Publications from the Women's Studies Librarian and Her Staff

Feminist Perspectives on the Ethic of Care (Dudley, 1994)

Feminist Perspectives on the Ethic of Care (Dudley, 1994)

This bibliography is number 69 of the series "Wisconsin Bibliographies in Women's Studies" published by the University of Wisconsin System Women's Studies Librarian's Office, Room 430 Memorial Library, 728 State Street, Madison, WI 53706.

The theories of Carol Gilligan (1977, 1982 and later) and Nel Noddings (1984 and later) are "central to understanding the origins of, and many directions within, feminist ethics today." Their contributions are "especially important...for providing powerful feminist critiques of traditional ethical theories of rights and justice and for articulating the earliest descriptions of an ethic of care" (Cole and Coultrap-McQuin, 3).

An ethic of care and responsibility develops from an individual's feeling of interconnectedness with others. It is contextual and arises from experience. It is characterized by nurturance and an emphasis on responsibilities to others. An ethic of justice, on the other hand, is an expression of autonomy. It is formulated in terms of universal, abstract principles and is characterized by rationality and an emphasis on individual rights. Some describe an ethic of caring as a "female" approach to morality and an ethic of rights and justice as a "male" approach.

Dialogue around the issue has included agreement, refinements, further study, criticism, revision, and rejection. Some questions remain: "Can a care orientation be distinguished from a justice orientation? To what extent are either of these moral 'voices' related to gender? Can the ethic of care based on relatedness and responsiveness to others be considered a truly feminist ethic?" (Larrabee, 4).

This bibliography begins chronologically with responses to Gilligan's IN A DIFFERENT VOICE which was published in 1982. The listings represent a selection of books, articles, and essays that essentially concentrate on the ethic of care or on important aspects of it. For the most part, they express a theoretical point of view. The bibliography includes only a few works that discuss applications of the ethic of care in work situations such as health and medicine, moral education, and social work.

The issue of "mothering" has a life of its own, although it sometimes intersects the issue of an ethic of care. With the exception of works by Sara Ruddick, which inform discussions around the ethic of care, the bibliography excludes items about "mothering."

Bibliography

Auerbach, Judy, et al. "Commentary on Gilligan's 'In a Different Voice.'" FEMINIST STUDIES 11 (Spring 1985): 149-162.
Warns that certain ambiguities in Gilligan's work leave open "possibilities for anti-feminist interpretations and applications."

Baier, Annette C. "The Need for More Than Justice." In Hanen, Marsha, and Kai Nielsen, eds. SCIENCE, MORALITY AND FEMINIST THEORY. Canadian Journal of Philosophy, supplementary volume 13. Calgary: University of Calgary Press, 1987, 41-56.
Discusses Gilligan's perspective of care which, when integrated with justice, will result in a positive revision of morality.

Baier, Annette C. "What Do Women Want in a Moral Theory?" NOUS 19.1 (March 1985): 53-63. Reprinted in Larrabee, Mary Jeanne, ed. AN ETHIC OF CARE: FEMINIST AND INTERDISCIPLINARY PERSPECTIVES. New York: Routledge, 1993, 19-32.
Argues that a moral theory which emphasizes the concept of trust may able to integrate both obligation (rights and duties) and the ethics of love and care.

Baines, Carol T., Patricia M. Evans, and Sheila M. Neysmith, eds. WOMEN'S CARING: FEMINIST PERSPECTIVES ON SOCIAL WELFARE. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1991.
An anthology on applied ethics that focuses on the Canadian experience. "Investigates the influence of an ethic of care on the development of social work, nursing, and teaching, and examines the connections between caring and poverty, wife abuse, and child neglect."

Bartlett, Elizabeth Ann. "Beyond Either/Or: Justice and Care in the Ethics of Albert Camus." In Cole, Eve Browning, and Susan Coultrap-McQuin, eds. EXPLORATIONS IN FEMINIST ETHICS: THEORY AND PRACTICE. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1992, 82-88.
Applying Camus's concept of rebellion, finds a close relationship between the ethic of care and the ethic of rights and justice.

Bebeau, Muriel J. and Mary Brabeck. "Ethical Sensitivity and Moral Reasoning Among Men and Women in the Professions." In Brabeck, Mary M., ed. WHO CARES? THEORY, RESEARCH, AND EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE ETHIC OF CARE. New York: Praeger, 1989, 144-163. Parts appeared in "Integrating Care and Justice Issues in Professional Moral Education: A Gender Perspective." JOURNAL OF MORAL EDUCATION 16.3 (1987).
Authors' work involves empirical studies. They see the ethic of care, not as a complete developmental theory of moral reasoning, but rather as one component of morality.

Blum, Lawrence A. "Gilligan and Kohlberg: Implications for Moral Theory." ETHICS 98 (April 1988): 472-491. Reprinted in Larrabee, Mary Jeanne, ed. AN ETHIC OF CARE: FEMINIST AND INTERDISCIPLINARY PERSPECTIVES. New York: Routledge, 1993, 49-68.
Discusses philosophical differences between Gilligan's and Kohlberg's views and defends Gilligan's voice of care.

