differences, all of the theoretical approaches--Marxist, psychoanalytic, deconstructive, etc.--implicate a social dimension as basic to feminist aesthetic considerations.

Richert, Shirley Kassman. "From Women's Work to Art Objects." FAJ 2.1 (1973): 17.
Richert describes women's creative work in quilts, weaving, pottery, basket weaving, and leather as work that has been aesthetically ignored and undervalued because it is traditionally private, women's work, created for use rather than solely for display.

Robinson, Hilary, ed. VISIBLY FEMALE: FEMINISM AND ART. New York: Universe Books, 1988.
This anthology opens up a number of dialogues in feminist art criticism, such as that between Griselda Pollock and Ann Sutherland Harris about ideology in art. It covers views, from archetypal theory and psychoanalytic theory, develops positions from black and lesbian women artists, and delves into issues such as definitions of pornography, as in the article entitled "Towards a Feminist Erotica."

Rom, Cristine C. "One View: THE FEMINIST ART JOURNAL." WAJ 2.2 (1981/82): 19-24.
Rom reviews the historical position and editorial policies of THE FEMINIST ART JOURNAL, criticizing the magazine's editors, and especially Cindy Nemser, for excluding many important currents in the feminist art movement and silencing many questions regarding feminist aesthetics and historical analysis by labeling "right wing" the efforts of many radical and separatist feminist artists and critics.

Rosenberg, Avis Lang. "PORK ROASTS: 250 FEMINIST CARTOONS." CWS 3.3 (1982): 30-33.
In her review of an art exhibit and the accompanying catalogue of feminist cartoons, Rosenberg describes as "feminist" cartoons that show an awareness and exposure of the ways in which gender shapes experiences and perceptions in the situations depicted. She also insists that the gender patterns that create male privilege, and not men per se, are being "roasted."

Sawyer, Janet, and Patricia Mainardi. "A Feminine Sensibility? Two Views." FAJ 1.1 (1972): 4+.
Sawyer believes that there exists a collective female unconscious, untainted by "male" consciousness, that women must tap to find a female sensibility. Mainardi calls those who are developing a female aesthetic, the "right wing of the women artists' movement," describing them further as opportunistic, reactionary, and upholders of biological determinism. She avers that "Feminist Art" is political art, much different than a "feminine sensibility."

Schapiro, Miriam, and Judy Chicago. "Female Imagery." WOMANSPACE JOURNAL 1.3 (1973): 11-14.
Schapiro and Chicago argue that certain forms in women's art, especially the "central core" iconography, reflect the biological form of female sexuality and that these forms reverse the way the culture sees women and they assert female values--such as "softness, vulnerability and self-exposure"--in art.

Tickner, Lisa. "The Body Politic: Female Sexuality & Women Artists since 1970." ART HISTORY 1.2 (1978): 236-247.
Against the historical background of the erotic depiction of women as a mediating sign for the male, Tickner discusses women's erotic art as a process of de-eroticizing and de-colonizing the female body by using artistic strategies to challenge taboos and celebrate female biological processes and morphology.

Vogel, Lise. "Fine Arts and Feminism: The Awakening Consciousness." FS 2 (1974): 3-37.
Vogel begins this early analysis of feminist art history with a painstaking critique of Hess and Nochlin's WOMAN AS SEX OBJECT. With a clear eye for economic factors, and the social and analytical implications of class, race, and gender, Vogel outlines directions for feminist art teachers and historians.

Watterson, Georgia. "When My Vision is Cohesive, I Draw: Banahonda Kennedy-Kish (Bambi)." CWS 3.3 (1982): 20-22.
As a Native artist, Bambi feels her art is intrinsically bound to balancing the white and native cultures she lives with. Her statements as a Native artist are particularly interesting because they claim for the Native sensibility similar characteristics that some feminist theorists claim for women, suggesting that ideological opposition to white patriarchal culture may influence the choice of identifying characteristics.