Brabeck, Mary M. "Moral Judgment: Theory and Research on Differences between Males and Females." DEVELOPMENT REVIEW 3 (1983): 274-291. Reprinted in Larrabee, Mary Jeanne, ed. AN ETHIC OF CARE: FEMINIST AND INTERDISCIPLINARY PERSPECTIVES. New York: Routledge, 1993, 33-48.
Contrasts Gilligan's and Kohlberg's theories on moral development, examines the evidence for Gilligan's claims about sex differences, and calls for a theory of morality that integrates care and justice.

Brabeck, Mary M., ed. WHO CARES? THEORY, RESEARCH, AND EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE ETHIC OF CARE. New York: Praeger, 1989.
An anthology which 7quot;brings together the work of scholars who have been critiquing and extending the ethic of care and its claims to being gender related." The question 'who cares?' is addressed from the perspectives of various academic disciplines: philosophy, psychology, theology, and education. All essays are listed separately in this bibliography.

Bureau, Lucille Roy. "La critique feministe du domaine moral: vers un nouveau paradigme." RESOURCES FOR FEMINIST RESEARCH 20 (Spring/Summer 1991): 43-47.
A critique of Gilligan and Noddings, with suggestions for moral education and research. Argues it is a question not only of giving women a voice but of making them conscious of that voice.

Calhoun, Cheshire. "Justice, Care, Gender Bias." JOURNAL OF PHILOSOPHY 85 (September 1988): 451-463.
Addresses critics of Gilligan's challenges to moral theory and calls for some shifts in the traditional priorities which exclude women's moral experience.

Card, Claudia. "Caring and Evil." HYPATIA 5 (Spring 1990): 101-108.
Discusses deficiencies in Noddings's care ethic, including the danger of "valorizing relationships in which carers are seriously abused."

Card, Claudia. VIRTUES AND MORAL LUCK. Working Papers, Institute for Legal Studies, series 1, no. 4. Madison, Wis.: Institute for Legal Studies, University of Wisconsin-Madison Law School, 1985.
Compares Gilligan's ethic of care with contemporary philosophies of ethics and suggests, in contrast to Gilligan, that virtues are not sex-related.

Cohen, Cheryl H. "The Feminist Sexuality Debate: Ethics and Politics." HYPATIA 1.2 (Fall 1986): 71-86.
"Explores both a 'rights view' of ethics and a 'responsibilities view' and shows...how an appeal to ethics might take feminist sexual politics beyond the current debate."

Cole, Eve Browning, and Susan Coultrap-McQuin, eds. EXPLORATIONS IN FEMINIST ETHICS: THEORY AND PRACTICE. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1992.
Anthology. Some of the essays are listed separately in this bibliography. The Introduction places the ethics of care within the broader context of feminist ethics. Extensive bibliography.

Curtin, Deane. "Toward an Ecological Ethic of Care." HYPATIA 6 (Spring 1991): 60-74.
Proposes "a politicized ecological ethic of care which can express ecofeminist insights."

Davies, Lesley. CARING: A FEMININE APPROACH TO ETHICS. Women's Studies Occasional Papers, no. 18. Canterbury, Eng.: University of Kent, 1990.
Unseen. 18 pages.

Davion, Victoria. "Pacificism and Care." HYPATIA 5 (Spring 1990): 90-100.
Argues against Ruddick's connection between pacificism and mothering. Also discusses how pacificism and care may be incompatible.

Dietz, Mary G. "Citizenship With a Feminist Face: The Problem With Maternal Thinking." POLITICAL THEORY 13.1 (1985): 19-37.
Addresses the question of whether or not an ethic of care can be fairly applied in legislation and social policy.

Dillon, Robin S. "Care and Respect.7quot; In Cole, Eve Browning, and Susan Coultrap-McQuin, eds. EXPLORATIONS IN FEMINIST ETHICS: THEORY AND PRACTICE. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1992, 69-81.
Argues for a more unified approach to morality by combining both the care perspective and the justice perspective (or what she calls respect).

Eisenberg, Nancy, Richard Fabes, and Cindy Shea. "Gender Differences in Empathy and Prosocial Moral Reasoning: Empirical Investigations." In Brabeck, Mary M., ed. WHO CARES? THEORY, RESEARCH, AND EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE ETHIC OF CARE. New York: Praeger, 1989, 127-143.
A review of the literature that relates empathy and caring to girls and women.

Eugene, Toinette M. "Sometimes I Feel Like a Motherless Child: The Call and Response for a Liberational Ethic of Care by Black Feminists." In Brabeck, Mary M., ed. WHO CARES? THEORY, RESEARCH, AND EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE ETHIC OF CARE. New York: Praeger, 1989, 45-62.
Reflects on aspects of the "Afro-American ethic of care as liberation which is regularly practiced and embodied by black women."

Flanagan, Owen, and Kathryn Jackson. "Justice, Care, and Gender: The Kohlberg-Gilligan Debate Revisited." ETHICS 97 (April 1987): 622-637. Reprinted in Larrabee, Mary Jeanne, ed. AN ETHIC OF CARE: FEMINIST AND INTERDISCIPLINARY PERSPECTIVES. New York: Routledge, 1993, 69-84.
Evaluates Gilligan's and Kohlberg's moral psychology debate from a philosophical point of view. Includes a call for a better understanding of care.

Fraser, Nancy. "Toward a Discourse Ethic of Solidarity." PRAXIS INTERNATIONAL 5.4 (1986): 425-429.
In comparison with an ethic of care, an ethic of solidarity is better for larger political contexts.

Friedman, Marilyn. "Beyond Caring: The De-Moralization of Gender." In Hanen, Marsha, and Kai Nielsen, eds. SCIENCE, MORALITY AND FEMINIST THEORY. Canadian Journal of Philosophy, supplementary volume 13. Calgary: University of Calgary Press, 1987, 87-110. Reprinted in Larrabee, Mary Jeanne, ed. AN ETHIC OF CARE: FEMINIST AND INTERDISCIPLINARY PERSPECTIVES. New York: Routledge, 1993, 258-273.
Argues that "care and justice do not define distinct moral perspectives." However, they do "point to other important differences in moral orientation."

Friedman, Marilyn. "Care and Context in Moral Reasoning." In Kittay, Eva Feder, and Diana T. Meyers, eds. WOMEN AND MORAL THEORY. Totowa, NJ: Rowman & Littlefield, 1987, 190-204. Earlier version appeared as "Abraham, Socrates, and Heinz: Where Are the Women? Care and Context in Women's Moral Reasoning," in Harding, Carol, ed. MORAL DEVELOPMENT: PHILOSOPHICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL ISSUES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF MORAL REASONING. Chicago: Precedent, 1985, 25-42.
Discusses the importance of both care and contextual thinking in moral reasoning.

Fry, Sara T. "The Role of Caring in a Theory of Nursing Ethics." HYPATIA 4 (Summer 1989): 88-103. Reprinted in Holmes, Helen Bequaert, and Laura M. Purdy, eds. FEMINIST PERSPECTIVES IN MEDICAL ETHICS. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1992, 93-106.
Argues for caring as the foundational value for a theory of nursing ethics and stresses it must be "grounded within a moral-point-of-view of persons rather than any idealized conception of moral action, moral behavior, or system of moral justification."

Gilligan, Carol. "Concepts of the Self and of Morality." HARVARD EDUCATIONAL REVIEW 47.4 (November 1977): 481-517. Reprinted as "In a Different Voice: Women's Conceptions of Self and of Morality," in Pearsall, Marilyn. WOMEN AND VALUES: READINGS IN RECENT FEMINIST PHILOSOPHY. 2nd ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1993, 342-368.
Gilligan's first articulation of the idea that women have a different moral development from that of men. She believes women's morality centers on notions of caring and responsibility rather than rights and rules.

Gilligan, Carol. IN A DIFFERENT VOICE: PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORY AND WOMEN'S DEVELOPMENT. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1982.
Discusses empirical studies of moral development that specifically include women. Sees a discrepancy between women's experience and the existing models of human development and identifies a "different voice," a moral perspective based on care.

Gilligan, Carol, Nona P. Lyons, and Trudy J. Hanmer, eds. MAKING CONNECTIONS: THE RELATIONAL WORLDS OF ADOLESCENT GIRLS AT EMMA WILLARD SCHOOL. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1990.
A collection of essays on the psychological development of girls aged 11 to 16. Each essay investigates "the ways in which girls orchestrate themes of connection and separation and concerns about care and justice in speaking about themselves, about their relationships, and about experiences of conflict."

Gilligan, Carol, et al., eds. MAPPING THE MORAL DOMAIN: A CONTRIBUTION OF WOMEN'S THINKING TO PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORY AND EDUCATION. Cambridge: Center for the Study of Gender, Education and Human Development, Harvard University Graduate School of Education, 1988.
"The differences between a 'justice perspective' and a 'care perspective' are explored...in a variety of studies undertaken in different contexts."

Gilligan, Carol. "Moral Orientation and Moral Development." In Kittay, Eva Feder, and Diana T. Meyers, eds. WOMEN AND MORAL THEORY. Totowa, NJ: Rowman & Littlefield, 1987, 19-33. Updates the research begun in IN A DIFFERENT VOICE. Clarifies the relation of gender and moral viewpoint and examines the roots of and the relationship between the care perspective and the justice perspective.

Gilligan, Carol. "Reply by Carol Gilligan." SIGNS: JOURNAL OF WOMEN IN CULTURE AND SOCIETY 11 (Winter 1986): 324-333. Reprinted as "Reply to Critics" in Larrabee, Mary Jeanne, ed. AN ETHIC OF CARE: FEMINIST AND INTERDISCIPLINARY PERSPECTIVES. New York: Routledge, 1993, 207-214.
Gilligan's defense against criticisms, including those raised by Greeno and Maccoby, Kerber, Luria, and Stack, all of whom contributed to a forum on Gilligan's work in SIGNS, 1986 (see listings in this bibliography).