Whelan, Richard. "Are Women Better Photographers Than Men?" ART NEWS 79 (1980): 80-88.
Whelan argues that the difference between male and female photographers is socioeconomic rather than aesthetic. He suggests that social roles imposed on women can help in photography and photojournalism because photographic subjects tend to trust or discount women more easily, considering them less powerful and intrusive than men.

Withers, Josephine. "Three Women Sculptors: Jackie Ferrara, Lila Katzen, Athena Tacha." FS 5 (1979): 507-8.
"Faith Ringgold." FS6 (1980): 207-212.
"Betye Saar." FS 6 (1980): 336-341.
"Audrey Flack: Monumental Still Lives." FS 7 (1981): 524-529.
"Musing About the Muse." FS 9 (1983): 27-29.
"In the World." FS 9 (1983): 325-6.
"Inuit Women Artists." FS 10 (1984): 85-88.
"Jody Pinto." FS 11 (1985): 379-381.
"On the Inside Not Looking Out." FS 11 (1985): 559-560.
"Eleanor Antin: Allegory of the Soul." FS 12 (1986): 117-121.
"Revisioning Our Foremothers: Reflections on the Ordinary. Extraordinary Art of May Stevens." FS 13 (1987): 485-498.
Withers' brief art essays, usually accompanying examples of the artists' work, contain feminist analyses that elaborate on various aesthetic considerations. For example, in "Musing About the Muse" she considers female appropriations of the nude as a destruction of the active-male-subject/passive-female-object opposition common in male nudes; in "In the World" she describes the earthworks of women as "a more cooperative, organic, and process-oriented modeling." Thus, Withers opens up many possible considerations of feminist aesthetics as a dynamic and shifting process of "reading" and reacting to works of art.

[The following list brings our bibliography a bit past a turning point in the scholarship that links feminism and aesthetics--a bend in the road that occurred in 1989-90 when the conjunction that had been forming for roughly twenty years in the feminist theory and practice of separate arts was sufficiently noticeable to require recognition by Philosophy, the academic home of Aesthetics since its inception in Aristotle's POETICS (or at least since the term came into English in the eighteenth century). Acceptance occurred nearly simultaneously in special issues of the influential APA NEWSLETTER, of a leading feminist philosophy journal, HYPATIA, and of the American Society of Aesthetics' JOURNAL OF AESTHETICS AND ART CRITICISM, all listed below. In the same academic year, the title of Rita Felski's book, BEYOND FEMINIST AESTHETICS (see literature section, above), implied that the amorphous mass of ideas only recently identified as "feminist aesthetics" by Gisela Ecker's 1985 title (above, literature section), was already a discipline worth contesting. Although arguments about its name may continue for some time, I expect the systematic feminist study of the arts to be a highly visible component of multi-cultural Women's Studies in the decades ahead.]

Estella Lauter



Bassard, Katherine Clay. "Gender and Genre: Black Women's Autobiobraphy and the Ideology of Literacy." AFRICAN AMERICAN REVIEW 26. 1 (Spring 1992), 119-130.

Bergstrom, Janet and Mary Ann Doane. "The Female Spectator: Contexts and Directions." CAMERA OBSCURA 20/21 (1990): 5-27.

Brand, Peg and Carolyn Korsmeyer, eds. "Feminism and Traditional Aesthetics." Special issue of THE JOURNAL OF AESTHETICS AND ART CRITICISM 48.4 (Fall 1990).


Chadwick, Whitney. "Negotiating the Feminist Divide." HERESIES 24 (1989): 23-28.

Chave, A.C. "O'Keeffe and the Masculine Gaze." ART IN AMERICA 78 (January 1990): 114-125.

"Contemporary Quilts." Special focus issue of GALLERIE: WOMEN ARTISTS 3. 1 (1990).

Daly, A. "Are Women Reclaiming or Reinforcing Sexist Imagery?" HIGH PERFORMANCE 12 (Summer 1989): 18-19.