Greeno, Catherine G., and Eleanor E. Maccoby. "How Different Is the 'Different Voice'?" SIGNS: JOURNAL OF WOMEN IN CULTURE AND SOCIETY 11 (Winter 1986): 310-316. Reprinted in Larrabee, Mary Jeanne, ed. AN ETHIC OF CARE: FEMINIST AND INTERDISCIPLINARY PERSPECTIVES. New York: Routledge, 1993, 193-198.
Warns against remaining trapped in such gender stereotypes as women's caring nature and calls for more empirical data to test specific claims of gender differences.

Held, Virginia. "Feminism and Moral Theory." In Kittay, Eva Feder, and Diana T. Meyers, eds. WOMEN AND MORAL THEORY. Totowa, NJ: Rowman & Littlefield, 1987, 111-128. Reprinted in Arthur, John, ed. MORALITY AND MORAL CONTROVERSIES. 3rd ed. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1993, 72-84.
Explores the experience of mothering and the mother/child relationship and their implications for a feminist moral theory in which the morality of care is given significance.

Held, Virginia. "Non-Contractual Society." In Hanen, Marsha, and Kai Nielsen, eds. SCIENCE, MORALITY AND FEMINIST THEORY. Canadian Journal of Philosophy, supplementary volume 13. Calgary: University of Calgary Press, 1987, 111-137.
Discusses the question, what would social relations look like if "we thought of them as LIKE relations between mothers and children?" Argues that such a focus would result in a morality based on caring and concern for others.

Higgins, Ann. "The Just Community Educational Program: The Development of Moral Role-taking as the Expression of Justice and Care." In Brabeck, Mary M., ed. WHO CARES? THEORY, RESEARCH, AND EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE ETHIC OF CARE. New York: Praeger, 1989, 197-215. Parts appeared as "A Feminist Perspective on Moral Education" in JOURNAL OF MORAL EDUCATION 16.3 (1987).
Draws, in part, on her work in the Bronx schools system and argues that the expression of care can take place only in the context of justice.

Hoagland, Sarah Lucia. "Some Thoughts About 'Caring.'" In Card, Claudia, ed. FEMINIST ETHICS. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1991, 246-263. Shortened version appeared as "Some Concerns About Nel Noddings' CARING," in HYPATIA 5 (Spring 1990): 109-114.
Critical discussion of Noddings's work. Contends that "caring cannot be insular and it cannot ignore the political reality, material conditions, and social structure of the world."

Houston, Barbara. "Caring and Exploitation." HYPATIA 5 (Spring 1990): 115-119.
Finds dangers in Noddings's ethic of caring because it can encourage exploitation.

Houston, Barbara. "Prolegomena to Future Caring." In Brabeck, Mary M., ed. WHO CARES? THEORY, RESEARCH, AND EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE ETHIC OF CARE. New York: Praeger, 1989, 84-100.
Committed to Gilligan's and Noddings's "enterprise of trying to describe how women themselves understand their own morality," but points out philosophical and political problems with the claims that care is gender related.

Houston, Barbara. "Rescuing Womanly Virtues: Some Dangers of Moral Reclamation." In Hanen, Marsha, and Kai Nielsen, eds. SCIENCE, MORALITY AND FEMINIST THEORY. Canadian Journal of Philosophy, supplementary volume 13. Calgary: University of Calgary Press, 1987, 237-262.
Includes a discussion of caring as a 'womanly virtue' and points out that adopting such gender specific virtues may contribute to a firmer establishment of women's relative powerlessness.

Houston, Barbara and Ann Diller. "Trusting Ourselves to Care." RESOURCES FOR FEMINIST RESEARCH 16.3 (September 1987): 35-38.
Explores ways to move toward self-determination and trust within an ethic of care.

Katzenstein, Mary Fainsod, and David D. Laitin. "Politics, Feminism, and the Ethics of Care." In Kittay, Eva Feder, and Diana T. Meyers, eds. WOMEN AND MORAL THEORY. Totowa, NJ: Rowman & Littlefield, 1987, 261-281.
Outlines essential criteria by which an ethics of care can be integrated with a progressive feminist politics.

Kerber, Linda K. "Some Cautionary Words for Historians." SIGNS: JOURNAL OF WOMEN IN CULTURE AND SOCIETY 11 (Winter 1986): 304-310. Reprinted in Larrabee, Mary Jeanne, ed. AN ETHIC OF CARE: FEMINIST AND INTERDISCIPLINARY PERSPECTIVES. New York: Routledge, 1993, 102-107.
Links Gilligan's ideas with those of earlier feminist writers. Agrees the "women's sphere" of care has been undervalued, but warns of romantic oversimplification of women's moral personalities.

King, Roger J.H. "Caring About Nature--Feminist Ethics and the Environment." HYPATIA 6 (Spring 1991): 75-89.
Examines the application of the language of an ethic of care to ecofeminism.

Kittay, Eva Feder, and Diana T. Meyers, eds. WOMEN AND MORAL THEORY. Totowa, NJ: Rowman & Littlefield, 1987.
An anthology, all of which deals directly or indirectly with debates inspired by Gilligan and Noddings. Introduction includes a comparison of the justice perspective and the care perspective. Some of the articles are listed separately in this bibliography.

Larrabee, Mary Jeanne, ed. AN ETHIC OF CARE: FEMINIST AND INTERDISCIPLINARY PERSPECTIVES. New York: Routledge, 1993.
A collection of "several of the key essays published during the initial decade following the appearance of IN A DIFFERENT VOICE." Contains "both clearly feminist voices and those seemingly neutral to the interests of feminists," and illustrates the breadth of the topic. Includes an informative introduction and an extensive bibliography. Many of the essays are listed separately in this bibliography.

Lauritzen, Paul. "A Feminist Ethic and the New Romanticism--Mothering as a Model of Moral Relations." HYPATIA 4 (Summer 1989): 29-44.
Claims that using maternal experiences to express an ethic of care and compassion constitutes a new romanticism which is both attractive and potentially dangerous.

Leffers, M. Regina. "Pragmatists Jane Addams and John Dewey Inform the Ethic of Care." HYPATIA 8 (Spring 1993): 64-77.
Looks to the ideas of Addams and Dewey to provide a theoretical model that can explain "why the caring response in moral reasoning is capable of becoming universal, including the self, those who are close to us, and those who lie outside our circle of personal relationships."

Li, Chenyang. "The Confucian Concept of Jen and the Feminist Ethics of Care: A Comparative Study." HYPATIA 9 (Winter 1994).
Forthcoming.

Luria, Zella. "A Methodological Critique." SIGNS: JOURNAL OF WOMEN IN CULTURE AND SOCIETY 11 (Winter 1986): 316-321. Reprinted in Larrabee, Mary Jeanne, ed. AN ETHIC OF CARE: FEMINIST AND INTERDISCIPLINARY PERSPECTIVES. New York: Routledge, 1993, 199-203.
Questions Gilligan's methodology and urges further research.

Lykes, M. Brinton. "The Caring Self: Social Experiences of Power and Powerlessness." In Brabeck, Mary M., ed. WHO CARES? THEORY, RESEARCH, AND EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE ETHIC OF CARE. New York: Praeger, 1989, 164-179.
Studies the "social character of the ethic of care through the lives of non-middle class non-white women" and suggests that "differences in morality and in self-understanding are grounded in social experiences of power and powerlessness, some of which are due to gender."

Lyons, Nona P. "Two Perspectives: On Self, Relationships, and Morality." HARVARD EDUCATIONAL REVIEW 53 (May 1983): 125-145.
Includes interview data and an empirical study which test Gilligan's hypotheses of the relationship of gender to self-definition and moral choice.

Lyons, Nona P. "Ways of Knowing, Learning, and Making Moral Choices." In Brabeck, Mary M., ed. WHO CARES? THEORY, RESEARCH, AND EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE ETHIC OF CARE. New York: Praeger, 1989, 103-126. Earlier version in JOURNAL OF MORAL EDUCATION 16.3 (1987).
"Takes up issues of morality, self, and approaches to knowing of adolescent high school girls." Addresses the potential educational implications of her findings.

Manning, Rita. "Just Caring." In Cole, Eve Browning, and Susan Coultrap-McQuin, eds. EXPLORATIONS IN FEMINIST ETHICS: THEORY AND PRACTICE. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 45-54.
Defends an ethic of caring in which rules and rights still have a place by providing a "moral minimum" for interpersonal behavior.

Manning, Rita. SPEAKING FROM THE HEART: A FEMINIST PERSPECTIVE ON ETHICS. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1992.
Endorses an ethic of care "both as an adequate and as a feminist moral philosophy." Includes a discussion of some feminist critiques of moral philosophy, her criteria for an adequate and feminist ethic, the effect of experiences on moral reasoning, the voice of care as both a morality and an ethic, caring for persons, and caring for animals.

Martin, Jane Roland. "Transforming Moral Education." In Brabeck, Mary M., ed. WHO CARES? THEORY, RESEARCH, AND EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE ETHIC OF CARE. New York: Praeger, 1989, 183-196. Earlier version in JOURNAL OF MORAL EDUCATION 16.3 (1987).
Argues for a feminist perspective on moral education which will redefine our cultural ideal and education itself.

Meyers, Diana T. "The Socialized Individual and Individual Autonomy: An Intersection Between Philosophy and Psychology." In Kittay, Eva Feder, and Diana T. Meyers, eds. WOMEN AND MORAL THEORY. Totowa, NJ: Rowman & Littlefield, 1987, 139-153.
Suggests that through the care perspective moral autonomy can be achieved without denying human conectedness.

Michaels, Meredith W. "Morality Without Distinction." PHILOSOPHICAL FORUM 17.3 (Spring 1986): 175-187.
Presents an integrationist approach toward an ethic of care and an ethic of rights and justice, and argues against an assumed dichotomy between reason and emotion.