Davis, Kathy. "Remaking the She-Devil: a Critical Look at Feminist Approaches to Beauty." HYPATIA 6. 2 (Summer 1991): 21-43.

DeKoven, Marianne. RICH AND STRANGE: GENDER, HISTORY, MODERNISM. Princeton University Press, 1991.

Devereaux, Mary. "The Philosophical and Political Implications of the Feminist Critique of Aesthetic Autonomy." In Carr, Glynis, ed. "TURNING THE CENTURY": FEMINIST THEORY IN THE 1990S. Bucknell University Press, 1992.

Dotterer, Ronald and Susan Bowers, eds. POLITICS, GENDER AND THE ARTS. Susquehanna University Press, 1992.

Edmondson, Belinda. "Black Aesthetics, Feminist Aesthetics, and the Problems of Oppositional Discourse." CULTURAL CRITIQUE 22 (Fall 1992): 75-98.

Evans, Patricia, ed. ISSUES IN FEMINIST FILM CRITICISM. Indiana University Press, 1990.


Gamman, Lorraine and Marshment, Margaret. THE FEMALE GAZE: WOMEN AS VIEWERS OF POPULAR CULTURE. Real Comet Press, 1989.

Garb, T. "The Forbidden Gaze." ART IN AMERICA 79 (May 1991): 146-51.

Gates, Eugene. "The Female Voice: Sexual Aesthetics Revisited." JOURNAL OF AESTHETIC EDUCATION 22. 4 (Winter 1988): 59-68.

Goettner-Abendroth, Heide. THE DANCING GODDESS. Krause, Maureen T. translator. Beacon Press, 1991.

Grigsby, Darcy Grimaldo. "Dilemmas of Visibility: Contemporary Women Artists' Representations of Female Bodies." Special issue of MICHIGAN QUARTERLY REVIEW 29.4 (Fall 1990): 584-618.

Hammond, Harmony. "Historias: Women Tinsmiths of New Mexico." HERESIES 24 (1989): 38-43.

Hanna, Judith Lynne. DANCE, SEX AND GENDER: SIGNS OF IDENTITY, DOMINANCE, DEFIANCE AND DESIRE. University of Chicago Press, 1988.

Hein, Hilde and Carol Korsmeyer, eds. "Feminism and Aesthetics." Special issue of HYPATIA 5. 2 (Summer 1990).

Jacobs, Lea and Patrice Petro, eds. "Feminism and Film History." Special issue of CAMERA OBSCURA 22 (1990).

Jezic, D.P. WOMEN COMPOSERS: THE LOST TRADITION FOUND. Feminist Press, 1988. (Cassettes available.)

Jolicoeur, Nicole. "Feminism and Art Curatorial Practice." CANADIAN WOMEN'S STUDIES 11. 1 (Spring 1990): 10-11.

Jones, S. "The Female Perspective." MUSIC JOURNAL 91 (Fall 1991): 24-27.

Keeling, R. "Women in North American Indian Music." NOTES OF THE SOCIETY FOR ETHNOMUSICOLOGY 47 (1991): 1148-49.


LaDuke, Betty. AFRICA THROUGH THE EYES OF WOMEN ARTISTS. Africa World Press, 1991.

Lauter, Estella. "Feminist Interart Criticism: A Contradiction in Terms?" Special issue of COLLEGE LITERATURE 19. 2 (June 1992): 98-105.


Lippard, Lucy R. "Both Sides Now." HERESIES 24 (1989): 29-34.

Longhurst, Derek, ed. GENDER, GENRE, AND NARRATIVE PLEASURE. Unwin Hyman, 1989.

Lovely, D. "Speaking in Tongues: Women Artists and Modernism, 1900-1935." ARTS REVIEW 42 (May 1990): 235-236.

MacDonald, S. "Demystifying the Female Body." FILM QUARTERLY 45 (Fall 1991): 18-32.