Mullett, Sheila. "Consensual Discourse and the Ideal of Caring." ATLANTIS 13 (Spring 1988): 24-26.
A response to Leslie Wilson (see below).

Mullett, Sheila. "Only Connect: The Place of Self-Knowledge in Ethics." In Hanen, Marsha, and Kai Nielsen, eds. SCIENCE, MORALITY AND FEMINIST THEORY. Canadian Journal of Philosophy, supplementary volume 13. Calgary: University of Calgary Press, 1987, 309-338.
Presents "a view of a certain kind of morally relevant self-knowledge which is connected with caring."

Mullett, Sheila. "Shifting Perspective: A New Approach to Ethics." In Code, Lorraine, Sheila Mullett, and Christine Overall, eds. FEMINIST PERSPECTIVES: PHILOSOPHICAL ESSAYS ON METHOD AND MORALS. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1988, 109-126.
Discusses some requirements for a feminist perspective of moral theory, including, most importantly, a concept of caring.
Noddings, Nel. CARING, A FEMININE APPROACH TO ETHICS AND MORAL EDUCATION. Berkeley: University of California Press, c1984.
"Builds a philosophical argument for an ethics based on natural caring, a feminine view in the deep, classical sense, rooted in receptivity, relatedness, and responsiveness."

Noddings, Nel. "Educating Moral People." In Brabeck, Mary M., ed. WHO CARES? THEORY, RESEARCH, AND EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE ETHIC OF CARE. New York: Praeger, 1989, 216-232. Earlier version appeared as "Do We Really Want to Produce Good People?" in JOURNAL OF MORAL EDUCATION 16 (October 1987): 177-188.
Suggests that "an education aimed at producing good people must include feminine perspectives on good and evil" and shows how education might move toward the moral ideal of caring.

Noddings, Nel. "Ethics from the Standpoint of Women." In Rhode, Deborah L., ed. THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES ON SEXUAL DIFFERENCE. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1990. Reprinted in Pearsall, Marilyn. WOMEN AND VALUES: READINGS IN RECENT FEMINIST PHILOSOPHY. 2nd ed. Belmont, Ca: Wadsworth, 1993, 379-390.
Discusses aspects of an ethic of caring that are non-oppressive for women.

Noddings, Nel. "Feminist Fears in Ethics." JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PHILOSOPHY 21 (Fall/Winter 1990): 25-33.
Describes several feminist fears about ethics of caring and response and argues that fear should not guide attempts to construct an adequate moral theory.

Noddings, Nel. 7quot;A Response." HYPATIA 5 (Spring 1990): 120-126.
Responds to essays by Card, Hoagland, and Houston in the same issue of HYPATIA. Argues that "an ethic of caring is liberational rather than exploitive because the expectation is that all people, not just women, should act as carers."

Nunner-Winkler, Gertrude. "Two Moralities? A Critical Discussion of an Ethic of Care and Responsibility versus an Ethic of Rights and Justice." In Kurtines, William M., and Jacob L. Gewirtz, eds. MORALITY, MORAL BEHAVIOR, AND MORAL DEVELOPMENT. New York: Wiley, 1984, 348-361. Reprinted in Larrabee, Mary Jeanne, ed. AN ETHIC OF CARE: FEMINIST AND INTERDISCIPLINARY PERSPECTIVES. New York: Routledge, 1993, 143-156.
A critique and reinterpretation of Gilligan's position with respect to sex-specific moral preferences.

Okin, Susan Moller. "Reason and Feeling in Thinking about Justice." ETHICS 99 (January 1989): 229-249.
Critiques and reinterprets John Rawls in "an attempt to develop a feminist approach to social justice." Disputes feminist dichotomies that have been drawn between an ethic of justice and an ethic of care.

Peeples, S. Elise. "Her Terrain is Outside His 'Domain'." HYPATIA 6 (Summer 1991): 192-199.
A defense of Gilligan in response to Bill Puka's "The Liberation of Caring" (listed in this bibliography).
Puka's reply follows Peeples's article.

Puka, Bill. "The Liberation of Caring: A Different Voice for Gilligan's 'Different Voice.'" HYPATIA 5 (Spring 1990): 58-82. Reprinted in Brabeck, Mary M., ed. WHO CARES? THEORY, RESEARCH, AND EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE ETHIC OF CARE. New York: Praeger, 1989, 19-44; and in Larrabee, Mary Jeanne, ed. AN ETHIC OF CARE: FEMINIST AND INTERDISCIPLINARY PERSPECTIVES. New York: Routledge, 1993, 215-239.
Proposes an alternative hypothesis to Gilligan in which care is a set of coping strategies for dealing with sexist oppression.

Rigterink, Roger J. "Warning: The Surgeon Moralist Has Determined That Claims of Rights Can Be Detrimental to Everyone's Interests." In Cole, Eve Browning, and Susan Coultrap-McQuin, eds. EXPLORATIONS IN FEMINIST ETHICS: THEORY AND PRACTICE. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1992, 38-44.
Argues that the concept of rights is inadequate with respect to real-life moral situations and opts instead for a feminist ethic that emphasizes concerns and cares.

Romain, Dianne. "Care and Confusion." In Cole, Eve Browning, and Susan Coultrap-McQuin, eds. EXPLORATIONS IN FEMINIST ETHICS: THEORY AND PRACTICE. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1992, 27-37.
Discusses difficulties she finds with Gilligan's methodology and especially with the lack of clarification of the relationship between socialscience.html and moral philosophy.

Rothbart, Mary K., Dean Hanley and Marc Albert. "Gender Differences in Moral Reasoning." SEX ROLES 15 (December 1986): 645-653.
Describes research that tests Gilligan's hypothesis plus the effects of dilemma content on moral judgment. Results suggest that moral reasoning involves both gender and situational factors.

Ruddick, Sara. "From Maternal Thinking to Peace Politics." In Cole, Eve Browning, and Susan Coultrap-McQuin, eds. EXPLORATIONS IN FEMINIST ETHICS: THEORY AND PRACTICE. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1992, 141-155.
Advocates for women the transformation of a formerly private way of relating to people (mothering, caring labor) into public, and liberating, discussions of peace.

Ruddick, Sara. "Maternal Thinking." FEMINIST STUDIES 6.2 (Summer 1980): 342-367. Condensed versions reprinted in Pearsall, Marilyn. WOMEN AND VALUES: READINGS IN RECENT FEMINIST PHILOSOPHY. 2nd ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1993, 368-379; and in Trebilcot, Joyce. MOTHERING: ESSAYS IN FEMINIST THEORY. Totowa, NJ: Rowman & Allanheld, 1983, 213-230.
Includes her perspective of maternal thinking as expressing the notion of "attentive love," an ethical mode she proposes for transforing morality.

Ruddick, Sara. MATERNAL THINKING: TOWARD A POLITICS OF PEACE. Boston: Beacon Press, 1989. New York: Ballantine Books, 1990.
"Develops a system of feminist peace politics based on the complex, idealistic, pragmatic activity of mothers." Portions of the book originally appeared as articles, all of which are listed in this bibliography.

Ruddick, Sara. "Remarks on the Sexual Politics of Reason." In Kittay, Eva Feder, and Diana T. Meyers, eds. WOMEN AND MORAL THEORY. Totowa, NJ: Rowman & Littlefield, 1987, 237-260.
Claims that women's moral reasoning, which is based on experience, generates a "morality of love" and "maternal thinking" both of which should inform peace politics.

Scaltsas, Patricia Ward. "Do Feminist Ethics Counter Feminist Aims?" In Cole, Eve Browning, and Susan Coultrap-McQuin, eds. EXPLORATIONS IN FEMINIST ETHICS: THEORY AND PRACTICE. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1992, 15-26.
Examines three main themes of feminist ethics, including the emphasis on the values of empathy, nurturance, or caring, and explores the extent to which each theme does or does not endorse a restrictive view of women's position.

Schwartz-Shea, Peregrine and Debra D. Burrington. "Free Riding, Alternative Organization and Cultural Feminism--The Case of Seneca Women's Peace Camp." WOMEN & POLITICS 10.3 (1990): 1-37.
Warns about the free-rider problem--situations in which the "burden of maintenance is unequally shared" among women. Argues that caring must include empowerment--aiding and requiring others to empower themselves.

Seigfried, Charlene Haddock. "Pragmatism, Feminism, and Sensitivity to Context." In Brabeck, Mary M., ed. WHO CARES? THEORY, RESEARCH, AND EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE ETHIC OF CARE. New York: Praeger, 1989, 63-83.
Shows how associating the care and justice orientations "with situations primarily and gender only secondarily will lead to more worthwhile results than continued empirical research intended to demonstrate that women's moral reasoning differs in kind from men's."

Sevenhuijsen, Selma L. "The Morality of Feminism." HYPATIA 6 (Summer 1991): 173-191.
Includes a discussion of the ethics of care and responsibility to illustrate how "a feminism which starts from 'difference' can lead to a renewed conception of morality."

Shapiro, Joan Poliner and Carroll Smith-Rosenberg. "The 'Other Voices' in Contemporary Ethical Dilemmas: The Value of the New Scholarship on Women in the Teaching of Ethics." WOMEN'S STUDIES INTERNATIONAL FORUM 12.2 (1989): 199-211.
Addresses the need for alternative ethics courses which value, among other things, cooperation and caring.

Shogan, Debra. CARE AND MOTIVATION. Toronto: OISE Press, 1988.
Focuses around the questions: what does it mean to care in a moral sense?; how does one become a caring person? "Develops the thesis that care is a form of motivation, specifically the motivation to bring about the welfare and fair treatment of others." Also addresses the issue of 7quot;how we can cultivate in others the motivation to care.7quot;

Shogan, Debra. "Gender and Moral Agency." ATLANTIS 13 (Spring 1988): 87-91.
In critiquing Gilligan's work, argues that different moral situations require distinct moral responses (either justice or care) and finds there may be gender differences in which situation is responded to.