"Making a Difference: Women in Museums." MUSEUM NEWS 69 (July/August 1990): 37-50.

Maksymowicz, Virginia. "The Practice of Photography: Education, Gender and Ideology." WOMEN ARTISTS NEWS 15. 3 (Fall 1990): 2-5.

Malti-Douglas, Fedwa. WOMAN'S BODY, WOMAN'S WORD: GENDER AND DISCOURSE IN ARABO-ISLAMIC WRITING. Princeton University Press, 1992.

McClary, S. "Feminine Endings: Music, Gender and Sexuality." JOURNAL OF MUSIC 9. 3 (1991): 397-98.

"Native Women." Special issue of Canadian Women's Studies 10. 2&3(Summer/Fall 1989).

Parkerson, Michelle. "No More Mammy Stories: an Overview of Black Women Filmmakers." GALLERIE 1989 Annual: 12-16.

Richards, Catherine. "Virtual Reality: the Rebirth of Pure Art?" WOMEN'S ART 41 (July/August 1991): 4-6.

Robinson, S. "Demarginalizing Women Photographers." ARTWEEK 20 (July 1989): 11.

Ruppert, Jeanne, ed. GENDER: LITERARY AND CINEMATIC REPRESENTATION. Florida State University Press, 1990.

Russ, Joanna. "Anomalousness" and "Aesthetics." Warhol and Herndl 194-211.

Schapiro, Miriam and Faith Wilding. "Cunts/Quilts/Consciousness." HERESIES. 24 (1989): 6-10.

Scott, Bonnie Kime, ed. THE GENDER OF MODERNISM: A CRITICAL ANTHOLOGY. Indiana University Press, 1990.

Seitz, B. "Songs, Identity and Women's Liberation in Nicaragua." LATIN AMERICAN MUSIC REVIEW 12. 1 (1991): 21-41.

Shapiro, A.D. "Music and Gender: Another Look." THE SONNECK SOCIETY BULLETIN FOR AMERICAN MUSIC 17. 2 (1991): 58-60.

Slyomovics, Susan. "Ritual Grievance: the Language of Women?" WOMEN AND PERFORMANCE 5. 1 (1990).



Villarejo, Amy. "Reconsidering Visual Pleasure." NWSA JOURNAL 3 (Winter 1991): 110-116. Review essay.

Walker, Cheryl. "Feminist Literary Criticism and the Author." CRITICAL INQUIRY 16. 3 (Spring 1990): 551-571.

Wallace, Michelle. "Variations on Negation and the Heresy of Black Feminist Creativity." HERESIES 24 (1989): 69-75.

Warhol, Robyn R. and Diane Price Herndl, eds. FEMINISMS: AN ANTHOLOGY OF LITERARY THEORY AND CRITICISM. Rutgers University Press, 1991.
Includes articles by Friedman, Gilbert and Gubar, Jones, Kolodny, Mulvey, Robinson, Showalter, Tompkins, and Zimmerman(listed in the annotated sections of this bibliography), and others.

Werden, Dyana. "'Languaging': an Image/Word Conjunction." TRIVIA 16/17 (Fall 1990): 40-49.

Weston, Jennifer. "Thinking in Things: a Woman's Symbol Language." TRIVIA 16/17 (Fall 1990): 84-98.

Williams, L. "Firm Bodies: Gender, Genre and Excess." FILM QUARTERLY 44 (Summer 1991): 2-13.

Wolff, Janet. FEMININE SENTENCES: ESSAYS ON WOMEN AND CULTURE. University of California, 1990. "Women's Studies / Women's Status." College Music Society. NOTES 47 (1991): 801-02.

Young, G. "Letters From the Front Line: The State of the Art for Women Composers." EAR 15 (Mar. 1991): 16-19.

Zimmerman, Bonnie. THE SAFE SEA OF WOMEN: LESBIAN FICTION 1969-1989. Beacon, 1990.