Sichel, Betty A. "Ethics of Caring and the Institutional Ethics Committee." HYPATIA 4 (Summer 1989): 45-56. Reprinted in Holmes, Helen Bequaert, and Laura M. Purdy, eds. FEMINIST PERSPECTIVES IN MEDICAL ETHICS. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1992, 113-123.
Argues that ethics committees in health care facilities should adopt the feminine ethics of care.

Sichel, Betty A. "Women's Moral Development in Search of Philosophical Assumptions.7quot; JOURNAL OF MORAL EDUCATION 14.3 (1985): 149-161.
Questions Gilligan's thesis that morality is divided on the basis of gender.

SOCIAL RESEARCH 50.3 (Autumn 1983).
Entire issue (entitled "Women and Morality") is devoted to responses to Gilligan's work. The articles explore the nature of the relation between women and morality, although none is about the ethic of care, per se.

Spelman, Elizabeth V. "The Virtue of Feeling and the Feeling of Virtue." In Card, Claudia, ed. FEMINIST ETHICS. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1991, 213-232.
Examines the issue of women's treatment (or mistreatment) of each other. Argues that until feminists consider for whom women have or have not cared, the ethics of care lacks virtue.

Stack, Carol B. "The Culture of Gender: Women and Men of Color." SIGNS: JOURNAL OF WOMEN IN CULTURE AND SOCIETY 11 (Winter 1986): 321-324. Reprinted in Larrabee, Mary Jeanne, ed. AN ETHIC OF CARE: FEMINIST AND INTERDISCIPLINARY PERSPECTIVES. New York: Routledge, 1993, 108-111.
Responds to Gilligan's findings from an African-American perspective, pointing out that a consideration of history, race, and class would result in additional moral "voices."

Stocker, Michael. "Duty and Friendship: Toward a Synthesis of Gilligan's Contrastive Moral Concepts." In Kittay, Eva Feder, and Diana T. Meyers, eds. WOMEN AND MORAL THEORY. Totowa, NJ: Rowman & Littlefield, 1987, 56-68.
Uses friendship as a test case to demonstrate that care and duty are conjoined in a unitary morality.

Thompson, Audrey. "Friendship and Moral Character: Feminist Implications for Moral Education." In PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION 1989: PROCEEDINGS OF THE FORTY-FIFTH ANNUAL MEETING OF THE PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION SOCIETY. Normal, Ill: The Society, 1990, 61-75.
Argues that "friendship as illuminated by feminist theory and by the feminine ethics of care offers insight into conceptions of character and responsibility."

Tomm, Winnifred. "Gender Factor or Metaphysics in a Discussion of Ethics." EXPLORATIONS: JOURNAL FOR ADVENTUROUS THOUGHT 6 (Fall 1987): 5-24.
Critical response to Noddings.

Tomm, Winnifred. "Theories of Human Nature in Spinoza, Vasubandhu, and Feminism." ATLANTIS 13 (Spring 1988): 66-74.
"Dialogue between feminist ethics and the ethics of Spinoza and Vasubandhu may lead to...a holistic theory of human nature in which obligation and caring are inseparable manifestations of self-expression."

Tronto, Joan C. "Beyond Gender Difference to a Theory of Care." SIGNS 12.4 (1987): 644-663. Reprinted in Larrabee, Mary Jeanne, ed. AN ETHIC OF CARE: FEMINIST AND INTERDISCIPLINARY PERSPECTIVES. New York: Routledge, 1993, 240-257.
Argues that the discourse about an ethic of care should center around its adequacy as a moral theory rather than gender difference.

Tronto, Joan C. MORAL BOUNDARIES: A POLITICAL ARGUMENT FOR AN ETHIC OF CARE. New York: Routledge, forthcoming (December 1993).
Demonstrates that "care cannot be a useful moral and political concept until its traditional and ideological associations as a 'women's morality' are challenged....Urges readers to understand the constraints of thinking about care in terms of traditional moral boundaries, and to understand its political significance."

Tronto, Joan C. "Political Science and Caring:, Or, the Perils of Balkanized Social Science." WOMEN & POLITICS 7 (Fall 1987): 85-97.
Investigates an historical antecedent to the ethic of care which calls into question the unique connection between women and caring and suggests how political scients might look at the issue of care.

Waithe, Mary Ellen. "Twenty-three Hundred Years of Women Philosophers: Toward a Gender Undifferentiated Moral Theory." In Brabeck, Mary M., ed. WHO CARES? THEORY, RESEARCH, AND EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE ETHIC OF CARE. New York: Praeger, 1989, 3-18.
Examines the ethic of care within an historical context and argues that the writings of early women philosophers suggest the possibility of joining justice and care within an undifferentiated moral philosophy.

Wilson, Leslie. "Is a 'Feminine' Ethic Enough?" ATLANTIS 13 (Spring 1988): 15-23.
Argues for a feminist "re-vision" of the notion of caring to ensure it does not contribute to the oppressive social system of patriarchy.

Compiled by Virginia Dudley
January 1994